Skip to main content

Full text of "The Iowa journal of history and politics"

See other formats

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 / 

833 01736 2119 








P 3 

,2* 03 cj 

>-l Q Q O 




»-» „ 


























Number 1 — J anuary 1922 

Letters from the West in 1845 Stephen H. Hayes 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 (III) Louis Bernard Schmidt 

Some Publications 

Western Americana 

Historical Societies 
Notes and Comment 

Number 2 — April 1922 

A Trip Across the Plains in 1857 William Clark 163 

The Judiciary of the Territory of Iowa Jacob A. Swisher 224 

Some Publications 276 

Western Americana 281 

Iowana 283 

Historical Societies 303 

Notes and Comment 313 

Contributors 314 





Number 3 — July 1922 

Sioux City and the Black Hills Gold Rush 1874-1877 

Erik McKinley Eriksson 
A Typical Iowa Pioneer Community George F. Parker 
Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaigns 

The Narrative of Henry J. Wieneke 

The Manuscripts of Amos R. Cherry 

Letter of Josiah P. Hill 
Some Publications 

Western Americana 

Historical Societies 
Notes and Comment 













Number 4 — October 1922 

History of the Organization of Counties in Iowa 

Jacob A. Swisher 

Some Publications 

Western Americana 

Historical Societies 
Notes and Comment 





Iowa Journal 



^© >K Published Quarterly by • ; 


nn.. i. ...... 

mi+ilim .,,..».,r • »« <\# linn run «f J..l« lit I I H 


Associate Editor, JOHN C. PARISH 

Vol XX JANUARY 1922 No 1 


Letters from the West in 1845 Stephen H. Hayes 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 III . Louis Bernard Schmidt 

Some Publications 

Western Americana ....... 

Iowana . . . ;| . . . . ? . 

Historical Societies 

Notes and Comment 


Copyright 1922 by The State Historical Society of Iowa 



Published Quarterly 
at iowa city 

Subscription Price: $2.00 Single Number: 5 Cents 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 




VOL. XX — 1 




[In the summer of 1845, Stephen H. Hayes, a young minister from Frankfort 
(now Winterport), Maine, made a trip as far west as the Territory of Iowa 
going by way of Boston, New York, Washington, Pittsburgh, and the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers, and returning by way of Chicago and the Great Lakes 
During his journeying he noted his experiences and observations in a series of 
letters addressed to Mr. Archibald Jones, the postmaster of Frankfort, with 
whom he had boarded. The earlier letters of the series describe the cities east 
of the Alleghanies, but the limitations of space have made it seem desirable to 
omit these letters and begin with those which deal with his trip west of the 

The letters were often written in haste and contain numerous abbreviations. 
The writer usually reduced the names of towns to their initials and even com- 
pressed some words as short as 1 'which" to "wh.". In editing the manu- 
script, abbreviations of words and names, where there is no doubt of the 
writer's intentions, have been expanded. In other respects, however, an effort 
has been made to reproduce the original spelling, punctuation, and capitaliza- 
tion. The originals of the letters were contributed to The State Historical 
Society of Iowa by Professor Stephen Hayes Bush of the State University of 
Iowa, a grandson of Mr. Stephen H. Hayes. — The Editor] 

Cincinnati May 27th 1845 

Dear Friends 

In due time I will explain why I am at Cincinnati again. 
In my last letter I left you at Uniontown Pennsylvania. 
From there to Brownsville 11 miles we had a delightful ride, 
through the beautiful country we saw from the mountains. 
We reached Brownsville on the Monongahela about 10 h. 
A. M. This is an inconsiderable village. Here we embarked 
for Pittsburg. We had taken a ticket from Baltimore to 
Pittsburg, because it was $1.00 cheaper than by Wheeling, 
and we saved about 50 miles staging. The passage down the 
Monongahela is by slackwater navigation, having to pass 
several locks. The country is very pleasant, the air pure, 
and vegetation seemed rapidly advancing. There is great 



abundance of coal on this stream. We reached Pittsburg 
about 4 P. M. and immediately engaged our passage down 
to Cincinnati for $4.00 a distance of 500 miles, all found. 
We then went up to see the desolated city. Between 20 and 
30 steam boats lay at the wharves, but unlike those on the 
eastern waters, these draw seldom more than 4y 2 feet of 
water. They have the slope to the bank to the river perhaps 
100 rods long and 6 or 8 wide all paved neatly which they 
call the wharf — perhaps inclined to an angle of 23 or 25 
degrees. This is sometimes entirely inundated, but at such 
times little is done in transportation. You remember that 
the Ohio is here formed by the junction of the Monongahela 
and the Alleghany, the latter, a clear cold stream flowing 
down from the mountains and raised by steam I think to 
water the city. The fire made dreadful havoc. 56 acres of 
the" business portion of the city was made a heap of ruins. 
The dust and rubbish was almost insupportable. The loss 
is estimated at $15,000,000. Many were made houseless 
and homeless. We saw some of the sufferers who were 
permitted to live in the court house, and had their cooking 
utensils, parlor, dormitory in the court room itself. This is 
a stately building far superior to any I have seen in New 
England. It cost with the jail $63,000. From the top we 
could see the whole country around. The desolation in the 
city is terrible — yet they have good courage. A very 
intelligent citizen, who was with us I. McDowell Esq. re- 
marked, u we are workers here" — and so they seemed. All 
were busy and those who lost all are trying to do some- 
thing. We pass a gentlemen to whom Mr. McDowell said, 
"yo-u once had an office there". "Yes" he replied "and I 
mean to have another." He was at work overseeing, and 
was one of the first lawyers in the city. Eich d Biddle a 
eminent lawyer brother of N. Biddle, lost his house, office, 
&c with a library worth $25,000. Some one asked if he was 


left poor. "No" was the reply, "not as long as he has his 
tounge left. ' ' They seemed in pretty good spirits. Some 
one hinted to another that his heard was long. "Ah" sa id 
he, "My rasor was burned." Alleghany is a pretty 'town 
just opposite Pittsburg containing a population of 11,000. It 
has a Theological Seminary, and some beautiful dwellings. 
In the Northwest part of the city of Pittsburg is a neigh- 
bourhood of Negroes, which appeared highly flourishing. 
Opposite Pittsburg is a small manufacturing village called 
Fligo[f]. Lower down another called (Manchester?) both 
on the Monongahcla. These towns and villages are generally 
built of brick and from the iron manufactories and great 
abundance of coal they are black with soot. Going from our 
clean white New England towns and villages, here one feels 
constantly the imperious necessity of frequent ablutions, 
yet the people are uncommonly healthy. The population of 
Pittsburg is [space left blank"] The tract of country W. 
bounded by the Alleghany and Monongahela rivers and the 
mountains is very fertile and in a high state of cultivation. 
Pittsburg will long feel its misfortune but will eventually 
arise. It has great natural resources in the soil of the sur- 
rounding country, and its coal and iron which are inex- 
haustible. If I can get time I will write more particularly 
of these productions. I do not now remember the popula- 
tion — -from 30 to 40,000. Pittsburg has been called the 
Birmingham of the Ohio Valley. When we went on board 
our boat we expected to start that night but did not. We 
were heavily laden and the Captain had engaged his pas- 
sengers, and they were obliged to pay, so that he felt little 
anxiety, but we were much troubled for fear we should 
not get through before the Sabbath. One thing however, is 
pleasant. You have your state room containing two berths 
and having two doors one opening into the cabin and one 
on deck the latter having blinds with which you can pro- 


tect yourself and still have fresh air. Our boat was very 
orderly, and well furnished, so that aside from the jar one 
can read and write with ease. Ours was not a regular 
packet, and hence was not crowded with pickpockets gam- 
blers &c. This class are commonly found on the larger 
boats, having for their object to win money or to plunder. 
In point of time however we missed it, for the regular boat 
which was to go at 10 h. A. M. the next day reached Cin- 
cinnati ten hours earlier than we did. There is all this 

We soon passed some villages, fine orchards, decent 
dwellings, though you seldom see a window blind. Brick 
houses are numerous, but not elegant, and the bricks look 
as if they were half burnt. In this region even in this city, 
a brick house looks miserably unless painted. We passed 
Economy 18 miles from Pittsburg a pleasant village, where 
the silk business is carried on quite extensively. You may 
remember that this place is one built up, and conducted on 
the plan of Owenism or Fourrierism, but I learned little of 
its true character. I have seen a very flattering account of 
it, written some years since. 

I must again close my letter. The drought is very severe 
and I fear will impede our progress as we wish to go down 
the river. I feel no little anxiety about the preaching. I 
wish the committee to see Prof. Shepherd or Prof. Pond or 
both and get them to come down a Sabbath or two. I hope 
this arrangement will be made. I am here at a great dis- 
tance from home and to turn about and go back without 
getting some adequate idea of our great country, I do not 
think it my duty. If the people complain tell them just to 
get a new minister and I will stay out here. Room enough 
as Dr. Beecher said. The west is all place. My health is 
pretty good. I have had no ill turns — good appetite. May 
not have gained much flesh, but think I shall when I have an 


opportunity. Have received more profit from my journey 
than I anticipated, but my letters all seem so meager that 
you will not believe me. I should be very happy did I only 
suppose the desk in the chapel was well supplied. Though 
I have passed through many towns and much country and 
seen a numerous people, I have not yet forgotten our be- 
loved New England and our own dear village of people of 
Frankfort. My love to all tell the people all about me that 
will interest them. 


S. H. H. 

Cincinnati Ohio. On board the Cutter for St. 
Louis Thursday Morning, May 29 1845. 

Dear Friends. 

You see what a flourish of trumpets I have in my date. 
This is western style. But I must tell you what I saw on 
my way down the beautiful river. I left you yesterday 
some miles on our way. We next passed Beaver the capital 
of Beaver County, a pretty village, containing a court 
house, jail, Academy, several manufactories &c. Here the 
Big Beaver empties into the Ohio. This place has about 
1000 population. This was on the 15th, when we had heavy 
showers and a dull day. The day before was very warm 
and uncomfortable. This day a fire or great coat was neces- 
sary so you see sudden changes are not peculiar to Maine. 
We passed through pleasant and highly cultivated districts, 
though there is on both sides of the river much unoccupied 
territory. In compareing the Ohio side with the Kentucky 
side you must not suppose the former a paradise nor the 
latter a desert, though with free labour, you see every 
where the signs of enterprise, and the converse under servi- 
tude. There is much forest on both sides. The land is fre- 
quently uneven but never rises into the bold hills of New 



England The soil is mellow and so far as I observed en- 
tirely free from stone. Coal is very abundant. These hills 
seem to be masses of coal, and you would frequently see 
rail roads running down to the river. Occasionally a hill 
would seem entirely composed of a coarse grey rock, 
through which were entrances to the coal mines. There 
were occasionally fine farms, and probably we passed some 
during the night, but on the whole, I did not observe that 
state of improvement I anticipated. The river however 
was low, and we could not well observe from the boat. I 
think from what I learn the cultivation and improvements 
on the river does not compare with the interior. At 10y 2 h. 
A. M. Thursday morning we reached Wellsville, 50 miles 
from Pittsburg, and here we entered the Ohio. This is situ- 
ated on an elevation above high water and is increasing in 
business and population. It contains a Presbyterian, Meth- 
odist, and Episcopal church — one of each — several com- 
mission merchants, a foundry, a steam saw mill and a steam 
flour mill, (there are about 35 flour mills in the neighbour- 
hood) a stone ware manufactory &c. From 40 to 50,000 
barrels of flour are exported from this town annually, be- 
sides a large quantity of other produce. I have been specific 
in this description as it is the first town we have seen in 
Ohio. Steubenville is another flourishing town 20 miles 
farther on, and contains among other things a flourishing 
Female Seminary under the care of the Reverend Charles C. 
Beattie D. D. This is a permanent institution and the most 
extensive in the western country. It was here that Miss 
Mitchell to whom Mr. N. A. Prince was engaged to be mar- 
ried, taught and died. Towards night we passed Wheeling. 
This is a black smoky town. Those who have not seen these 
manufacturing places where so much coal is burned cannot 
easily imagine the unpleasant appearance they present. 
Wheeling is surrounded with hills covered with groves and 


large trees and produces on the whole a pleasing effect. We 
passed a small village where a mound was pointed out. We 
could only see it as we passed. I was told that it had been 
entered and contained several apartments where bones 
were originally found. It is perhaps from 50 to 60 feet 
high, has a cupola on its top and shrubbery on its sides. I 
think it is made a sort of museum. I have gained no new 
light as to its origin. On Friday morning we passed Blen- 
nerhassets Island. This is several miles in length, level, 
covered with fields, trees, orchards &c. Yet I saw but one 
house and out buildings. It was quiet green and beautiful, 
still it awakened melancholy associations. Here our boat 
frequently touched bottom, or rather the many small stones 
rolling along in the bottom of the river and worn round by 
attrition. As our boat made slow progress and fearing 
that we might be caught on the Sabbath we were in readi- 
ness to go ashore at Marietta but the Captain got wind of it 
and did not touch. So we quietly submitted. Our Captain 
was a singular man, born and bred on the river, attending 
well to his business but seldom talking save in monosylla- 
bles and these a surly yes and no. He was generally by 
himself, never eating with his passengers but with his crew. 
Many a worse man than he, has lived. Marietta is the old- 
est town in Ohio and appears more like a New England 
village than any I have yet seen. It contains a college, 
many pleasant dwellings, &c. Its site is level, but it is sur- 
rounded by an amphitheatre of hills which give it a beauti- 
fully picturesque appearance. Here the Muskingum river 
empties into the Ohio which has 60 miles slackwater navi- 
gation to Zanesville, and there connects with the Ohio. My 
statements may not always be correct as I gather them 
from conversation with individuals. Marietta has not 
grown rapidly. There is here a bend in the river, which 
caused it to wash the shore so much that a break water is 


necessary so that boats do not approach the shore ; in lieu 
thereof there are wharf boats, fastened to the breakwater, 
and passengers, freight &c. are embarked from these. On 
the Virginia side there are only some dozen poor houses. 
We learned from some one here, that the man who sowed 
the first bushel of wheat in Ohio, is still living. His name 
is John White. At the mouth of the little Kanawha Eiver 
is Parkersburg. Here I took a run for ten minutes while 
the boat stopped. I could not forget that I was on slave 
ground. This is quite a village. I was told that the sons of 
rich planters would come here with the portion that fell to 
them, waste it in a little while by gambling and dissipation, 
and then turn loafers and desperados. This is common in 
other places. A gentleman told me that a young man with- 
out money going into such a place to gain a livelihood by 
his own industry would be trampled upon. Such is the 
spirit of "Slaveocracy". We touched at Point Pleasant. 
Here brother Thurston had some acquaintances. He wished 
to stop a few minutes — fortunately found one of them on 
the wharf. Several individuals formerly of his parish re- 
side here (Gilmores). We met a gentleman who came on 
board somewhere here by the name of Gushing, a lawyer of 
Gallipolis whose father was born at Plymouth Massachu- 
setts. We find everywhere people from New England. 
Point Pleasant is at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, which 
has 60 miles of navigation, and a rich and flourishing valley. 
At Gallipolis a high rock is shown, from which, in olden 
time a white man pursued by an Indian leaped, and lit in the 
top of a tree, thence descending he swam across the river 
and escaped. Friday night cold — some frost — it is said 
grain will be essentially injured. On these cold nights the 
river is often so foggy as to stop the boats. An intelligent 
buckeye told me the last winter was mild, that such winters 
in Ohio are unhealthy. Among other cases he stated, that 


three I think died out of the family of his wife's father. 
He related some interesting facts one of which was that he 
had heard the Hon Thos. Ewing say in a public speech that 
when he was a poor boy he had many a time eaten his mush 
and milk out of a gourd, I learned from him that the rail- 
road from Cincinnati to Lake Erie would soon be com- 
pleted. The company had loaned $500,000 in Boston, and 
portions of the road are completed at both ends. So that 
soon there will be a railroad from Boston via Albany, along 
the shores of Lake Erie to Cincinnati. The people here are 
expecting great results from this enterprise and they can- 
not be disappointed. 

Portsmouth is a manufacturing town 112 miles from Cin- 
cinnati, iron works &c. signs of enterprise. I noticed a 
little steamer towing six enormous coal boats up the river. 
They fill them and let them float down. I saw trading boats 
containing a great variety of articles that float down and 
stop at the villages and trade. They are sold or abandoned 
but never carried back. Maysville is a very pleasant town 
on Kentucky side, and like many others surrounded by high 
hills. Covered with trees green pastures &c. Really ro- 
mantic. There are very few interesting villages on the 
Kentucky side. At ten on Saturday evening we reached 
this queen city of the West, and after trying three public 
houses found a place to pillow our heads. Surely goodness 
and mercy have followed us. 

Affect yours 

S. H. H. 

Ohio River May 29th 1845. 

Dear Friends. 

We left Cincinnati an hour since, and I am now on the 
river again. The boat jars, and I can with difficulty write. 
I told you we tried at three hotels before we could get 



lodgings. In the morning we went to the Temperance 
House to breakfast. We had heard it spoken of as a good 
house but in all my life, I never saw such a place. We 
could not find who were at the head of it and could find no 
place suitable to sit down in. I felt ashamed that a house 
professing to be a temperance house should be unfit for a 
stable. I felt ashamed of the friends of the cause. Its ene- 
mies certainly will triumph in such a caricature. After 
breakfast we walked in pursuit of Sunday Schools. We 
had in our company the Presiding Elder from Maryland a 
slaveholder, but whose conscience was troubled, and who 
would never call his negroes slaves but servants. We went 
to the first Presbyterian Church and there met another 
Presiding Elder also a slaveholder. You may wish to know 
how we ascertain this. The subject was to come up in the 
General Assembly, and in speaking of that, it came in as a 
matter of course. This latter gentleman resided near Lex- 
ington and gave us an interesting account of H. C. Indeed 
I was disposed to think I had been severe in my opinion 
for he corroborated his statements by the authority of the 
Reverend Mr. H. whose letter was published &c, but I had 
abundant cause to return to my former opinion for reasons, 
which I will not here state. This Presiding Elder was a 
gentleman and I hope a Christian, but the southern stand- 
ard of morals and religion is low. The Sunday Schools 
were small — of the three we visited no one contained over 
120 scholars — though a good degree of interest was mani- 
fested by those who were present. We were introduced to 
the Committee of Arrangements, who directed us to the 
Eeverend Dr. Cleaveland's, who wished for New England 
men. Dr. Cleaveland is a half brother of the professor at 
Bowdoin College. I had seen him in New England. He is a 
native of Byfield, Massachusetts. Has been some years in 
the west, and recently settled in Cincinnati. We found a 



welcome at his house. He had recently married an accom- 
plished lady (his second wife) in Exeter, New Hampshire 
for whom he exhibited the fondness peculiar to widowers in 
their second marriage. But we had a happy home at his 
house and had the pleasure of meeting there several dis- 
tinguished individuals. Most of them however were orig- 
inally from New England. We heard the Eeverend Dr. 
Edgar of Louisville preach. He used no notes and spoke 
with much ease. It was an example of Southern preaching. 
In the P. M. we were going to hear another man and went 
accordingly, but being too late we returned to Dr. Cleave- 
land's church and heard the same Dr. Edgar. He has much 
action and declamation, much talking to the clouds. Quotes 
much poetry and scripture, and produces after all but little 
impression. He is a popular preacher, but in New England 
would not satisfy. And I may here remark that intelligent 
Christians of the South and West really prefer the solid 
written sermons of New England. The people of the west 
will not be fed on chaff. They have but little respect for 
the office of the ministry, and if there is nothing but bluster 
in the man they care not a straw for him. In every congre- 
gation and community there are men of much intelligence. 
In most of the churches in Cincinnati they have preaching 
in the A. M. and evening. In Dr. Cleaveland's church in 
the A. M. and P. M. though the latter service comes at 4 
o 'clock. In the evening I went to hear Dr. Potts of St. 
Louis but was so sleepy I could not hear much. 

I attended occasionally the meetings of the General As- 
sembly but was not particularly interested. It is a sort of 
spiritual court, and they are governed in their proceedings 
by the strict letter of the book of discipline, and they quib- 
ble and contend as in a court of law. Several days were 
spent in discussing the question "whether Catholic Baptism 
is valid", a question which ought not to be even raised. 


Then came up the slavery question. This was brought in 
slily — we did not know when and were not there, but they 
soon passed over it, though the southern members had come 
prepared to defend their institution, but they voted at once 
that where Christ had not legislated they should not and 
then Dr. Rankin [?] President of Lafayette College who 
has attempted to prove that slavery is a divine institution, 
moved that thanks be offered to Almighty God, for the man- 
ner in which they had been able to dispose of this subject. 
Many southern men said, No ! No ! and the thanks were not 
offered. Several days were spent in discussing the mar- 
riage question, ' 4 whether a man shall marry his wife's 
sister " The Book ' 9 says " no 9 and many men contended 
manfully not for the bible, but for the book. Others took 
the opposite side, among whom was Judge Grier, of Pitts- 
burg, who remarked, he was not himself selfish in the mat- 
ter, as his wife had no sister. They did not decide the 
question, but reffered it to the lower courts, i. e. the people 
in their Presbyteries. The Presbyterian Church has a Fed- 
eral government while Congregational churches are demo- 
cratic. Several minor questions were discussed, reports 
made &c. The meeting is very unlike our General Confer- 
ence. Not that dispatch, nor harmony as with us. I am 
more a Congregationalist than ever — more a northern man 
than ever. There is a strong feeling between the New and 
Old School parties. The latter are very stiff, and look 
upon the former as heritics. Some will not invite them to 
their communion. As an example of the extreme Dr. Wil- 
son in whose church the General Assembly met, when ad- 
ministering the Sacrament near Lane Seminary, remarked 
they would be glad to invite the neighbouring church 
meaning that including Dr. Beecher, Stowe the Seminary 
etc. but their fatal heresy forbid it. Dr. Wilson will not, or 
does not speak to Dr. Beecher. Dr. Wilson is so stiff that 


he will not have a painting or a picture in his house. A 
portrait painter, wishing to join his church he would not 
receive him, unless he would express his repentance for 
having sinned by such an occupation, and promise to aban- 
don it, which he had the common sense not to do. There 
are however many warm hearted Christians in the Old 
School Assembly, who have no fellowship with the unfruit- 
ful works of darkness. Their best men came off and formed 
what is called the New School. They more nearly resemble 
Congregationalists. I did not spend much time in the As- 
sembly, the weather was excessively warm and they were 
excessively uninteresting to me. How they could hold on 
for two whole weeks I could not tell. Mr. Thurston in his 
remarks before the Assembly did himself and the churches 
which he represented much honour. 

I am well. Am finishing this letter as our boat is lying at 
the wharf in Louisville. 

Affect yours, 

S. H. Hayes 

Louisville Kentucky, May 30th 1845 
I have just closed my last letter and sent it to the office, 
and will now improve this moment of quiet to give you a 
random description of Cincinnati the ' ' Queen of the West." 
It is situated on the banks of the Ohio with a long paved 
wharf as in Pittsburg at which you will always see a long 
array of steam boats. It contains a population of 90,000 [ 1] , 
is built on a plain, surrounded by hills, forming a complete 
basin, and when the whole shall be filled with inhabitants 
it will contain perhaps 200,000. It is regularly laid out, the 
streets parallel with the river, being numbered 1, 2, 3, &c, 
up to the 17th, and the cross streets having fancy names as 
walnut, vine, &c. It is to a good degree ornamented with 
shrubbery, which will need some years to develope its 


beauty. The streets are badly paved with lime rock, with 
which the surrounding hills are filled. These pavements 
have settled in some places, and are really the worst I have 
ever seen, and when it is dry the air is filled with lime rock 
dust. The houses are decent, but not elegant, and many of 
them were hastily and badly built. There are no public 
buildings, the State establishments being at Columbus. 
Their public school houses are large and really excellent. 
They have several literary institutions, such as Cincinnati 
College, Woodward College, St. Xavier's College, and a 
Medical College. Also a College of Dental Surgery. They 
have some good churches. The Catholics have several large 
churches, and are now building- a splendid cathedral, and 
two large churches. Some 1600 buildings are in a process 
of erection this season. There are from 20 to 30,000 Cath- 
olics most of whom are Germans. They are an enterprising 
class of people, are accumulating property and a gentleman 
who has closely observed, remarked to me that in his 
opinion the Germans would eventually monopolize the busi- 
ness of Cincinnati They have recently purchased the 
property belonging to the United States Bank, to the 
amount of 800,000 (in Cincinnati.) They live prudently, 
are disposed to favour each other. They are filling the 
surrounding country, and for the most part supply the 
market. The market in Cincinnati is a curiosity. I went 
out one morning on purpose to see it about 5 o clock. It 
consists of some two or three hundred waggons covered 
with canvass, drawn by one or two horses, and by the way 
the horses here are very large. They come in from the sur- 
rounding country and bring every kind of provision with 
which a table can be supplied. Such a variety and such a 
display I have never seen. I counted in one row 127 wag- 
gons, in another 80, in another 50 besides a multitude of 
stands, and then a building which contained the meat, and 


near it the fish market. Here was every sort of vegitable, 
a great variety of meats, and they eat a great deal of flesh 
in the west, not uncommonly having 6 different kinds on the 
same table. Here was abundance of fresh fish. But the 
fish are poor. Ripe strawberries from 8 to 12% cents 
veal 40 cents per quarter, but I did not inquire the prices 
of many things. Ripe cherries, cucumbers, peas, eggs by 
the barrel 6 or 8 cents per dozen. Here you see waggons of 
live fowl and often the purchaser carries them off 
4 ' squawking' > through the streets. I have seen loads of 
live calves driven along for the slaughter. Also of sheep. 
These waggons come in over night, and arrange themselves 
in their places. But how are they defended. They have 
abundance of monstrous dogs, but these do not protect the 
market. The market people sleep in their waggons, rain or 
shine. Often women come unprotected to market and lodge 
in the waggons. I have seen a mother with a child not 
apparently more than 4 months old sitting at 5 o'clock in 
the morning in one of these waggons. And you often see 
women selling articles which if they had cooked them would 
have forced you to die of starvation. Still their articles 
look well — butter is often wrapped in thin white cloth 
done up of course into balls or blocks. Every thing is quiet 
in the market. Public sentiment protects it. These wag- 
gons are all gone by ten or eleven in the A. M. Cincinnati 
presents a very business like aspect. I have not seen larger 
ware houses, though the stores do not compare with some 
in New York or Boston. Here you find every variety of 
merchandise — great numbers of clothing stores. I saw in 
Cincinnati saddles, especially ladies saddles, trunks etc, in 
more extensive assortments, and of more elegant manufac- 
ture than all I ever saw in New England. Some ladies 
saddles are worth 40 or 50$. You see here great numbers 
of show boxes along the streets with trinkets, fancy articles, 

VOL. XX — 2 


jewelry &c. Most of the clerks appeared to me to be for- 
eigners. As you pass many of these stores, you find a clerk 
stationed at the door to urge you to go in. Many of these 
German dealers, resemble the traveling pedlers of the East. 
Most goods can be bought here at a little advance of Boston 
prices. Public houses are very numerous, some excellent 
and I would prefer to board where a divinity student once 
did! than in some I have seen. In all this western world 
taverns are abundant. I once counted six in a village no 
larger than the Marsh. In Cincinnati there are few negro 
servants in the Hotels, but Germans, and far inferior. Cin- 
cinnati is rapidly improving in wealth and population. I 
have been told that 1700 houses are this year in a process of 
erection. Probably, as you stand on some eminence you can 
look upon the abode of more than 100,000 souls. J ust above 
the city on the Ohio side is Fulton, stretching along by a 
single street towards a mile, where boat building is exten- 
sively carried on. Opposite on Kentucky side is Covington 
a pleasant town of 4 or 5000 inhabitants from which when 
we left, we took some 16 slaves for St. Louis. They were 
accompanied by a driver with a two barreled gun, whether 
to shoot game or negroes I did not learn. Just above Cov- 
ington is another small town, called Newport. I have be- 
fore observed that Cincinnati is surrounded with hills. 
Most of these rise to considerable height, and have a bold 
appearance. But they are digging them down, to pave the 
streets, stone cellars &c. These hills are full of lime stone 
deposited in layers, between which the earth is imbedded. 
I have seen hills cut down perpendicularly to the depth of 
50 feet and the stones and earth have the appearance of a 
work of art. These stones are full of fossil remains, shells, 
coral &c, some specimens of which I shall bring home. You 
have all heard of the observatory. This is situated on one 
of these hills called Mt. Adams, for J. Q. A. who laid the 


corner stone. The edifice is not yet completed. It is built 
of stone dug from the hills near it, a portion of it being 
finished for a private residence, and a portion for visitors 
and philosophical purposes. It contains a fine Telescope 
said to be the largest in this country. It is a private enter- 
prise, under the care of Professor Mitchell, and they have 
thought fit to charge $1.00 for day visits and $2.00 for a 
visit at night. I had a line of introduction from Dr. C. but 
found Prof. M. absent. I learned that gentlemen and ladies 
were there that morning as early as 3 o'clock. From the 
Observatory you have a fine view of the city and all the 
surrounding country. It is really a fine prospect. From 
the Observatory, as you advance west, in a little while you 
cross a ravine which is filled with butchers. Ascending 
from this you reach the road leading to Walnut Hills the 
seat of Lane Seminary. On a little further continually 
ascending you come to a very paradise called Mt. Auburn. 
Here are some of the most splendid dwellings I have seen 
in this region, surrounded with fine gardens, many of which 
are extensive and have already abundance of strawberries 
cherries &c. This is the residence of Dr. Mussey formerly 
of New England, besides many others. As I was going 
down from these hills I met an old lady going up with whom 
I had some conversation. She told me she went to Cin- 
cinnati in 1814, and now as she went out and looked upon 
that great city it seemed to her she must have lived 200 
years. But workmen are digging down these hills all 
around. Many regret it much, but the owners wish to make 
money, and the stones and gravel are needed. 

One P. M. we went to Lane Seminary. This is situated 
2y 2 miles from the city. In cool weather it must be a de- 
lightful walk but now it was warm and intolerably dusty. 
But the region of the Seminary is delightful. The profes- 
sors live in good houses surrounded with green fields and 



shrubbery, flowers &c. and near are those beautiful forests 
of which I have spoken. Andover is beautiful, but it is the 
beauty of art. Bangor to me is beautiful, but it is the 
beauty of association but Lane Seminary has something 
more than the beautiful, it has the grandeur of nature in its 
hills and forests. We wandered in their solitude. Saw a 
student studying divinity there, a fit place, surrounded by 
the colums and overarching branches of this cathedral of 
nature. We did not stop long at the Seminary as Drs. 
Beecher and Stowe, and Prof. Allen were all absent. There 
is here one of the finest theological libraries in this country. 
Their annaversary occurs the first week in June. We went 
to tea at a Mr. Tichenors, one of the trustees, an educated 
man, living on the banks of the Ohio in one of the most 
delightful spots I have ever seen. He has a beautiful gar- 
den, and his fine spacious residence is surrounded by a 
forest of these same grand old trees all clean and grassy 
under their lofty but shading branches. Here I partook of 
strawberries though it was only about the 20th of May. 
Here we met Prof. Allen, of the Seminary, a fine man, but 
simple and plain in his manners and pretensions. I could 
have staid a long time. Mr. and Mrs. Tichenor were intelli- 
gent Christians, had once lived in Alabama, were rich and 
had all the hospitality of the South, with little of the aris- 
tocracy. We saw Dr. Beecher in New York. He is much 
beloved by the students here, though he has many peculi- 
arities. They often have to send for him for recitation. 
Sometimes find him fiddling, often comes in (50 rods.) in his 
slippers though it be raining, not thinking to change them, 
always comes running: is still brilliant in the recitation 
room. Prof. Stowe is one of the most learned men in this 
country. He told me with reference to friend Chadwick's 
inquiry about his tobacco using, that he abominated the 
practice and had used none for many years. He could not 


tell from whence sprang the report. He says notwithstand- 
ing the many interesting things in the West, were it not his 
duty to stay here he would gladly return to New England 
and spend his days, and Prof. Stowe is not alone in his 

You may be aware that Eev. Breece has had a call to go 
to Cincinnati and settle. New churches are springing up in 
the city but this one to which he is called is yet in its infant 
state, and I am satisfied that nothing but a sense of duty 
would lead him there did he understand the circumstances. 

No less than three new churches two New School and one 
Old are about to be built. I was present at the laying of the 
corner stone of one the day before I left. There is a power- 
ful Catholic influence in Cincinnati. They have money and 
do as they please. There are other evil influences. Some 
substantial societies are steming the flood, but Cincinnati 
is a wicked city. Intemperance theft arson, and a thousand 
crimes almost are of daily occurrence. The people often, 
besides barring their doors and locking their yards, carry 
their silver spoons, plate &c, up stairs at night, to their 
sleeping rooms. The children boys of the city are under 
ruinous influences. I attended a Sunday School meeting 
which an agent of the Sunday School Union had invited, 
where there were 500 children present. It was in the even- 
ing and though the meeting was badly arranged, the chil- 
dren being all in the gallery, yet I never was in such a 
perfect bedlam. It was in the largest church in the city, 
and the noise was like the roar of winds and the rattle of 
pavements in a storm. 

But I must close my letter. I fancy I see C. throw down 
my letters, "not very interesting", "cant read them if they 
were." I don't blame her, but still wish I did better. What 
I have not written I will tell you when I come home. I was 
tired of staying in Cincinnati and was heartily glad when 
our boat cast off though I had 700 miles to travel alone. 


Evansville Indianna June 2nd 1845 

Dear Friends. 

I have been waiting here all day for a boat. Have run to 
the river some half dozen times when one of these floating 
homes was passing but find none for St. Louis. But how 
came you there you will ask? Be patient and know. I have 
not yet finished my description of Cincinnati, but having a 
half unfinished letter in my portfolio which is packed in by 
baggage, I will pass over a space and begin at Oxford Ohio. 
• One week ago last Friday I went to Oxford with Eev. Mr. 
Tenney brother of Eev. L. Tenney of Ellsworth. Mr. 
Tenney came on the next day his friend from Oxford having 
sent a carriage to Cincinnati for him. It is a most de- 
lightful ride from Cincinnati to Oxford, distance 32 miles, 
all the way on an excellent turnpike, pass 5 gates, pay at 
each. Gates frequent to save all intermediate travel. The 
land very rich. Most magnificent forests, nothing has 
pleased me more than these grand old forests growing on a 
rich bottom, or on luxuriant swells, all hard wood, of the 
richest green, and waving their tall heads in the gentle 
breezes of heaven. We passed some of the finest bottom 
land I have ever seen. So rich that the soil is almost black, 
which for a long succession of years is planted with corn 
and then with difficulty made poor enough for wheat. But 
do not think all the land in Ohio is like this. I think how- 
ever they have not the skill of New England farmers. Their 
management is inferior. They raise abundance of hogs, but 
less of other domestic animals. Much of the corn in Ohio is 
made into whiskey which is sent all over the world, some of 
it to France and comes back in the shape of brandy. The 
Miami valley is one of the greatest places for whiskey in the 
world. An old friend of mine, whom I met here, had 
preached down three distilleries. Said he had five under 
his pastoral care ! I heard of one man who kept 3000 hogs 


at his distillery — of another company that had two dis- 
tilleries and made in both 240 barrels weekly, kept 800 hogs 
— of one distillery, that was burned, and the 1000 hogs con- 
nected with it were turned out to grass but their teeth were 
gone, and they died. This whiskey is a curse upon Ohio 
and the world. 

Oxford is a delightful place. Though little larger than 
Frankfort, it is a city has a mayor and city officers as do 
most of these western villages. The whole town is 6 miles 
square, and the city is just one mile square, all of which 
(the land) belongs to the college, Miami University, which 
is situated in the middle of mile square. The land from the 
college is gently inclined each way to the borders of the 
city and from the top of the college which is very high 
you have a beautiful prospect. Here we saw Mr. Lane 
originally from Maine, who gave quite a sum of money to 
Lane Seminary and from whom that institution takes its 
name. He was from New Gloucester, and wishes to return 
there or to Portland if he can sell his farm for $6,000. We 
found quite a number of New England people. Some from 
Maine formerly of Prospect and belonged to Mr. Thurstons 
congregation. A Mrs. Ross, sister of Capt. Kidder, who 
may have removed to Frankfort, also her father and sister. 
Mr. Tenney has a fine situation, and a most excellent wife. 
She was a Connecticut lady, a teacher of a high school, and 
a prize for any man. He is young has a small church, but 
good prospects, a destitute region around him. I went out 
five miles in the P. M. having preached in the A. M. and 
heard W. T. It was within a stone's throw of Indianna. 
Here I noticed all sorts of people. Many ladies came on 
horseback, many were there with infants. Many in rather 
a primative style. Some gay and sprightly as Boston belles. 
Mr. Thurston preaches in evening for in the West, it is 
quite a prevailing custom to have a service only in the 


morning and evening. On Monday morning instead of go- 
ing directly on through Columbus, and through the State as 
we intended, we concluded to go by the way of St. Louis. 
All our friends here advised us to this course, told us we 
should always regret it, and Mr. Thurston thought it best. 
He concluded to take the land track, and I the water and 
meet in St. Louis last Saturday. His journey was 300 
miles, mine more than 700. I returned to Cincinnati rode 
down in company with a gentleman and two ladies in a 
baggage waggon, covered with canvass, the ladies sitting in 
two chairs and myself with my friend on a trunk. This 
gentleman had a fine two horse carriage, was the proprietor 
of a factory, but was going on business now. I reached 
Cincinnati just as the Steamer North American started for 
St. Louis. Now I must stop for another boat. I had a home 
at Dr. Cleaveland's. The next day a boat was ready, but I 
was advised not to go as she was large and would probably 
get aground, for the water has been seldom lower than now 
in the Ohio. A boat started the next day, but I did not go 
for the same reason. On Thursday a light boat was ready. 
I took passage at 3 P. M. Being alone, I have become quite 
independent and get acquainted with anybody I chose. We 
soon passed North Bend. Had a fine view of it, but you see 
nothing but a large and fine farm, a two story white house 
large and awkward, with fine trees in front. Few other 
residents in the neighbourhood. Harrison's tomb is on a 
gentle swell 50 rods perhaps from the house containing 
some shrubbery, and surrounded by a white paling, perhaps 
enclosing 2 or 3 acres of ground. It does not much resemble 
the picture in my room. Friday morning we reached Louis- 
ville. Here we stopped an hour. Louisville contains 36,460 
population. From the top of the Gait house a fine Hotel, I 
had a good view of the city. It is situated on a plain, with 
much wild shrubbery and trees in the distance but no ele- 


gant dwellings as in the suburbs of most cities. It has 27 
churches, a marine hospital, medical college &c. 600 or 700 
buildings are being erected this summer. When the water 
is low there is a fall in the river, which is passed by a canal, 
cut nearly all the way through solid limestone, for the dis- 
tance of 2y 2 or 3 miles. This is a costly work, and expensive 
passing. Something like 50 cents a ton for boats. Just 
through the canal is situated the town of Portland where 
lives the giant — Jim Porter who traveled in New England 
as a show some years since. He keeps a sort of beer shanty 
but we did not see him being up stairs playing cards. His 
gun, stock and all, is between 8 and 9 feet long, he 7 feet 
8 inches high. We passed on well this night, but the next 
morning reached French Island, where we overtook every 
one of the boats that had left before us save one. Here is a 
bad sand bar. One boat of a large class was fast in the 
sand bar, on board of which was Henry Clay. I have since 
learned he has gone back to Louisville. Here all the pas- 
sengers landed to lighten the boat which did not draw more 
than 3 feet 8 inches. Still she with the others stuck. They 
worked hard and got her off about 4 P. M. while we were 
from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. wandering on the shore. No 
houses save a few miserable huts. Here I saw as fine soil 
as in Ohio (we were on the Kentucky side) the majestic 
growth of trees exceeding in size any I had seen, principally 
the cotton wood, sycamore and poplar — very large fields 
of corn but no appearance of enterprise or thrift. It is not 
so all over Kentucky Some portions of the State are great 
gardens. A large tract through from Louisville to Lexing- 
ton, I am told is the picture [of] wealth and prosperity. 
We were sick enough of the waiting, though at first we 
thought it fine. At length we were on board, but in the 
course of two hours were stuck fast in a sand bank, where 
every effort failed to release the boat till morning. All our 


state rooms were full and the floor covered with mattresses. 
I gave up my room to a sick man and tried to sleep on the 
floor but the racket made by the men who wrought all night 
long kept me awake. The next morning she started, but it 
was Sabbath. I could not get a shore the night before but 
this morning went down to this place very early and came 
ashore — did not know a soul here but went to a public 
house. Then went to the Reverend Mr. Baines New School 
Presbyterian and spent the Sabbath and preached for him. 
I shall tell you more of this. Only let me say now, to my 
surprise here I found no less than 4 of my own townsfolk, 
school children with me. I cannot tell you my satisfaction. 
It is hot here, strawberries gone, raspberries just coming 
on, peas actually ripe, peaches 1-3 grown, notwithstanding 
the drought and cold — for let me say, Friday night and 
Saturday morning on the Ohio a great coat was comfortable. 

Yours affect 

S. H. H. 

Evansville June 3d. It is Tuesday and I am weary with 
waiting for a boat. One at the wharf going to the mouth 
of the river which I think I shall take. By the way, I have a 
traveling companion to St. Louis, a young lady, a graduate 
of Mt. Holyoke Seminary. She is soon going to Miss. A 
fine girl. She has been waiting not wishing to go alone. I 
could not refuse. A word about ladies. They are the plain- 
est set in Cincinnati that I have ever seen in all my peri- 
grinations, small, pale, mean looking. This is too bad to 
say, but it is true. I occasionally see a handsome married 
lady whom some one has found in some other country, but 
spare me from the ladies of the South and West, so far as 
beauty is concerned. Their education is defective. I have 
been rallied often on my celibacy, but seldom advised to 
take a wife here. I have seen some fine girls from the east. 


A young lady here from Vermont whom I have jokingly 
invited to go to Frankfort and teach a school. She says she 
is fond of snowbanks and sleighrides but you will pardon 
all this, it is very awkwardly done. I am not use to writing 
of the ladies. 

This is a place of considerable business, and the terminus 
of the Great Central Canal which connects the river here 
with Lake Erie, or will do so when it is completed. It will 
then be perhaps the longest canal in the world. Evansville 
is the county seat of and has some 4000 inhab- 
itants, a bank, court house &c. 

Kentucky is just across the river and I would ride out to 
some of the plantations were it not so warm and did I not 
fear of losing the boat. You may sometimes ask why the 
slaves do not cross the river and be free. They would do 
so, but there are so many who watch to catch them for re- 
ward that they do not dare to attempt it, since if they are 
caught they are made an example of. People, though they 
have no sympathy with abolition, that is, but few do, yet 
nearly all profess abhorence to slavery. Still they say we 
can do nothing. 

I suppose Mr. Thurston is waiting for me at St. Louis, 
and I am anxious to meet him, though I find several homes 
here. Two of my friends are physicians, one the wife of a 
physician, and one the wife of a methodist minister. I stop 
at the Eeverend Mr. Baines whose wife was a teacher at the 
Female Seminary at Marietta. There is a female High 
School in their house, which was built for the purpose. Mrs. 
Baines knew Mr. Robins. This mental affection is not a 
new thing. I learn from her and from Prof. Allen of Lane 
Seminary that there is but little prospect of his recovery, 
that his mind was unsound when he went East. I am well. 
Am anxious to get home. Get Prof. Shepherd if you can to 
preach. I will settle with him. Love to all. 

S. H. H. 



Mississippi River, 600 miles from the 
Mouth of the Ohio. Just above Dav- 
enport lying to in a shower on the 
Upper Rapids. June 11th 1845. 
Dear Friends — My last letter was written at Evansville 
Indiana. I waited there from Monday till Wednesday at 
8 A. M. for a boat when I went on board the Champion a 
New Orleans steamer for the mouth of the Ohio river, in- 
tending there to take another boat up to St. Louis. But let 
me here say a word of Evansville. I know not what I may 
already have said for it requires a better memory than I 
have to keep my own reckoning. Evansville is a flourishing 
village containing from 4 to 5000 inhabitants. It has no 
manufactoring interest, but being the County Seat the 
terminus of the Great Canal, and an important boat landing, 
it has considerable business, but it is situated on a perfect 
level, surrounded with a perfect level, covered with forests, 
though the country around is filling up with inhabitants. 
From the appearance of the stores and shops it is a place 
of no inconsiderable trade. It has a female school, and one 
for boys, two Presbyterian churches, 1 Episcopal, 1 Cath- 
olic, 1 Methodist, and some other sects, publishes 3 news- 
papers, and has Lawyers and doctors in abundance. It is a 
wicked place, but little conservative influence. Not 100 per- 
sons attend regularly each the Presbyterian churches. 
Nothing in a moral point of view is more striking in these 
towns and cities, (and by the way every place here in the 
west like Evansville is a city) than the differences in moral 
character resulting from the character of the population. 
Where there is an eastern stock to any extent, you find a 
conservative influence. These places are proud of having 
eastern men; though they may sometimes be looked upon as 
intruders, still they are silently looked up to, and imitated 
in many things. There was in Evansville formerly a strong 


prejudice vs. Yankees. Dr. Trafton who has been here 20 
years and who was formerly from Maine told me [he] had 
seen posted up on trees in Indiana this notice. So much 
for the skin of a Yankee. A Yankee is now rather a term of 
reproach, though a New Engiander is significant of honour. 
Fearing I may be repeating what I have said before I will 
leave Evansville. 

I was really glad to be once more on my way, for I sus- 
pected Mr. Thurston was waiting for me at St. Louis. 
Moreover the weather was insupportably hot. You can 
have little idea of the effect produced. I have seen the ther- 
mometer as high in Maine but nothing of that languor here 
produced. If you sit perfectly still, you may be comfort- 
able, but stir, and you are enervated. This place is un- 
healthy, but I was quieted in my apprehensions on hearing 
that Northern people are less troubled with the " Chills" as 
they call the fever and ague, than natives, and that the 
former are not usually thus effected till they have been here 
from one to three years. Still I was glad to be on the boat. 
It was a splendid craft, finely fitted up, but the water was 
so low she had discharged her crew and in charge of the 
clerk was floating down to the Mississippi. They told us 
we might come on board and go as far as we could and if 
they stuck, they would put us on to another boat. We were 
finely situated as to accommodations, but I never felt that 
loneliness on a boat. It seemed just like a great palace 
deserted of its inmates, but we had not been on board above 
two hours, when she stuck fast in a sand bar. Fortunately 
for us in the course of a few minutes, a St. Louis boat came 
along, and we were politely put on board, and exchange was 
made. Here was a verv diferent order of things — a 
smaller boat, that would pass the bars, but crowded with 
passengers. She had been up as far as the French Island 
bars, and there exchanged freight and passengers with 


another boat transporting them across the bars in flats, and 
she was now on her way back. Though she drew 3% feet of 
water she took with her a large flat boat with some hun- 
dreds of barrels of whiskey which she dared not take on 
board. It is common when the water is so low to take these 
flat boats, and sometimes they are obliged to put out all the 
freight, passengers, and even the machinery in order to 
pass. We saw acres of sand bars perfectly dry. But we 
hoped to pass safely now.. You can hardly imagine the 
dread the passengers have, of these detentions. The boat 
was crowded, yet I succeeded in getting a berth for the lady 
in my care. There were two clergymen beside myself, and 
we with 30 or 40 were willing to sleep on the floor. But the 
first night I slept little. For fearing the bars, the boat lay 
by all night long, and some of the passengers not being able 
to sleep were singing much of the time. Near my head was 
the door of state room in which was a crazy woman who 
was talking, and laughing, and crying, in most singular 
tones. But the morning came and at 4 o'clock we must 
leave our couches, those of us on the floor. This was Thurs- 
day. The weather was still excessively hot. Our ice was 
gone. How I should love the cold winters of the North for 
making ice, were I always compelled to drink the waters of 
the Ohio. But we had after all, a pleasant company of all 
classes, ministers, lawyers, doctors. We had many ladies, 
and some rather attractive in their personal appearance. I 
have seen some elegant Kentucky ladies, with one I became 
somewhat acquainted. She was on her way to Galena to 
visit her sister, the wife of a Methodist presiding elder. It 
is no uncommon thing for ladies to go a thousand miles on 
these western waters to make a visit. You will sometimes 
go to the. Marsh after Sarah. Ladies will here go 400 miles 
after a sister, sometimes just to accompany them. You can 
hardly imagine the amount of travel on these rivers, thou- 


sands of boats, and all teeming- with people. I expect to be 
in Galena tomorrow and purpose to call and see Ann Eliza 
Smith, but do not be alarmed, when I left her with other 
fellow passengers on the boat last Saturday I bid them all 
farewell having no idea of seeing them again. But you will 
learn why I go to Galena. I made many valuable acquain- 
• tances on the boat. Having a lady in my care I always had 
a place at the first table, and access to the ladies cabin or 
any part of the boat. There was a small band of music on 
board, and some ladies from New England who sang very 
well, and our evenings passed pleasantly. Some were read- 
ing, some telling stories, some playing cards, some singing 
songs, and some dreaming dreams. There were some 20 
children on board from 6 months to 6 years of age, and the 
poor little things with their poor mothers were real suffer- 
ers, though some had two or three negro servants to take 
care of them. I gained much useful information as we had 
passengers from almost every part of the world, and on the 
boat every man is at liberty to become acquainted with any 
body he pleases. As to the river and its valley, there is 
much of sameness everywhere. A few flourishing villages 
mostly on the Illinois side, but generally forests, and flat 
bottom. Now and then a decent house, and frequently log 
cabins. The land immediately bordering on the river is 
rich, but liable to inundations, and generally unhealthy. 
Smithland at the mouth of the Cumberland River is a pleas- 
ant town of 1500 inhabitants The Cumberland River is 
navigable 600 miles. Steam boats run on all these western 
rivers to an astonishing distance. It is estimated that on 
the Ohio and its tributarv streams, there are 5000 miles of 
navigable waters. Thursday night at about 7 o'clock wo 
reached the mouth of the Ohio. You may remember Cairo 
the visionarv citv. This is situated in the angle formed by 
the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi. It was pur- 



chased by Englishmen and laid out for a great city. They 
built dikes to curb the river, and have done much to induce 
settlers, but it overflows, has a low flat region around, and 
will never be anything. Here we took leave of some of our 
friends, and soon were stemming the current of the Missis- 
sippi ' ' the father of waters I felt a sort of pride in 
gazing on this mighty river. I had read of it in my boy- 
hood, and in after vears with a sort of veneration, and now 
to behold it, to ride upon it, to drink it gave me pleasure. 
The waters are very muddy and are always so, still they are 
more palatable and healthy than those of the Ohio. The 
water of the Mississippi resembles that which during a 
heavy shower runs through your streets. The scenery im- 
proves as you advance up the river. I had a travellers 
guide in my pocket, and kept watch of the towns, but I can 
assure you I was amused often. For example the town of 
Selma is laid down with as much ceremony as St. Louis, 
but the former had barely two houses. Ste. Genevieve is 
one of the oldest places on the Mississippi a French town 
pleasantly situated, with a great extent of bottom land so 
held that each man may cultivate as much of it as he pleases. 
This bottom was inundated last year which has not occurred 
before for y 2 a century. The town is small perhaps 1500 or 
2000 people, grows little and will never be much of a place. 
It requires Yankees to build up these cities. Here is an 
extensive quarry of white marble coarse and resembling 
sandstone. The lime rock prevails throughout the whole 
west. No granite and little marble of value. Back of Ste. 
Genevieve in Missouri perhaps 40 miles is situated the iron 
mountain containing a vast amount of iron — enormous 
masses lie on the surface. A gentleman told me it had been 
found so pure, that it would work on the anvil and even 
make knives. I saw a piece picked up there 78 per cent 
pure. Copper also abounds there and I had much conver- 


sation with a Mr. Dille of Ohio who is a proprietor He 
expects to reap great profit. He was on his way there ' The 
mineral resources of Missouri are very great, iron copper 
coal, &c. ' ■ 

Passing Ste. Genevieve the bluffs are grand, rising 200 
and perhaps 300 feet perpendicularly so that a shot manu- 
factory is built on the brow of one. There is one pile called 
the tower, perhaps 100 feet high and round, you can see the 
layers of stone as if it were the work of art, evidently hav- 
ing been worn by a mighty tide of water, but when no voice 
sayeth. Some geologists are of opinion that all the bottom 
in this valley was once the bed of the Mississippi which was 
then a vast river. These bluffs were very grand and beauti- 
ful covered at the top with groves and cultivated fields 
and where they fell away to nearly a level with the water 
you would see a pretty cottage, sometimes a log cabin. One 
thing is noticeable which I may have mentioned, and that is, 
wherever, there are hills or bluffs on one side the other is 
flat and low. 

Had we not been detained one whole night we should have 
reached St. Louis Friday morning but as it was we did not 
till late Friday night. We had suffered much from heat, 
and were glad to know we were in. It was 11 o'clock. 
Scarce any had gone to rest. Some were hoping to get to a 
public house. All was confusion. Here you must watch 
your baggage, keep your eye on it or lock it up. This must 
be done in all this west. Soon our boat was at the levee, but 
one poor fellow, a Catholic walked off and was drowned. 
Yet scarce any notice was taken of it. I know not that a 
single effort was made to recover the body. He was a sort 
of priest. They are very reckless of life here. A man is 
little more than a dog. You cannot have an idea of corrup- 
tion of human nature in these cities, and generally, a com- 

vol. xx — 3 


pany of gamblers are on each boat and they plunder when 
they can. 

Saturday morning I arose early and went to find Mr. 
Thurston not doubting .that he had been waiting nearly a 
week. It had given me much anxiety. I had written him 
exhorting him to patience. I soon found he had arrived 
there only about 12 hours before me. I went to his hotel 
and found he had gone up to Quincy 150 miles. I went to 
the office not doubting that I should find a letter but not one 
word. I knew not what to do, but thought I would get my 
baggage ashore and carry the young lady to a friends, in- 
tending to go to a hotel. I went into the house, was intro- 
duced as a clergyman from Maine and found that I was 
almost at home, for it was at a brothers of the Reverend J. 
Tucker of Maine with whom I was well acquainted, and I 
was not allowed to go to public house. His son also was 
minister of a town above on the river, and was there, so I 
found myself pleasantly situated. The weather was exces- 
sively hot, but towards night, I went to take leave of some 
of my friends and to make some plan to meet Mr. Thurston. 
I accordingly wrote him by a boat, to meet me at Peoria on 
the Illinois river, supposing he would go that way, and not 
knowing what to do with the young lady. So I wrote him 
and was at rest. Sabbath was tremendously hot. I did not 
dare to preach all day but consented to in the evening. 
There are many New England people in St. Louis. All the 
Presbyterian ministers. Some excellent Christians. Mrs. 
Billiard, wife of one of the ministers has often collected in 
a few hours 100$ for the poor or other charitable purposes. 
This however was when money was plenty. The people of 
St. Louis are noted for generosity. The French population 

are fast fading away. 

But I will not give you a discription of St. Louis now. ^ I 
am on a jarring boat, and there is much confusion. I will 


just say on Monday morning I found a letter from Mr 
Thurston urging me to follow him to Quincy and to go via 
Galena to Chicago &c. Here I was in confusion again for I 
had written him to meet me at Peoria, but I soon determined 
to put the lady under the care of another gentleman and 
strive to overtake Mr. Thurston. Arrangements were soon 
made, and I hastened on board a steamer at sunset. At 
this time we had a fine shower, rain poured down in tor- 
ents. The air was pure. We passed on, saw Alton the 
spot where Love joy was shot. The people of Alton do not 
wish to hear the subject spoken of. It was now dark. The 
next morning fine. Some pretty towns. I was soon at 
Quincy trembling lest Mr. Thurston had got my letter and 
gone on but providentially he did not get it at all, though I 
was sure from the manner of sending it, he must get it. He 
was on the wharf and we gave each other a happy greeting. 

I am anxious to get home. I am aware I am travelling 
too rapidly. I do hope the people will make some provision 
for the pulpit. I have now been absent five Sabbaths. Shall 
be three more. I have little opportunity to write, so I hope 
you will excuse every thing. My health is very good. 

Yours, &c. 

S. H. H. 

Steamer Constellation from Chicago 
to Detroit, Monday, June 16th 1845 

Dear Friends. 

In my last I gave you some account of St. Louis. It has 
a population of 40,000 and is rapidly increasing. It is un- 
doubtedly destined to. become one of the greatest cities of 
the west. Its position gives it great advantage. It is made 
a kind of depot. Most of the productions of the Uper Mis- 
sissippi, the Missouri, the Illinois and many smaller streams 
are landed and reshipped from St. Louis. It has also an 


extensive country around. This season they are building 
1500 buildings. Several new churches are going up. In all 
these western cities the Catholic are building splendid edi- 
fices. Two magnificent churches are nearly finished in St. 
Louis. One built entirely from the contributions of the 
poorer working class. The Catholic in this valley have an 
agent, a man of great skill and executive talent who super- 
intends the erection of all these public edifices, and the work 
is done to stand for ages. The protestant influence in St. 
Louis is strong, but their churches &c. seem weak compared 
with the Catholic. The site of the city is very advanta- 
geous. It rises from the river by a gentle inclination. The 
streets are of tolerable width and numbered from the water 
back, as is the custom in these western cities. The dwelling 
houses are more elegant than in Cincinnati. They have no 
public buildings save a court house, and all their edifices 
are vastly inferior to those of New England cities. They 
have a medical college, though rather in its infantile state. 
You know the city was originally settled by the French. 
They were very jealous of the American settlers, and at 
first had but little to do with them but their coming, so in- 
creased the value of their lands that they became reconciled, 
though they resided in a section by them-selves ; but they 
are fast wasting away. Their portion of the city, now hav- 
ing a poor appearance, is fast giving away, and filling up 
with a different population. You see there now however, 
their original dwellings appearing rude and antique. You 
would be astonished to stand on the levee, or wharf, which 
is a pavement like that I mentioned at Pittsburg Cincinnati, 
&c. and see the business that is transacted. Though at this 
season the water is extremely low, many of the larger boats 
have ceased to run, and fewer people are traveling by 
reason of the heat, yet I counted no less than 40 steamboats 
lying there all preparing to start at most within a few days. 

1 1 


I do not remember what I told you in my last. I was much 
prostrated by the heat of the week before reaching St. 
Louis. But there I recruited much. We had also on Sab- 
bath night a heavy shower. So that some of the streets on 
our return from meeting were literally filled with water. 

Monday night as I told you, I took leave of my good 
friends in St. Louis and proceeded up the river to Quincy. 
On board I became acquainted with the Rev. Dr. Ezra Styles 
of Philadelphia who will probably be settled in the Northern 
Liberties in Philadelphia and who is a very agreeable com- 
panion. Before dark Monday we passed Alton, where Love- 
joy was shot. I saw the house where his press was placed 
and the spot where he fell, but the Curse of God seems to 
rest on this place. Since that time, it has had no prosperity. 
The stone ware houses are empty, its prospects seem 
blighted, and as I mentioned in my last, the people feel it 
so sensibly, they do not wish the subject alluded to. We 
passed the mouth of the Missouri, mingling its muddy wa- 
ters with the pure Mississippi but they do not readily unite ; 
for a great distance you see the two kinds of water, and 
even down as far as St. Louis on the opposite shore I was 
told the Mississippi waters chose to roll alone. But the 
muddy Missouri is more palitable and healthy than the Ohio 
or Mississippi. All these waters however have a purgative 
effect, especially upon Northerners. As I told you we 
reached Quincy about noon having passed some flourishing 
villages which I will not describe. Here I joined brother 
Thurston and spent a few hours, took a bowl of bread and 
milk at the Reverend Mr. Foots, and rode with him to see 
his citv. It is a beautiful town of about 5000 inhabitants. 
It has a city government, mayor &c. Mr. Foot has a large 
congregation, one of the finest churches I have seen, and 
Mr. Thurston told me he had not heard any where such 
sweet music. Their leader is a man who was once associ- 


ated with Lowell Mason. Most of the buildings here are 
brick as at St. Louis and most of the western towns, there 
being abundance of clay almost every where, and the whole 
country being full of lime rock. Brick at Quincy can be 
purchased for $2 per thousand. Here is the seat of the 
mission institute which was under the care of Dr. Nelson 
the author of the Cause and Cure of Infidelity. He was a 
great and good man. He died about a year since. The soil 
about Quincy is excellent. I became acquainted with a Mr. 
Wood of Quincy who interested me much. Some 24 years 
ago, a poor boy with his pack on his back, he left the interior 
of New York, and wandered into the west. At length he 
came to Quincy and settled down. He has now a most 
magnificent farm of 800 acres — one field of excellent wheat 
of 100 acres, another of 35, an elegant house &c, worth in 
all at least 50,000$. Mr. Wood is mayor of Quincy and 
went with us from there to Galena and gave us much infor- 
mation of the country &c. This town is pleasantly situated 
on high ground and resembles a New England village more 
than any I have recently seen. The land about Quincy is 
what is called high Prarie. We left this place after I had 
been there a few hours, and of course I could see and learn 
but little. We embarked on board the Time. Here again 
was a motley company, some V 2 dozen clergymen several 
lawyers I think, and the worst set of gamblers I have seen 
in all my tour. There are companies of these miserable 
vagabonds constantly traveling on these boats, to gamble, 
steal rob, murder &c. One of this company was a young 
man of a desperate appearance, who, I think would not hesi- 
tate to plunge a dagger to any man's heart. He had a 
brandy flushed face, and a fearful eye, which often fell upon 
us and almost made us shudder. All day long, until 10 or 
11 o'clock at night he would gamble with any one he could 
engage, while piles of money increased and wasted continu- 


ally, and tumblers of brandy and mm, etc. disappeared 
often. This was all in open day in the gentlemen's cabin. 
One of these fellows, who said he was a member of the 
Senate of Illinois, became so beastly drunk that he was dis- 
gusting in the extreme. You know in passing up the river, 
we pass Nauvoo. Here we intended to stop and it cost us 
great self denyal not to do so, but we had been detained so 
much, were so anxious to get on, especially to meet with a 
convention at Detroit this week, we therefore concluded to 
push on, and very unfortunately we passed this strange city 
in the night, and virtually saw nothing of it. We did indeed 
go on shore, and run up on the bank, and saw by star light 
what we could. They have a population of ten thousand 
miserable inhabitants, though the city has a beautiful site, 
but is destined undoubtedly to waste away and as a Mormon 
city to come to nought. The Temple is unique and ex- 
tremely beautiful, but the roof, spire, etc. and the inner 
work is all of wood, and in a few years will decay, and leave 
the ruins, a monument of fanatical folly. The citizens are 
poor, but strain every nerve to complete the temple. There 
are very strong prejudices vs. them by the citizens of the 
state, and they are not without foundation e. g. they seem 
to regard themselves as the chosen people, and justify them- 
selves in any measures to accomplish their end. They have 
had the ballance of political power and have made havoc in 
elections. When I see I will tell you more of the Mormons. 

Yours &c. 


Steamer Constellation 16, 1845 

Dear Friends. 

We are now halting to take in passengers at a pleasant 
little village called Racine on the borders of Lake Michigan 
It is now 4 P. M. and we have passed two fine villages be- 


fore this. The day is delightful the lake as smooth as a 
river, our boat quiet. A fine company of passengers. Some 
20 ministers on their way to Detroit, among whom are some 
with whom I was acquainted in the east, now missionaries 
in Iowa. Dr. Lindsley, President of Marietta College, Rev, 
Mr. Walker author of "The Philosophy of the Plan of Sal- 
vation 7 and many others whom I cannot name particularly. 
We have really a pleasant company, and profitable inter- 

But I will go back. We failed of seeing Nauvoo, but the 
country above soon became delightful. In the morning we 
touched at Burlington and went ashore there, and there our 
feet pressed the soil of Iowa. This is a very flourishing vil- 
lage and in it is settled one of the Iowa band, that went out 
from the Andover Seminary some two years since. 1 Here 
I would remark, all these young men who practised so much 
self denyal and who continue to do so, are accomplishing a 
great work, and will should they live, enjoy the prosperity 
and luxuries of one of the most rapidly growing countries 
in the world. I had no idea of [the] beauty of the uper Mis- 
sissippi. We have passed some small praries stretching al- 
most as far as the eye could reach, and as green as the sweet 
fields of New England. Then again, the land would rise in 
gentle undulations, sometimes covered with large trees; 
sometimes scattered like an orchard, and often in clumps as 
to render what seemed to be boundless fields peculiarly de- 
lightful. The soil of these gentle hills and undulations is 
not so strong as the bottoms, yet with cultivation would be 
very productive. A few years ago the Indians possessed all 
this territory, and were in the habit of burning over these 
grounds to keep out the underbrush, to facilitate their hunt- 
ing. This process has given to vast regions the appearance 

i Mr. Horace Hutchinson was at this time stationed at Burlington. In 1846 
he died and was succeeded by William Salter. — The Editor. .. . ' 


of having been partially cleared. Thus in passing up the 
river for miles and miles we saw the most beautiful regions, 
but without scarce an inhabitant. Yet the population is in- 
creasing with astonishing rapidity. In some counties where 
7 years since scarce a white man breathed the air, now are 
thousands with flourishing villages and productive farms. 
I surveyed the country as well as I could for at least 1500 
miles on these western rivers, without having my idea of 
the west at all realized, but on this upper Mississippi it is 
really charming. J ust at night the next day after leaving 
Quincy we reached Davenport some 200 miles above. Here 
is Fort Armstrong on an Island. Davenport on one side and 
Stephenson 2 on the other. And without exageration it is 
one of the most delightful views I have ever seen. The idea 
that such enchanting scenery should exist around such flour- 
ishing villages in a region which I had always thought of as 
covered with dense forests and inhabited by savages, prob- 
ably enhance the view. The land looks like a garden. The 
houses are built with taste. Several wealthy families reside 
there, and there I met with C. B. Smith whom I lost in New 
York. He is supplying another of the Iowa Band who is 
going to New England I presume for a wife. The site on 
which this village is built, indeed the whole section was 
given to one La Clare a half breed Indian and he now is the 
proprietor of the region. 3 He has a fine farm on which he 
lives, good buildings, a flourishing young orchard &c. As 
we were stopping there, we saw quite an elegant buggy 
waggon drawn by a very large white horse coming towards 
us containing but one individual. Our friend Wood told us 

2 The town of Stephenson later changed its name to Rock Island. — The 

s This reference is to Antoine Le Glaire, one of the founders of the town of 
Davenport and for more than a quarter of a century an important factor in its 
development. He was of French-Canadian and Indian parentage. — The 


it was La Clare with whom he was acquainted and proposed 
to introduce us. We accordingly went to the street and was 
made acquainted with the Lordly proprietor. He is I think 
the largest man I ever saw, and reminded me of the picture 
of Daniel Lambert, very black for an Indian, though he 
facetiously remarked that he was the first white man that 
ever settled there west of the Mississippi. He is quite an 
intelligent man and feels a great interest in his village. 
This has already become a place of resort by gentlemen and 
ladies from New Orleans, and other places of the South. It 
is also fixed upon as the seat of Iowa College. 4 It will never 
become a place of great business as Galena has so far got 
the start but it will become a place of residence for men of 
wealth &c. Davenport took its name from a gentleman of 
the same name, an Englishman, who came to this country, 
in the last war and deserted to the Americans, at length 
wandered up the Mississippi, became engaged in the fur 
trade, amassed a large fortune, and is now settled in afflu- 
ence on rock island near the village of his name. He is 
probably worth $200,000. Another French gentleman here 
is worth $100,000. You will thus get an imperfect idea of 
this place. But we soon passed on and bid farewell to this 
lovely spot of which I have given you scarce an idea. In 
half an hour the clouds rolled up and the rain descended 
and as we were crossing the rapids, and it being somewhat 
difficult, we lay by, and continued there all night. The rain 
descended in torents. The lightning and thunder were ter- 
rific and our boat was struck which knocked some of the 
men down but injured no one. The fluid it was said, ran 
down an iron rod passed out following a bolt and shattered 
one of the planks. This evening I noticed the gamblers were 
missing. The Captain told us he had never known a boat 

4 Iowa College was founded at Davenport but was removed to Grinnell in 
1859. — The Editor. 


struck before. A kind Providence preserved us. Early the 
next morning we passed on. The country continued delight- 
ful — now and then a dwelling. Prospectively we could see 
a teeming population. We passed a few rafts of logs and 
boards &c. The Captain told us a few years since he pur- 
chased lumber in St. Louis and shipped it to Galena. Now 
lumber to the amount of 40 or 50,000,000 was shipped down 
the Mississippi from its head waters. Galena is situated on 
the Fever River about 6 miles from its entrance into the 
Mississippi. It is a small deep river and the most crooked 
one I have ever seen. In looking ahead it was often impos- 
sible to tell in what direction we must go. Yet our boat 
glided slowly along as if directed by some magic hand, till 
we saw the city of Galena its narrow street on the water 
and its pretty private dwellings looking down from the cliffs 
upon us. This place contains a population of from 4 to 
5000, and is rapidly increasing. Some how I felt at home 
as I do almost any where now. We deposited our baggage 
immediately and entered our names for Chicago, the stage 
leaving at two o 'clock in the morning. We then started off 
to call on the Reverend Mr. Kent, but he was gone with his 
wife to Chicago. But I was surprised to see standing by 
the door two of the Iowa band one of whom was my intimate 
friend Wm. Salter of New York. 5 We went in and saw 
some young ladies who were teaching a High School. And 
here I learned that another old friend Magoun 6 of Balti- 
more was here teaching. He is a fine fellow a poet, &c. 
When he saw me he presented a picture for a painter. 

5 Mr. William Salter came to the State with the " Iowa Band" in 1843 and 
was at first stationed at the Forks of the Maquoketa. In 1846 he followed the 
Eeverend Mr. Hutchinson at Burlington where he served for sixty-four years. 
His death occurred in 1910. — The Editor. 

e Mr. George F. Magoun after filling pastorates in Galena, Davenport, and 
Lyons, became President of Iowa College at Griunell, in 1865, and served in 
that capacity until 1884. — The Editor. 


I have written these two letters with men all around me. 
Some telling stories, some leaning on my table discussing 
theology, some talking of this and some of that. So you 
will appreciate the disadvantages under which I write. You 
must mark all illegible places and reserve just as many 
questions as you can think of to ask. I begin and end all my 
letters in the middle. At most they are only meagre notes. 


S. H. H. 

Steamer Constellation Tues. June 17, 45 

Dear Friends. 

I left you in my last at Galena. This is the county seat 
of Jo Daveiss County in the northern part of Illinois. The 
topography of the country is extremely uneven. There is 
actually no room for a town on anything like a level. One 
dense street on the water, where the business is done is the 
one through which we first passed. Here every sort of mer- 
chandise is exposed for sale. As this is in the region of 
the lead mines you see large quantities of the metal piled up 
for shipment. Our boat took in freight and returned on its 
passage to St. Louis immediately, not remaining more than 
a few hours. As our time was short, we made the most of it. 
As I told you in my last, we were soon surrounded with 
New England friends. We started off to visit the " dig- 
gins' ' as the lead mines are called. This land belongs to 
the Government; it has not yet been put into the market, 
and any individual, who is disposed, goes upon any unoccu- - 
pied portion and ' ' claims' ' it, and immediately commences 
digging, and for the right, he is to pay a certain percentage 
to the Government, which I learn is very hard to collect. 
As there is no sure indication, where the mineral is to be 
found, they commence digging any where. Hence the coun- 
try is every where full of shafts, some sunk five feet, and 


some 100 feet, some soon affording mineral and some never 
yielding an ounce. Some persons expend a vast amount of 
money and labour, and give it up as a ruinous speculation, 
others make a fortune. One man and his sons had expended 
a great amount of money and labour in vain, and were just 
ready to give up in dispair. The old man said 1 ' This is the 
last keg of powder we will ever burn ,, < And some say it 
was the last blast in the very apex of their dispair, that 
opened to one of the richest mines in the region, and made 
them wealthy. Thus many succeed and many do not. These 
shafts are about as large as a common well, dug and secured 
by wood from caving in, and the mineral is raised by a 
windlass. These shafts are numerous and entirely open, so 
that one is in danger of falling in. The lead region is very 
extensive, perhaps reaching 50 or 60 miles. We went to one 
of the furnaces. Here the crude mineral is subjected to an 
intense heat. The pure metal runs off and is cast into 
moulds containing about 75 lbs and this is the state in which 
it is shipped. It requires little skill to work these mines, 
and thousands are engaged in the operations. We were by 
this time very weary, and returned to the village % mile 
distant. Mr. Thurston had engaged to preach in the even- 
ing. There is a flourishing Presbyterian church of more than 
200 members. A Methodist Society and a Catholic. There 
is now a very good moral atmosphere here, though it has 
been a very wicked place. Murder and robbery once were 
common. In one instance a woman shot down in the streets 
the murderer of her father who was shot in the same way 
by a man. After tea, we called on Thos. Drummond Esq. 
brother of Eev. I. D. of Lewiston, Maine, whose native town 
was Bristol, Maine. Here we had a very pleasant call, and 
met one of our fellow passengers by the name of Walker, 
whom I have not yet mentioned. He is a lawyer of Illinois 
was a candidate for United States Senator and was do- 



feated by the Mormons. He was an interesting companion, 
a Kentuckian, who, disgusted with slavery emancipated his 
negroes, and fled to a free state. I went to call on some ac- 
quaintances made on the boat from Evansville to St. Louis, 
and spent a part of the evening. As I had taken my final 
farewell of them at St. Louis they would hardly believe it 
was I whom they saw. Of course I called on the young lady 
from Kentucky at the Eeverend Mr. Drew'sf!] the Metho- 
dist Presiding Elder. But I could stay but a little time and 
again shook the parting hand with them all, and hastened to 
the church but did not hear only a portion of the sermon as 
I told brother Thurston I could hear him at home, but 
might never visit Galena again. Here at the close of the 
services I was introduced to some three or four Maine men, 
one of whom Budd Parsons, was from Bangor, and spent a 
Sabbath at Frankfort when I was unable to preach a few 
weeks since. Thus you see we meet New England people 
every where, and I have seldom felt that I was among 
strangers. By this time I should have been in bed, but the 
enthusiastic Magoun wished us to see Galena by moonlight 
and we wandered away an hour with him. The evenings 
are charming. Magoun says far more beautiful than ever 
in New England. We had a most interesting walk. Then 
went to our hotel and at about ll^ o'clock went to bed. At 
half past one we were aroused from a sweet slumber, to 
pack ourselves into a stage coach. We did so, there were 9 
adults and a child inside and one or two outside. The roads 
were bad. We traveled at the rate 3y 2 miles, often getting 
out to walk over mud holes, often jolted out of our senses 
in passing the corderoys or ridges. We were now crossing 
the rolling prairies. The roads of course are made any 
where. When one is worn out, they make a new track. We 
rode some five hours, and then stoped to breakfast and to 
change horses. This was a very convenient establishment, 


the barn, stable, and hotel being in the same building, and 
kept, as I suppose by a physician, judging from some dozen 
medical books I saw. Our breakfast comported very well 
with the establishment. We had quite a variety, which I 
cannot now enumerate, and made a tolerable breakfast, 
though it was all indicative of a new and rude country. We 
were now passing through a kind of prairie. On the whole 
the region through which we passed is the most important 
part of Illinois The face of the country has three specific 
characters. The heavy timbered, the barrens, and the prai- 
rie. The barrens are a species of country having a mixed 
character uniting forest and prairie. They are covered 
with scattered oaks, rough and stunted in their appearance, 
interspersed with patches of hazel, brushwood and tough 
grass. This appearance led the early explorers to regard it 
as unproductive. It is ascertained however that these " bar- 
rens' ' have as productive a soil as can be found in the 
western states, healthy, more rolling than the prairies, and 
abounding in good springs. Every thing considered, these 
barrens are better adapted to all the purposes of farming 
and changes of the seasons, than the deeper and richer 
mould of the prairies. In closing this letter I cannot finish 
what I have to say of the face of the country. At one time 
we see the dense forest, at another the barrens, at another 
savannahs stretching into prairies, into boundless prairies 
without a tree or hill or any thing to relieve the eye, or the 
idea of loneliness. No man can have a correct impression 
of these western prairies without seeing them. We rode 
two days and two nights stopping only to change horses and 
to get refreshment, all the way from Galena to Chicago, 
travelling over these varieties I have mentioned. Twelve 
years ago these beautiful regions were the sole possessions 
of the red man, now they present the most beautiful, the 
most fertile, and naturally the most attractive regions I 


have ever seen, and here and there yon pass through large 
and flourishing villages, see school houses and churches, 
factories, large farms, splendid fields of corn and grain &c. 
On the Eock river for some 50 miles, the country is unsur- 
passed. Rockf ord is a beautiful village on this river. Elgin 
farther on on Fox river is another delightful place and 
what astonishes you is, a few years ago not a white man 
dwelt there. 

But this is not true of all Illinois. Perhaps the northern 
part is the most attractive. The whole state is made up 
mostly of the level lands and in the portion I have passed 
over and spoken of as I have, there are many drawbacks. 
The market is distant, though wheat is worth as much at De- 
troit as in Western New York. The population is sparse, 
the luxuries of life are few, houses poor, though in the vil- 
lages they are elegant sometimes. The roads are poor. 
Fever and ague sometimes prevail. Schools are not, or are 
indifferent. One generation must die before this garden of 
America shall be radiant with gospel light, and strong in 
every department of desirable prosperity. It would be a 
paradise if — But I can give you only a general idea. 
Were I not expecting to see you I should be much more 
minute. I am not in my study. Some 20 men are holding a 
convention on the boat and discussing matters while I write. 


S. H. H. 

Steamer Constellation June 18, 1845 
Dear Friends. I have used up all my large paper which 
I thought would hold more than I could write, and I doubt 
not has held more than you could read. The truth is, I am 
prolix, but how can I condense. I have no tallent at letter 
writing as Elmira and Archibald have, but I trust they will 
make allowances. If you will know where I now am, you 


will find it by turning your eye down on the western shore 
of Lake Huron till you come to Thunder Bay. We have a 
stiff breeze from the South, yet I have felt nothing like sea 
sickness. We have just risen from our dinner table and the 
passengers are lounging and picking their teeth. We fare 
altogether too sumptuously on these boats. I have seldom 
sat down to a dinner where there has not been on the table 
some six or eight kinds of meat, e. g. roast pig, beef, boiled 
ham, corned beef, tongue, roast turkey. All of these and 
more were on our table to day, which with the condiments, 
and three or four kinds of pie ought to satisfy an alderman. 
I have little relish for these rich dinners. Something more 
simple would better suit my palate. This is the style on all 
these western boats, and when you have paid your passage 
you are at liberty to gormandize as much as you please. 
There is besides a bar where fruit, and all kinds of liquors 
are sold. Then you may gamble, tell stories, sing songs, 
write letters, read books, discuss topics, or dream dreams. 
There is among the rules, one to this effect, that all games 
shall cease after 10 o'clock at night, that sleepers be not 
disturbed. I have seen no playing for money on this boat, 
and last night we had a sermon from the Reverend Dr. 
Lindsley President of Marietta College, and these card 
players very respectfully came in and listened attentively. 
I have told you something about our passengers. About 20 
ministers, mostly going to Detroit to attend a convention of 
ministers there, the object of which is to consult on those 
things which pertain to the interests of religion in the West. 
Among these are Dr. Lindsley above mentioned who was 
once settled over Park Street, Boston. The Reverend Mr. 
Stephens (I may not spell it right) who came to Mackinaw 
in 1827 as a teacher among the Indians and was afterwards 
a missionary among them till the white settlers took pos- 
session of the country and the Savages were driven away. 

VOL. XX — 4 


The Eeverend Mr. Kent of Galena, who went there in 1829, 
and for 10 years preached in a log house for a church had 
scarce a Christian to hold up his hands, once succeeded in 
getting a few professors together for a prayer meeting, 
but could not for some years collect them again, who him- 
self taught his Sunday School, preached and did every thing 
in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation ; but who 
now has a fine stone church, a large congregation, more 
than 200 communicants and the prospect before him of use- 
fulness, and happiness in his work. He is not a great but 
a good man. There are two brothers by the name of 
Wright, who also have a brother a missionary among the 
Senica Indians. One of these came out here a farmer, but 
having a strong mind and seeing the desolation around him 
hung up his hoe and harrow, studied, w T ent to Lane Semi- 
nary and is now a very useful minister. There are several 
who came here with the first settlers, and have toiled amidst 
every privation till they have seen villages schools and 
churches grow up around them, but who have spent the 
energies of their youth and some in the very prime of life 
are compelled to leave their fields, and seek to renovate 
their health. Some are going east to beg a few hundred 
dollars to help build a house of worship. One young man 
an old friend of mine, born and brought up in the city of 
New York now labouring in Iowa, living in a log cabin, in 
which is a store, kitchen, sleeping rooms, study &o. a few 
rough board partings, but what is said and done is heard 
over the whole, and yet he is contented, and has no thought 
of leaving his field. He is a fine scholar and a polished 
gentleman. He says he cannot marry because he has no 
where to live. He is going to New York but intends to come 
back in a month, and his great object is not simply to see his 
friends but to get a little aid in building a church He is 
only 23 years of age, and there is a moral grandeur in his 


enterprise which in my memory already gilds his name with 
a precious immortality. I would rather have a friend of 
mine thus employed than to see the honours and emolu- 
ments of this world showered upon him. He is only one of 
many, and now what motive can they have but the good of 
their fellow men and the glory of God? They have no 
money, no honour, for who publishes their work unless some 
traveller like myself may chronicle a page of their history. 
No, they will live unknown and die unregretted, save by a 
few — nought but the green grass may mark their graves, 
yet angels will watch their sleeping dust, and in the hier- 
archy of heaven they will wear their honours and their 
crowns. The name of the one of whom I have particularly 
spoken is Wm. Salter. There is another of a kindred spirit 
now going to Buffalo for a wife. An old classmate and 
chum of mine, son of the late Judge Hill of Phippsburg 
Maine is far up in Iowa, and when I last heard from him, he 
was in his shirt sleaves ! himself digging a cellar and build- 
ing him a house with his own hands. There is a young man 
on board by the name of Fletcher, recently married and late 
of the Mission Institute Quincy Illinois who is on his way 
to Boston to offer himself to the American Board. They 
are a very unpretending, but a very interesting couple, 
ready to go where the Lord of the Harvest may send them. 
But I will not dwell thus on individuals. I cannot give you 
anything like an adequate idea of these men, and their 
labours. They are not men of small caliber, no, they would 
shine had they time to study and the means of procuring 
books etc. They lament it in one view, but in another 
quietly submit. Instead of sitting down among the luxuries 
of life, and retiring to. their quiet study, they are bounding 
over the prairies on horseback, buffeting the cold unbroken 
winds of winter, fording streams or building rafts with 
their own hands to float across. Mr. Stevens told me he had 


made many a raft by picking up stuff, and tying it to- 
gether with wythes, cut with his pen-knife. Salter told me 
he had started once to attend a meeting, and had to cross 
the Mississippi. There were 7 of them and one lady in the 
boat, which unexpectedly proved to be leaky. The wind was 
high, they had nothing to bail the boat with ; they could have 
little hope of getting across, and the wind and waves made 
the danger almost equally great in attempting to change 
their course back. All this time the husband of the lady 
stood motionless, but not thoughtless on the shore, saw the 
danger, but unable to lift a finger for their help. They 
however succeeded in returning in safety. The gentleman 
on shore himself a missionary, unable to utter a word, 
could only take them by the hand. A gentleman from 
Rochester New York told us that the wife of a missionary 
came there for medical advice, and while there her disease 
became worse and she died, while her husband toiling in his 
poverty could not get money to visit her and he saw her no 
more. Thus vou see some of the vicissitudes of missionary 
life. The country is beautiful and will one day make such 
tales sound like the chronicles of our early history, yet now 
they have all the keeness of reality. I must however hasten 
on. On the boat we have a committee to regulate devo- 
tional exervises. We have preaching in the evening. Mr. 
Thurston is to preach this evening if it is not too rough. 
The wind is high. Off Saginaw bay, it is often very boister- 
ous, and I learn that no where is it more rough and danger- 
ous than sometimes on these lakes. I have not the least 
feelings of sea sickness, though many of the passengers by 
their uncouth attitudes indicate some uneasiness. Yester- 
day a convention was organized on the boat to discuss any 
matter that might come before us. The principle topic was 
the propriety of establishing a paper at Chicago or some 


place in the west to be the organ of these western churches 
To day we had some discussion as to its name. I however 
went into my state room and took a nap. 

You perceive I have not noticed a part of our tour. I left 
you somewhere on the prairies. We rolled slowly along. I 
hung my hat on my cane, put on my cap, and slept what I 
could. I took many naps in this way, but I was glad as we 
approached the end of our journey, though I enjoyed much 
of the beauties of the prairie land. The flowers are brilliant 
but not so abundant as I expected. I presume they are 
more numerous and beautiful in the southern prairies. 
About sunset we saw Chicago. We were travelling over a 
perfect level and the city did not seem two miles distant, 
but to our surprise we found it six or eight miles distant. 
At length we drove up and landed at the American Temper- 
ance House kept by Brown and Garley[?] and we found it 
a fine establishment. It was nine o'clock when we took tea 
after which we went out to call on a family from Bangor. 
I was conscious I had overdone myself, and the next morn- 
ing I felt really sick. I could hardly sit up, but I arose and 
dressed, and went below, thinking it very probable I was on 
the eve of a fever. I asked the landlord if there was any 
physician boarding in the house, and he soon introduced 
[to] me Dr. Pitney, a fine looking man of about 48. He 
went to my room and I found he was a homeopathic physi- 
cian. He had however for 20 years been an allopath, and I 
thought his infinitesimal doses would not kill if they did not 
cure. He gave me two powders and I went to bed ordered 
some gruel, and waited the result. I slept and in the P. M. 
felt better, went down to tea, and in the evening went out to 
meeting, and the next morning was quite well. Dr. Pitney 
would receive nothing for his services, but gave me a lot of 
powders to take if necessary. Monday morning I went out 


to see the city. It contains abont 1200 inhabitants 7 and 11 
years since, a few log houses was all that existed there. It 
is situated on a perfect level apparently, and it is so as far 
as the eye can reach. It is spread over considerable extent 
and there is ample room to build a London. I learn they can 
have no cellars, unless in some way they keep out the water. 
The buildings are mostly of wood, and in this respect are 
unlike the more western cities. Many of the houses are 
small, and it looks like a place of sudden growth, though 
there are some substantial dwellings. They need more cap- 
italists, and no doubt, they will be drawn in. Probably in a 
few years Chicago will be connected on the one hand with 
the Mississippi by railroad, and on the other with Lake 
Erie in the same way. A regular line of splendid steam- 
boats ply between this place and Buffalo besides the pro- 
peller and sailing vessels. Chicago river furnishes a fine 
harbour, deep enough at its mouth for any vessel that will 
wish to lie there. Some of the boats are magnificent. We 
embarked on the Constellation at 8 A. M. We touched at 
several flourishing villages that have sprung up by magic 
on the lake shore, such as Southport, Racine, with 2000 
inhabitants, Milwaukee with 10,000 population which 8 
years since had scarcely a dwelling. We spent an hour 
here. This is a fine site for a city, it is elevated and uneven 
and has a pretty and flourishing appearance. It was just 
dark when we left. At two o'clock in the morning we 
entered the straits of Michillimackinac and in half an hour 
went on shore at the town Mackinaw. At this hour it was 
all daylight. In this high latitude the period between the 
evening and morning twilight is very short. This place has 
near 1000 inhabitants. Here a mission among the Indians 

7 Mr. Hayes evidently here means 12,000. The population of Chicago in 
1845, according to Hatheway and Taylor's Chicago City Directory and Annual 
Advertiser for 1849-50, was 12,088 — The Editor. 


was established in 1824. We saw the mission houses and 
the church. The Indians are now scattered. They meet 
here in September to the number of 6 or 7000 to receive 
their government appropriations. I saw one camp into 
which I entered and sat down by their fire. The covering 
and flooring was of rushes and was very comfortable. We 
saw a store, selling "Indian curiosities" but they were so 
dear I purchased nothing. There is here a beautiful fort 
called Fort Makinaw, but it was too early to visit it. There 
are two companies of soldiers here, but I presume, fort 
soldiers and all are of little use. This is 70 miles from lake 
Superior. The sun rose before we left and the morning 
gun was fired before 4 o'clock. The scenery here is inter- 

S. H. H. 

Detroit June 20, 1845 

Dear Friends. 

After leaving Makinaw, we had a pleasant run down Lake 
Huron, and yesterday morning when the sun arose we were 
quietly gliding through the river St. Clair. Here we 
stopped and I went on shore at a place called Newport, a 
village on the Michigan shore — now and then on her 
majesty's side was a building, but little improvement how- 
ever. At Newport they are building two large steamboats. 
The Detroit people build here somtimes, and the boats are 
of no ordinary character. We soon passed in to Lake St. 
Clair. It is about 24 miles across to Detroit. The morning 
was lovely and we spent it in talking and writing &c. Had 
a meeting and expressed our thanks to the Captain for his 
courtesy in giving us the entire controll of the cabin. We 
made rapid progress and were soon in sight of Detroit. It 
presents a pleasant view from the water. The steeples, 
water works, which are in a very large tower, and large 


blocks, give it a dignified appearance though the population 
probably does not exceed 1300. 8 As we passed up to the 
room of the committee to provide for strangers, we saw now 
and then a military man. There is a fort in the neighbour- 
hood. A major in military costume escorted us to our 
lodgings. We stop in a pleasant family, Dr. Whiting's, 
brother of the missionary Whiting at Jerusalem or vicinity, 
and cousin of Mrs. Winslow and several other missionaries 
wives. We soon found ourselves at home. In the P. M. we 
went to Dr. Duffield's church to meet with the convention 
and the first person we met was Mr. Brace Editor of one of 
the Philadelphia papers with whom we travelled from New 
York to Philadelphia. Here we met Dr. Stowe, Dr. Beecher 
and more than 100 clergymen from this portion of the west, 
tho' there are delegates from almost the whole country. It 
is certainly an imposing body. You may be assured these 
home missionaries are among the most noble men our land 
produces, and the work they are accomplishing, will tell 
upon the destinies of this country in all its interests. As 
Dr. Stowe remarked "when I came here and saw such a 
body of ministers, young and vigorous, and showing in 
their countenances so much moral and intellectual strength, 
I thought, after all, the west is not so poorly supplied with 
the ministry'', but again, he added "when I look upon this 
one and that, and remember that the nearest minister he has 
on one side is 40 miles and on another 60 miles, on another 
80 and on another clear across the globe, I see the destitu- 
tion, the need of more ministers ' '. Various topics of inter- 
est have been discussed. The importance of preaching 
distinctly the doctrines of the bible, of establishing a book 
concern here in the west for the purpose of supplying the 
wants of the increasing population here. The harmonious 

s Mr. Hayes probably means 13,000. The population of Detroit was 9102 in 
1840 and 21,019 in 1850.— The Editor. 


character of Congregationalism and Presbyterianism and 
its adaptation to the west. The fact was stated that in 
Michigan all the churches of these two denominations form 
one general convention &c. The subject of church music has 
been introduced, also the best kind of hymn books. The 
importance of an educated ministry has been urged. Drs. 
Beecher, Stowe and Phelps occupied one whole evening on 
this subject and their addresses were very eloquent. There 
is a society for the promotion of college education in the 
West, which, though it has not been in existence but a year 
and a half yet it has received and disbursed more than 
15000$. It should be remembered that colleges in the west 
are unlike institutions of that name in the east, here they 
are more like our theological seminaries. The truth is, that 
most of the young men in these colleges are preparing for 
the ministry. But you will see in the New York Evangel- 
ist?] which I hope you keep well read, a report &c. 

I am much pleased with Detroit. I should like it as a 
place of residence. The people seem intelligent and very 
hospitable. There is a strong eastern influence. General 
Cass resides here. He is rich, an income of $12,000 per 
annum. I saw his daughters riding in an open waggon 
alone, though they keep an elegant carriage. Mrs. Cass is a 
pious woman. I have met here Judge McLean who is hold- 
ing court. Rev. Thurston rode with him two days and 
nights. He became much interested in him and so have I, 
though my acquaintance is slight. He is certainly one of 
the noblest, and most benignant looking men I have ever 
seen. I think him a great and good man. He is extensively 
thought of here as a candidate for the next presidency. He 
is a Methodist and they would go for him en masse in many 
places. I stepped into court. They have shrewd lawyers. 
There are no public buildings in Detroit. The court house, 
I think I have before remarked is the principle building in 


these western cities. Sandwich just opposite on her majes- 
ty's side, is an inconsiderable place, though the intercourse 
is somewhat free on both sides. To day (Saturday) we go 
to Adrian in the country and spend the Sabbath [Part of 
leaf missing here] Mrs.[?] David T's[1] daughter whom 
she saw last summer. 


S. H. H. 

Adrian Michigan June 23d 1845 

Dear Friends. 

Seven weeks to day I left Maine and I now feel anxious 
to return. I shall be absent one Sabbath more, possibly 
two. Were it not for my duties in Frankfort I would gladly 
spend some weeks more but I think of my people, who is 
breaking to them the bread of life? Who is there to visit 
the sick and dying! Who cares for the children the sweet 
lambs of the flock? These inquiries make me unhappy, yet 
I trust you have been supplied. I hope to return with reno- 
vated health, yet I have learned some wisdom. I hope ever 
hereafter to be more careful. Assure the people that their 
dearest interests are mine also. 

We left Detroit on Saturday morning 21st via railroad 
to Ypsilanti 30 miles distant. We traveled through a level 
and not very interesting country. The railroad is very toler- 
able but not like the east. Most of the railroad stock in 
Michigan is state property and there is some probability it 
will be sold to meet state liabilities. This plan, or some- 
thing similar seems to be on foot in several states, to pay 
off State debts. Ypsilanti is a flourishing town of 2500 
population The country is level, the buildings are mostly 
small cottages but neat and having pleasant gardens at- 
tached to them. This was a marked feature. On the whole 
it is a pleasant and thriving place. Several elegant 


churches. Here we took stage for Adrian distant 37 miles. 
A two horse stage with V 2 dozen passengers. Stages travel 
very slowly, about 4 miles per hour. The roads not good, 
some terrible "corderoys". We passed through an inter- 
esting country. Whole forests and good farms though gen- 
erally new. Some poor land but much superior soil. I 
never saw such fields of wheat. For 30 or 40 miles there 
seemed but little save wheat fields occasionally a field of 
corn. The frost here and in a large portion of this western 
country has entirely destroyed the prospects of fruit and 
greatly injured most other crops. The last frost was about 
four weeks since and on Saturday I saw groves and forest 
trees with dead leaves as though fire had been near them. 
The wheat will be a fair crop. I saw one field containing 
80 acres of heavy rye. It was a splendid sight, but I was 
sorry to learn that the owner had a distillery and would 
turn it to poison. We had as travelling companions a 
lawyer from Waterloo Western New York and a gentleman 
from Brooklyn New York both of whom were very intelli- 
gent men. There are several villages of some note in each 
of which we stopped a short time, and it was necessary for 
our first horses went 22 miles before changing. Saline, 
which takes its name from Salt Springs in its vicinity has 
1000 population. Tecumseh is another town of 2000 popu- 
lation. Clinton is a small town midway between Saline and 
Tecumseh. We reached Adrian about 7 y 2 h. in evening 
and were soon at Mr. Philbrick's whose wife is a daughter 
[of] Eev. D. Thurston. Here we found a good home. They 
had given up the idea of seeing their uncle and the meeting 
was the more joyful for that reason. Adrian contains 2000 
people. County Seat of Lennawee County. It is a place of 
considerable business. Mr. Philbrick is a shoe and leather 
dealer. The merchants here confine themselves to one sort 
of business as shoe and leather, dry goods, &c. This is a 



great wheat market — 7000 bushels per day are sometimes 
brought in in a day, and they begin to market it as early as 
the last of August. Yesterday Sabbath I preached once 
and brother Thurston twice. They have a fine house, a 
large and as interesting a congregation as I have seen in 
my whole rout. The people dress with as much taste and 
are as refined in their manners as in any village in New 
England. I was particularly struck with intelligent cast of 
the people and the fact that they have come here to seek 
their fortune implies that they have some enterprise. Some 
dozen lawyers and one or two judges reside here. In the 
west it is common for all the lawyers in the county to reside 
at the County Seat. This morning (Monday) Mr. Phil- 
brick took a fine carriage with a span of greys and drove us 
all about the village and some miles around. It is a fine 
country. The land is good, and will soon be in a high state 
of improvement. We saw many peach orchards, plum &c. 
This village will soon amount to 5 or 6000. But I must 
close. Harriet T[?] is very anxious to go to Maine but 
such is the state of her mothers health, it has such an effect 
on Harriet's nervous system it is not thought prudent for 
her to return home. The poor girl was very anxious to go. 
We have had a delightful visit and am now going to Toledo. 
I am at the depot writing — so goodby. 

S. H. H. 

Toledo Ohio, June 23, 1845 

Dear Friends. 

It is now evening. At noon to day, I hastily wrote a line, 
and without reading it threw into the Post Office. I some- 
times think I should have written much better letters had 
they been designed for any eye, save that of my friends, 
who I know will over look all my defects. I have set down 
this evening with just nothing to write, and yet I keep 


scribbling. One strong motive is, this week will end my 
privalege under the present mail dynasty, and I have a sort 
of disposition to get all out of ' < Uncle Sam." I can. Then 
I have got into such a habit of writing that I can hardly 
avoid taking my pen, when I have nothing else to do. And 
lastly you may suppose I have such a regard for Frankfort 
that the only relief I can find is, in writing these elegant 
letters! And with all this presure of motive, it would not be 
strange if I should contract such a habit of directing letters 
to "Archibald Jones Esq. P. M. Frankfort, Me." that I 
shall continue to do it for a great length of time after I 
reach home, and this will be the more likely in as much as 
you see it requires no materials to make a letter of. I 
imagined when you received my last latch of letters, I saw 
C. looking grievous things as her discernment could find 
nothing worthy of note and E. cheerfully excusing it all, yet 
thinking it a little strange, and A. impatient, finding relief 
in tuning his violin, and Mr. I. in his kind consideration, 
assigning many reasons, and Mrs. I. putting the best con- 
struction on it all, while no one will be so inconsiderate as 
to expose a sheet out of the circle. And of course no one 
else has any thing to excuse or blame. I hope you will all 
comfort yourselves with expectations of learning something 
more when I return. I have not heard one word from 
Frankfort since I left, only I saw to day in a New York 
paper that the fires were burning in the region of Bangor, 
and I remember a snow storm May 8. 

You see from my date I am at Toledo, Ohio. This like all 
the other towns is about 12 years old, situated on the 
Maumee River which in this place is % mile wide. The 
river is navigable 12 miles above to Maumee, which is in the 
neighbourhood of Fort Meigs, where General Harrison won 
some of his laurels. We cannot go there. This is the north- 
ern terminus of the Ohio and Erie canal, and of course a 


sort of depot. Vast quantities of wheat are shipped from 
this place. There are two rail tracks from Adrian running 
in this direction, one to this place, and one to Monroe. At 
this time there is violent competition between them, so that 
the fare is only 25 cents 33 miles. In consequence of the 
competition and misrepresentation, some 20 passengers are 
waiting at Monroe 20 miles from this and must remain 
there for some days, while we go on in the morning. This 
people are very excitable. Anything will stir them up. At 
Adrian a circus was to exhibit this P. M. And all the A. M. 
you would see large two horse waggons, containing from 6 
to 12 persons, men women children and babies, all going to 
the circus. They will scrape together every copper for this 
purpose. Mr. Philbrick told us they would bring a bushel 
of wheat or something else to get money to go in. We saw 
the crowd of boys following the carriages, like the rush 
after an engine when a town is burning. But there is ap- 
parently nothing like excitement in Toledo, though it con- 
tains about 2300 inhabitants. We have seen but few of 
them, we walked out after tea, went to the boat and selected 
our state rooms, looked at the ware houses, which are large. 
Saw a large quantity of " black walnut crotch", as it is 
called, which is a kind of quartered black walnut, now com- 
ing greatly into use for veneering, took a squint at the canal 
boats as they lay around, and then wandered off to look at 
the village. It looks new and rough for the most part, 
though there are many good dwellings and three good 
churches. The Keverend Wm. Beecher son of the old Dr. 
is preaching here. He has a new brick church not yet quite 
finished. The inside work being of black walnut. The 
Presbyterian church formerly owned a house but becoming 
unfortunately embarrassed, it passed out of their hands 
into the Catholic's! This will eventually become a place of 
some importance. A heavy work of grading is now going 


on, where I should judge six acres are to be cut down to a 
level 6 or 8 feet and the earth all removed. This is to afford 
a convenient space for building stores and warehouses. 
The land is owned in New York, Eochester and elsewhere 
and the proprietors are thus making it marketable. I can- 
not speak of the moral and intellectual character of this 
place, but have however a less favourable opinion than of 
most other places of similar size. I should not fancy a resi- 
dence here though I cannot say it would not be agreeable. 
We have very pleasant quarters. We are always taken for 
clergymen and eastern men, and generally treated with 
some considerable deference. We have a fine room two 
beds, but the weather is so warm we have ordered the 
feathers off. Our landlord is a pres. [Presbyterian?] and 
keeps a civil house. As we sit by our windows or lounge on 
our straw beds we are serenaded with sweet music from the 
boat. I learn there is a band on the U. S. Steamer in which 
we take passage, composed of the hands. They have played 
together for years and perform admirably. This is quite 
an attraction, I can assure you. If A. were here he would 
enjoy it. They have a huge brass instrument something on 
the principle of a Kent Bugle which is covered all over with 
keys and produces soft and excellent music with other 

But my sheet is full, and that is my only guide in closing 
a letter. I begin and leave off any where. We have thought 
of going to Oberlin to set them right in their theology but 
have nearly given it up, and shall proceed directly to 

Yours &c. 

S. H. H. 


Steamer United States Mouth of 
Maumee river June 24, 1845 

Dear Friends. 

I have just heen conversing with an intelligent fellow 
passenger, in relation to the canals in this western region, 
and as I have made some statements, which for want of 
proper information, were not strictly correct, I again en- 
counter the jar of the boat, and attempt to write a line on 
this subject. The most westerly canal is that connecting 
Chicago with the Illinois river, about 12 miles below Ottawa, 
(to which point, Ottawa, this river is navigable only with 
high water, and thus connecting Chicago with the Missis- 
sippi. This canal near 100 miles long is not yet open, 
though the work is now going on, and will be completed 
without doubt. 

The next canal is the Wabash and Erie Canal, extending 
from Toledo to Lafayette which has a population of 4000 
a distance of 222 miles; 40 miles more will soon be com- 
pleted to Covington. The Wabash is navigable to Lafayette 
when there is an ordinary stage of water. This canal has 
been in successful operation two seasons. 

The canal called the " Miami extension", runs from Cin- 
cinnati, through the Miami valley, and forms a junction 
with the preceding, 60 miles from Toledo. This canal has 
been opened through to Toledo this week. It is called "the 
M. extension ', from the fact that it has been extended from 
one point to another as means could be provided. This 
latter canal will greatly affect the Ohio and Erie canal, 
running from Portsmouth to Cleaveland. This latter is 
309 miles in length, and of course some 80 miles longer than 
"the Miami Extension". By shipping directly from Cin- 
cinnati this distance is saved, and about the same distance 
upon the river, and besides, the expense of a reshipment, 
which is equal to the expense of 100 miles transportation. 



I should have mentioned before this, the " White Water 
Canal" extending from Evansville Indiana to Covington, 
and there forming a junction with the Wabash and Erie. 
This is not yet completed, but will be in time, and will open 
one continuous line of canal more than 400 miles long, which 
will be the longest in the world. These canals and rivers 
are the veins and arteries which give life to this western 

There are few railroads, one from Detroit to Jackson- 
burg I think, which will probably soon be continued to 
Chicago, in which case it will greatly effect the lake navi- 
gation. There is a track from Adrian to Toledo, and from 
Adrian to Monroe between which the competition is now so 
great that the fare is reduced to 25 cents. A Bail road was 
projected from Sandusky on Lake Erie to Toledo; the state 
chartered a company, and made them an appropriation of 
$200,000, with the expectation of course, that they would 
make investments, but they managed not to do so, but to use 
the states money, until they have expended the grant. The 
state will do no more, the works are now going to decay, 
and will, in all probability be abandoned. A rail road is 
chartered from Toledo westward, to strike the Mississippi. 
The charter once ran out, but was renewed last winter, and 
Mr. Whittlesey of Ohio is now East, endeavouring to get 
the stock taken up, at least some of it. So that, there is a 
line of rail road projected, extending from Portland Maine 
to Boston, Albany, Buffalo, along the shores of Lake Erie, 
and so on as above, across Michigan, Illinois to the Missis- 
sippi, and prospectively, thence westward, till its track shall 
be lost in the Pacific waters. From Cincinnati a rail road 
will soon be completed through to Lake Erie, and then the 
Queen City of the west will be little more than four days 
distant from the Queen of the East. All this I doubt not 
will soon be accomplished. And the fact, that it is, and will 

VOL. XX — 5 


be, all the work of a few years, and much of it in a country 
so new, strikes the mind with astonishment. But I have not 
time nor space to follow out the train of thought which is 
here suggested. All this is in the free states, while the 
slave states, like the pope at Rome, dare not encourage 
these improvements, or have not sufficient enterprise to 
make them, yet they look on with sullen silence, aware that 
their fate is sealed, without free labour yet determined to 
stave it off as long as possible. You may pick out some- 
thing out of this, and if so I shall be glad. 


S. H. H. 

P. S. A rail road will probably be completed this season 
from Cincinnati to Sandusky — about 40 miles from Cin- 
cinnati are already completed and about the same distance 
from Sandusky. The contracts have been made for the 
remaining distance. Also a railroad from Sandusky to 
Mansfield is projected, about a dozen miles completed. 
Some day it will probably extend through to Columbus. 
But no man can calculate on the future condition of this 
country. Its progress must be rapid. You see here how- 
ever that the intemperate zeal of 1835-7 produced an un- 
healthy prosperity here as in the east. They speak of the 
mania of 36' as they do in Maine but these internal improve- 
ments must go on, and with them the country. 


S. H. H. 

Steamer United States, 2 hours from Cleaveland 

Wednesday June 25 th 1845 — 
We left Toledo Tuesday at 9 A. M. and glided finely down 
the Maumee, to the sound of music. A mile below Toledo 
we passed a village of some 50 houses all dingy and half 
forsaken, where in speculating times, the land proprietors 


determined to build up a place, but Toledo drew off the 
business and now it is going to decay. It was called Man- 
hattan. Toledo is about 14 miles from the mouth of the 
river and the water in the lake there is so shallow, that the 
channel is staked out. We reached Sandusky City about 
4 P. M. in a heavy shower, and the wind on shore before the 
shower raised the dust in the city to the resemblance of a 
dark cloud rolling in majesty over it. Here we remained 
two hours. Sandusky contains 2000 or 2500 inhabitants. 
It is situated on a limestone formation and they procure in 
digging their cellars stone for the erection of their houses. 
I counted 20 buildings of stone including 3 churches a court 
house &c. The court was in session and we stepped in a 
few minutes. There were 4 judges and many lawyers, all 
rather young. At Sandusky they have not had any rain 
before this shower, for 6 weeks. But there has recently 
been plenty of rain in the interior of Ohio, but not early 
enough, wholly to save what the frost did not destroy. I 
think I have mentioned that the fruit in Ohio as well as in 
some other states has been almost entirely cut off. Before 
the opening of the canal, goods were transported in wag- 
gons from this place to Cincinnati and St. Louis. It is the 
point nearest the Ohio. At Sandusky we waited for the 
cars and had quite an accession to our passengers. Among 
them is a Mr. J ackson, wife and daughter from Boston who 
have just come across from Cincinnati. On the boats we 
become acquainted without ceremony. As we were stand- 
ing on the Hurricane deck Mr. Jackson with whom I had 
had a little conversation, called me to him and said "If you 
will tell me your name, I will introduce you to my daugh- 
ter" all which was soon accomplished. They are very 
agreeable people, intelligent and accomplished. We 
touched at Huron. This is a pretty town of some 2000 
population and like Toledo a great wheat market. This 


wheat is generally purchased by eastern speculators. 
Huron is at the mouth of the river of the same name which 
is the only harbour, the banks of which are extended by two 
long piers out into the lake, as a kind of breakwater to 
prevent the sand from blocking up the entrance, or chang- 
ing the channel. The river is so narrow, that our boat 
could hardly turn around. The stern stuck in one bank 
and the prow swung slowly around, while the band struck 
up a splendid tune and soon we were dashing over the Lake 
again. In the evening we had a spirited discussion, carried 
on mostly by Mr. T.[T] and a Mr. Freeman Episcopal 
clergyman of Sandusky on the subject of slavery, Mr. Free- 
man pro slavery. I would give a dollar for a copy to send 
you. The Episcopalian was more insolent and frothy than 
any man I ever heard talk. This morning we awoke at 
Cleaveland. This city contains about 12000 population 
rises by quite a steep ascent and then the ground is per- 
fectly level. We went up before breakfast and ascended 
to the cupola of a house 75 feet and had a fine view. Here 
the river Ashtabula, I think, empties after meandering 
through a flat in the most beautiful serpentine course. Sev- 
eral steam boats many canal boats, and some sail vessels 
lay at the wharves. The place has a business aspect, but 
[will] be less important hereafter on account of the western 
canals and railroads. Cleaveland is prettily laid out, has 
some ornamental trees and shrubbery and affords a de- 
sirable place of residence. 

The day passed pleasantly. We touched at several small 
places on the lake shore generally at the mouth of some 
stream. The country is pleasant generally not much culti- 
vated to appearance, save at the villages, and on the whole, 
neither forbidding nor very inviting. At dark we reached 
Erie in the corner of Pennsylvania. By consulting the map 
you will see that Erie is built in round a projection, but the 


water is shallow and they are making efforts to cut a chan- 
nel for entrance across this point. Erie has 3700 popula- 
tion and is a flourishing place. Mr. T[T] stopped there to 
visit his brother in law Mr. Benson and will join me soon at 
Buffalo. I find that our friend Mr. Jackson has been to 
Congress and is also the dean of an orthodox church. 

Thursday morning 26. The weather is delightful as it 
has been all our passage of the Lakes and we are now within 
a few miles of Buffalo. 

Yours &c. 

S. H. H. 


STATES 1 860-1890 1 


In the preceding studies on the internal grain trade of the 
United States from 1860 to 1890, attention has been given 
to the following aspects of the problem: first, the rapid 
expansion in grain production in the United States during 
this period ; second, the geographic distribution of popula- 
tion and grain production showing the rapid expansion of 
the Middle West as the great surplus cereal producing 
region upon which the older sections of the country and the 
western nations of Europe had become increasingly de- 
pendent; third, the principal transportation routes con- 
necting this region with the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards ; 
and fourth, the growth of the great primary markets of the 
Middle West. The purpose of this study is to present a 
consideration of the movement of flour and grain from the 
primary markets of the Middle West to the Atlantic and 
Gulf ports. 

In proceeding with a consideration of this aspect of the 
problem, attention should be called to the fact that while 
the Federal Government from the very beginning of the 
national period of our history collected a great amount of 
statistical information on the foreign commerce of the 
United States, which was published in a document known as 
the Annual Report on the Commerce and Navigation of the 
United States, the whole subject of the internal trade of the 

iSee the writer's first two studies on The Internal Grain Trade of the 
United States, 1860-1890, in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
Vol. XIX, pp. 196-245, 414-455. 



United States was treated with general indifference and 
neglect down to the year 1872. In that year Congress, rec- 
ognizing the need of detailed information bearing on the 
internal trade of the country which had already assumed 
vast proportions, passed an act providing for the appoint- 
ment of a Select Committee on Transportation Routes to 
the Seaboard "to investigate and report on the subject of 
transportation between the interior and the seaboard". 
This Committee known as the Windom Committee, in its 
two volume report published in 1874, made the following 
pertinent observation: 

Perhaps the most extraordinary feature of our governmental 
policy touching the vast internal trade of the nation, is the ap- 
parent indifference and neglect with which it has been treated. 
While detailed information has been obtained by the Government, 
under customs and revenue laws, in relation to commerce with 
foreign countries, no means have been provided for collecting accu- 
rate statistics concerning the vastly more important interests of 
internal commerce. No officer of the Government has ever been 
charged with the duty of collecting information on this subject, 
and the legislator who desires to inform himself concerning the 
nature, extent, value, or necessities of our immense internal trade, 
or of its relations to foreign commerce, must patiently grope his 
way through the statistics furnished by boards of trade, chambers 
of commerce, and transportation companies. Even the census re- 
ports which purport to contain an inventory of the property and 
business pursuits of the people, and which in some matters descend 
to the minutest details, are silent with regard t6 the billions of 
dollars represented by railways and other instruments of internal 
transportation, and to the much greater values of commodities an- 
nually moved by them. 2 

The reasons for the failure of the Federal Government to 
provide for the collection of information on the internal 
trade of the United States prior to this time are contained 

2 Report of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 8. 


in the following statement by Joseph Nimmo, Chief of the 
Division of Internal Commerce, in the first annual report 
for 1876: 

At the time of the formation of the Federal Government the term 
commerce was generally understood to comprehend trade carried on 
by means of sailing-vessels employed in our coastwise trade and in 
our trade with foreign nations. The commercial interests of the 
country were at that time almost exclusively maritime, and our 
foreign commerce, on account of issues growing out of the war of 
Independence and of the war of 1812, attracted public attention 
much more than did the then comparatively small internal com- 

The omission to collect information in regard to internal com- 
merce is also attributable to the fact that it has never been a source 
of national revenue, whereas the Government has largely drawn its 
means of support from duties laid upon imports from foreign 
countries. 3 

Nimmo stated further that ' ' during the first century of 
its existence our internal commerce has assumed propor- 
tions vastly greater than those of our foreign commerce." 
He presented estimates showing that 4 4 the value of our in- 
ternal commerce on railroads is about sixteen times the 
value of our foreign commerce", adding that the data on 
internal commerce related ' ' only to railroads"; and that 
' 6 if it were possible to ascertain the value of the commerce 
between the different sections of the country on the ocean 
and Gulf and on the lakes, rivers, and other avenues of 
transportation, we should probably find that the total value 
of our internal commerce is at least twenty-five times 
greater than the value of our foreign commerce.' ' If ton- 
nage rather than value be considered, Nimmo thought it 
probable "that the tonnage transported on the various 
avenues of internal commerce is more than one hundred 

3 Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, pp. 8, 9. 


times greater than the tonnage composing our foreign com- 
merce." 4 



The movement of grain and animal products from the 
Middle West to the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards has always 
constituted the major and controlling interest in our inter- 
nal trade. Of these two classes of food, grain commands 
primary consideration. A study of the production and dis- 
tribution of grain shows that while the volume of corn pro- 
duction has always exceeded that of wheat — amounting as 
a matter of fact to more than all the other cereals (wheat, 
oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat) combined — as an article 
of commerce wheat has been of greater importance than 
corn. The reasons for this are : first, that wheat is the most 
important breadstuff, constituting the first article of neces- 
sity in the food consumption of the United States, England, 
and France, a very decided prejudice having always existed 
in these countries against the use of corn as a breadstuff ; 
and, second, that wheat is especially well adapted to the 
requirements of commerce, possessing relatively less bulk 
and higher value and being less susceptible to injury in 
transportation than corn. Wheat has therefore occupied 
the leading place in the internal and export grain trade of 
the United States. Corn, lacking the commercial advan- 
tages of wheat, has been better adapted to the local markets 
for feeding purposes. It has therefore been raised pri- 
marily as an animal food reaching the ultimate consumer 
largely in the form of beef, pork, dairy, and poultry prod- 
ucts. Even so, however, corn has constituted an important 
article of commerce, second only to wheat among the 

4 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau oi 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, p. 9. 


cereals. Thus while primary emphasis must be given to 
wheat in any study of the grain trade of the United States, 
considerable attention should also be accorded to corn. 
Oats rank third in importance; while barley comes next. 
Rye and buckwheat occupy positions of comparatively 
minor significance in the grain trade, buckwheat not being 
listed at all in the commercial reports of this period. 

The region of surplus production, as already shown, was 
the North Central division, the proportionate share of grain 
contributed by this division amounting in 1859 to 46.7 per 
cent of the entire product of the nation which in 1889 was 
increased to 71.4 per cent of the whole product ; while the 
per capita production of this division was practically 
doubled, being increased from 62.4 bushels in 1859 to 117.8 
bushels in 1889. 5 Production ran far ahead of the rapid 
increase in population, thus giving rise to an annual product 
far in excess of local needs, for which there existed a grow- 
ing demand in the East, the South, and the countries of 
western Europe. 

The predominant position which the North Central divi- 
sion had thus achieved as the great surplus cereal pro- 
ducing region upon which the older sections of the country 
had become dependent, is shown by a statistical review of 
the production and distribution of grain for the year 1872. 
In that year the total volume of cereal production in the 
United States was estimated at 1,656,198,000 bushels. Of 
this amount the ten North Central States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Kansas, and Nebraska (the other two States of this division 
known as Dakota Territory until 1889 being omitted) pro- 
duced 1,028,987,000 bushels, consisting of 156,228,00 bushels 
of wheat, 693,625,000 bushels of corn, 163,479,000 bushels of 

« Schmidt's The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1860-1890, in 
The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIX, p. 242. 


oats, 10,092,000 bushels of barley, and 5,563,000 bushels of 
rye. 6 Wheat, as already noted, was the most important, 
commercially, of all the cereals. According to the estimates 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, the con- 
sumption of wheat in these States amounted to five bushels 
per capita, 7 which for a population estimated at 13,000,000 
amounted to 65,000,000 bushels. The quantity of wheat 
used for seed was estimated at one and one-half bushels per 
acre, which for 13,811,008 acres under cultivation required 
20,716,512 bushels. The estimated needs of this division, 
both for consumption and for seed, therefore amounted to 
85,716,512 bushels which, subtracted from the total amount 
produced, left a surplus of 70,511,488 bushels available for 
shipment to the distant markets. Of this surplus the com- 
mercial reports show that 55,248,046 bushels were shipped 
east to the Atlantic seaboard States; 11,281,328 bushels 
were shipped south to the Gulf States ; and 7,566,639 bushels 
were shipped north through Canada. The whole shipment 
amounted to 74,096,013 bushels which was destined for con- 
sumption in the Atlantic and Gulf States and the countries 
of western Europe. 8 It will be noted that the estimated 

6 Report of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 12. 

7 ■ ' The requirement of wheat per capita is not the same in all sections. In 
the South there is a large proportion of corn used, by whites as well as negroes. 
There are localities in the cotton States where half the average rate of con- 
sumption of wheat for the whole country is not sustained. In Maryland and 
Virginia the proportion used is much larger than in Alabama or Mississippi. 
Taking the twelve States from Maryland to Texas together, while some use 
less than four bushels and others nearly five, four bushels may be deemed a 
full average. For Tennessee and Kentucky a barrel of flour per capita, or 4 Mi 
bushels, is assumed; and for the east, where little corn is used, and for the 
west, where wheat is so abundant and cheap, 5 bushels per head." — Annual 
Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistic. 
Treasury Department), 1879, Appendix, p. 177. 

s Report of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboori 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 12. 
"The portion of the country requiring a part of this surplus comprises Now 


shipments exceeded the estimated surplus by 3,584,525 
bushels ; but this does not affect materially the general view 
of the production and distribution of wheat as presented by 
these statistics. 

The large quantity of corn produced in these ten States, 
amounting to 693,625,000 bushels, was used principally for 
the feeding of animals and for conversion into spirituous 
liquors, in which form it constituted a very large surplus 
product of the Middle West; hence the quantity of corn 
shipped to other States in the form of grain constituted but 
a small part of the actual surplus corn product. Oats were 
also used as an animal food and so contributed to the sur- 
plus products of this section largely in the form of animals 
and their products ; though this cereal now began to assume 
increasing importance as a breadstuff. The barley and rye 
produced in the North Central division was also consumed 
largely by this division, but a small fraction being shipped 
to the seaboard States. The total quantity of grain pro- 
duced by the ten North Central States as already noted, 
amounted to 1,028,987,000 bushels. Of this amount 815,- 
965,574 bushels were consumed in the States of this divi- 
sion ; 104,877,122 bushels were shipped to the Atlantic sea- 
board States ; 33,783,526 bushels were shipped to the Gulf 
States; and 74,360,778 bushels were shipped to foreign 
countries. The huge consumption of grain in the North 
Central States, it should be emphasized, included not only 

England, the Middle States, and the cotton States. New England produces 
nearly three-tenths of a bushel for each inhabitant; the Middle States grow 
about half the quantity necessary for a full supply, or 3y 3 bushels; the South- 
ern Atlantic and Gulf States almost as much; and Kentucky and Tennessee 
are self-supporting with nearly 6 bushels. All the remaining States, except 
Nevada and Colorado, yield a surplus. This surplus, for consumption in 1878, 
was 11 4/5 bushels per capita in the corn-growing belt between Ohio and Kansas, 
22% bushels in the Lake belt, and 23 in the Pacific States and Territories, but 
fully 25 bushels in a year of large production in Calif ornia. Annual Beport 
on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury 
Department), 1879, Appendix, p. 177. 



the quantity consumed as a breadstuff by the people but 
also the quantity consumed as an animal food and shipped 
to other States and foreign countries in the form of animals 
and animal products. 9 

The dependence of the deficiency States of the North 
Atlantic division on the surplus States of the Middle West 
is set forth in an editorial on The Production and Distribu- 
tion of Breadstuff 's in The Merchants' Magazine and Com- 
mercial Review for June, 1869. The per capita wheat and 
corn production of the deficiency States as compared with 
that of representative surplus States is reviewed by this 
editorial as follows : 

Thus, while Pennsylvania produces corn and wheat to the value 
of $19 for each of its inhabitants, and New York to the value of 
$15, Massachusetts produces only $2% and Rhode Island $3y 2 . 
Vermont produces $12, Maine $4%, New Hampshire $5, and Con- 
necticut $6; and, altogether, these States only produce an aggre- 
gate of about 10 bushels per head to the population. Turn now to 
some of the great producing States — Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, and 
Michigan. . . . 

Iowa raises of corn and wheat the value of $72 to each inhab- 
itant, Illinois $60, Ohio $35, and Michigan $50 ; or altogether, they 
produce 62 bushels to each inhabitant. If we add the aggregate 
production of potatoes, rye, oats, barley and fruits, some idea may 
be formed of the vast food resources of these great States and the 
immense surplus they have with which to make up the deficiency of 
the Eastern States. It is thus out of their abundance that they 
pour forth such lavish supplies to feed the population of less pro- 
ductive portions of the Union and of foreign countries. The sur- 
plus they send to the Lake ports is 80,000,000 of bushels. Four- 
fifths of this, after the export is taken out, remain to supply the 
wants of New England and the East, and to make up the deficient 
average of grain production which we have shown above, and 

* Report of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 13. See also Annual Report on the Jnlcrnal 
Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 
1879, Appendix, No. 19. 


which varies from $2% a head in Massachusetts, whose energies are 
given over to manufacturing, to $72 a head in Iowa, which State is 
the heritage of an agricultural people, and has the capacity to raise 
food enough for the whole country. Only one-fourth of her area is 
now under cultivation. 30 

The bearing of these facts on the transportation of grain 
and flour via the railroads and inland waterways from the 
Middle West to the Atlantic seaboard and on the subject of 
freight rates is also emphasized : 

The figures we have given exhibit the vastly preponderant value 
of the internal commerce of this country compared with the foreign 
traffic. They suggest, too, the great value of the railroad system for 
collecting these products at the centres of business and then dis- 
tributing them wherever they may be needed over all the land. 
The grain comes from Chicago to New York by water for 32 cents. 
The railroad, in the heat of competition, brings it for 30 cents. 
From Oswego to New York, hardly a quarter of the distance from 
Chicago, the railroad charge is 58 cents for a barrel of flour, and 
the water charge is 32 cents. From St. Louis to New Orleans the 
freight on flour is 40 cents, from New Orleans to New York 75 
cents — an aggregate of $1.15, while from St. Louis to New York, 
direct by rail, the freight is $1.30. 

The grain and flour start from the Lake ports and are dropped 
everywhere by the way. The large cities demand millions of bush- 
els; the manufacturing towns hold out their hands for a supply; 
the small villages all take their quota, and the farmer's wagon 
comes to the railroad station and bears away to his farm the barrel 
of flour which represents the food the unkind climate refuses to 
produce. In this work of distribution, as we remarked in a former 
article, the routes are few and fixed. New land routes are opening 
daily, and are penetrating to every part of the country. The flour 
which is transported over half the continent for a dollar, is charged 
on the local routes 30 or 40 cents, or even more for a dozen 
miles ; and one may ship a barrel of flour from Chicago to New 
York for less than the cost of getting it to a point not without the 
reach of the sound of the City Hall bell. 

io The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Beview, Vol. LX, June, 1869, 
pp. 454-457. 


The period before railroads and canals was the period before 
manufactures. It was the era of home production and home con- 
sumption. The New England farmer was obliged to raise his food • 
he could not bring it from distant regions. Soon followed the mar- 
vellous growth and extension of the lines of intercommunication. 
As soon as the fertile valley of the Genesee was reached, New Eng- 
land found that food could be bought cheaper than it could be 
raised, and that the muscle and brain of her people could be more 
profitably employed in other pursuits than agriculture. The Ohio 
was reached, and the States along the Lakes ; and as these immense 
granaries began to empty their riches into the lap of the East, the 
latter found new fields for its energies. Production and distribution 
have gone hand in hand, and the channel to market never remains 
long over-crowded. As a new demand is made upon it, new facilities 
are offered, and the restless energy of commerce is ever on the 
alert to make easy the transfer and interchange of commodities. 11 

Until about the year 1856, almost the entire surplus grain 
and flour of the Middle West was transported to the Atlantic 
seaboard by way of the Great Lakes and the Erie Canal 
and to the Gulf States by way of the Mississippi Eiver and 
its tributaries. New York was almost the sole distributing 
port in the East and New Orleans in the South. The exten- 
sion of the railroads throughout the Middle Western States 
effected radical changes in the conditions of transportation 
during the sixties and seventies. The most significant 
changes in the movement of grain from the Middle West to 
the seaboard was effected by the competition between the 
railroads and the inland waterways. This competition, 
culminating in the diversion of the major part of the traffic 
to the railroads, was first developed on the eastern routes. 

The competition between the rail and water routes was at 
first comparatively ineffective. The railroads of the country 
were as a rule short ; consequently through billing was diffi- 
cult, if not impossible. Iron rails were still in use; hence 

11 The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Eeview, Vol. LX, June, 18(59, 
pp. 454-457. 


small train loads and resulting high operating expenses. 
Moreover, terminal facilities for loading and unloading 
grain were as yet undeveloped. The railroads were there- 
fore at a decided disadvantage in the competitive struggle 
with the lake and canal route for the western flour and grain 
traffic. Gradually, however, they achieved the victory. By 
means of combinations of roads and by the organization of 
through freight lines, the railroads were enabled to trans- 
port grain from interior points to the local and export trade 
centers of the East without breaking bulk. The introduc- 
tion of steel rails in 1869 and the consequent increase in the 
size and hauling power of locomotives, and the construction 
of elevators with loading and unloading machinery enabled 
the railroads to compete on more even terms with the water- 
ways. Active competition sprang up in many directions. 
By 1872, sixty-seven per cent of all the grain shipped east 
was transported by the main trunk railroads. 12 

The railroads competed most vigorously for the flour, 
corn, and oats traffic. The flour traffic was quickly and al- 
most completely absorbed by the railroads. The reasons 
for this were : first, that flour was susceptible to injury by 
moisture, thus giving the railroads a distinct advantage over 
the Great Lakes route in the transportation of this com- 
modity; second, flour was more difficult to handle, hence 
through shipments were made by rail rather than by water 
to eastern lake ports, at which points it was necessary to 
transfer the flour to the eastern lines ; and, third, a consid- 
erable portion of the flour shipped east was destined for 
consumption at local points along the way to the seaboard, 
which were situated remote from, and out of reach of, the 
waterways. In short, flour was shipped east by rail because 

12 Eeport of the Select Committee on Transportation Eoutes to the Sealoard 
(Washington, 1874), p. 24; Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of 
the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, 
p. 1962. 



the rail routes were safer and quicker and because flour con- 
stituted a finished product ready for consumption at the 
local markets. 13 

The railroads were more successful in the competitive 
struggle for the corn traffic than they were for the wheat 
traffic. This is to be explained by the geographic location of 
the areas of surplus production. 14 The great bulk of the 
eastbound shipments of wheat came from the States west 
and northwest of Lake Michigan, thus giving the lake route 
a strategic advantage over the railroads in the transporta- 
tion of this commodity ; while the bulk of the eastbound corn 
shipments originated in the States south and west of the 
lake region and so afforded the railroads an advantage over 
the lake route in the transportation of corn. The railroads 
practically controlled the transportation of grain from those 
parts of Illinois and Indiana lying south of a latitudinal line 

is " The railroads gained this traffic, partly because shipment by lake to 
points not accessible to lake craft involved a transshipment, and flour could not 
be transferred with the same ease and facility that grain could be trans- 
shipped; partly because barrels are broken in this process and in passage if 
rough weather be encountered; and finally because expeditious delivery is fre- 
quently demanded — the elements of time being of much greater importance in 
the movement of flour than of grain. To these causes may be added a fourth 
— the cost of marine insurance ' \ — Tunell 's The Diversion of the Flour and 
Grain Traffic from the Great Lakes to the 'Railroads in The Journal of Polit- 
ical Economy, Vol. V, 1897, p. 348. 

i* Schmidt's The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1860-1890, in 
The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIX, pp. 205-219. See 
also Blodgett's Relations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), pp. 16-21, 27-32; Annual Report on the Internal Com- 
merce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1879, 
Appendix, No. 19; Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United 
States in the Tenth Census of. the United States, 1880, Vol. Ill, maps 2 to 9 
inclusive, showing the geographic distribution of wheat and corn production 
in the United States in 1879; Statistical Atlas of the United States: Eleventh 
Census, 1890, maps 291 to 294 and 297 to 300 inclusive, showing the geographic 
distribution of wheat and corn production in the United States in 1889. 

VOL. XX — 6 


sixty miles south of Lake Michigan.* 5 This control was 
extended into the region north of that line by high local rates 
to Chicago which constituted an effective discrimination 
against the lake route. This is shown by a comparison of 
the cost of transporting a bushel of wheat from Sandoval, 
Illinois, to New York City by direct all-rail and by rail and 
water route via Chicago, the Great Lakes, the Erie Canal, 
and the Hudson River to New York. The direct all-rail rate 
in 1874 was 34 cents ; while the rail-water rate via Chicago 
was 47.3 cents, which was distributed as follows : Sandoval 
to Chicago, 15.8 cents ; transfer charges at Chicago, 2 cents; 
Chicago to New York by lake and canal, 26.6 cents ; transfer 
charges at Buffalo, 1.3 cents ; lake insurance, 1.2 cents ; and 
Erie Canal and Hudson River insurance, 0.4 cents. This 
shows that the average all-rail rate was 11.3 cents or 15 per 
cent lower than the average cost of transport by the rail and 
water route, including transfer charges and marine insur- 
ance but not including commissions which amounted to 
about 2 cents a bushel. 16 Many illustrations of this kind 
could be given ; but the one just given is sufficient to show 
that grain could be transported from many points in the 
Middle West to the eastern and southern markets by the all- 
rail lines at less cost than by the lake and canal route. 

Rates were not the only determining factor, however, in 
the choice of routes for the shipment of gram from interior 
points to the seaboard. Terminal facilities for the handling 
and storage of the huge volume of grain which was poured 
into the markets after harvest also had a determining in- 
fluence on the course of the grain trade which the railroads 
could not ignore. The lake ports of Chicago, Toledo, Mil- 

i5 Beport of the Select Committee on Transportation Boutes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 24. 

is Beport of the Select Committee an Transportation Boutes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, pp. 24, 25. 


waukee, and Detroit, including Buffalo, the Gate City to the 
East, through the capitalistic interests of those cities, pro- 
vided these facilities. The lake ports therefore captured the 
great bulk of the eastbound grain traffic. In 1872 the 
amount of grain passing through these ports amounted to 
86 per cent of the whole volume ; while the remaining 14 per 
cent was shipped from the interior points direct to the 
Atlantic seaboard without first passing through the lake 
ports. 17 

Chicago affords the best illustration of the effects of com- 
petition between the railroads and the Great Lakes for the 
western grain and flour traffic. 18 It was here that the rail- 
roads entered most vigorously and most successfully into 
competition with the lake vessels. The rail distance from 
this port to Buffalo and thence to the Atlantic seaboard was 
the shortest ; while the distance by lake was the longest. 19 
Even so, however, competition between the rail and lake 
routes was unequal, as shown by a comparative study of the 
eastbound flour and grain shipments during this period. 

The flour traffic, for reasons already given, was rapidly 
absorbed by the railroads. It will be seen by reference to 

«* Beport of the Select Committee on Transportation Boutes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 26. 

is See TunelPs The Diversion of Flour and Grain from the Great Lakes to 
the Bailroad in The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. V, 1897, pp. 348-355; 
Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, pp. 110-114 and Appendix, No. 4, 
1879, pp. 99-103 and Appendix, No. 3, 1880, pp. 101-118 and Appendix, No. 1, 
1882, pp. 59, 60 and Appendix, No. 3. 

i» The distance from Chicago to Buffalo by lake is 889 miles and from Buf- 
falo to New York City by the shortest rail route is 410 miles. The total lake 
and rail distance from Chicago to New York City is therefore 1299 miles. 
The rail distances from Chicago to the different seaboard cities are as follows: 
Chicago to Boston, 1000 miles; Chicago to New York City, 912 miles; Chicago 
to Philadelphia, 822 miles; Chicago to Baltimore, 802 miles; Chicago to New- 
port News, 896 miles ; and Chicago to Norfolk, 984 miles. — The Bailroad 
Gazette, Vol. XXIX, No. 13, pp. 215, 216. 


Table I 

Chicago East Bound Shipments op Flour by Lake and Rail 

from 1860 to 1890 20 






































20 The statistics in Table I showing the comparative eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of flour from Chicago from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1964. 



Table I showing the eastbound lake and rail shipments from 
Chicago during the period from 1860 to 1890 that in 1860 
and 1861 the railroads transported almost twice as much 
flour as the lake vessels ; but in 1862 the lake route gained 
supremacy and easily maintained the lead during the next 
two years. In the year 1866, however, the railroads be- 
gan to encroach upon the lake route. In that year they 
transported 53 per cent of the flour; in 1867, they carried 
77 per cent; in 1872, they carried 82 per cent; in 1877, they 
carried 94 per cent ; and in 1881, they transported 96 per 
cent. After that date, however, the relative importance of 
the railroads as carriers of the Chicago eastbound flour 
traffic declined. In 1882, they transported 79 per cent of 
this traffic; in 1886, they transported 62 per cent; in 1889, 
they transported 54 per cent ; and in 1890, they transported 
56 per cent. 

The eastbound flour traffic from Chicago reached its max- 
imum volume in 1887 when 6,226,742 barrels were shipped. 
Of this amount 4,682,546 barrels were transported by the 
railroads and 1,544,196 barrels were carried by the lake 
vessels. After 1887 the relative importance of the railroads 
in the transportation of flour declined. This decline was 
coincident with the diversion of the great bulk of the east- 
bound flour traffic from Lake Michigan to Lake Superior 
ports which was made possible by the completion in 1888 of 
the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Eailway. 
This road shortened the direct water route to the east by the 
whole length of Lake Michigan, at the same time that it 
also made good connections with the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
road. These advantages were determining factors in favor 
of the new route to which the great bulk of the surplus 
flour of the northwest was thereafter diverted, thus avoid- 
ing the delay at Chicago due to the congestion of the flour 
traffic at that point. By 1897, the flour shipments over the 


"goo" route exceeded the combined rail and lake shipments 

from Chicago. 21 

The wheat traffic was diverted from the lake vessels to 
the rail routes less rapidly and completely than the flour 
traffic. A comparison of the eastbound lake and rail ship- 
ments of wheat from Chicago (Table II) shows that in 1860 
the railroads secured three per cent of the total shipments. 
In 1861 they secured five per cent ; while in 1862 they trans- 
ported but one per cent and in 1864 but four-tenths of one 
per cent of the total shipments. After the Civil "War, the 
railroads entered upon a vigorous competition for the wheat 
traffic with the result that by 1867, they transported 38 per 
cent of the total shipments, which, however, represented an 
abnormally high proportion of the entire eastbound wheat 
traffic. In 1871 the rail shipments were reduced to five per 
cent; while in 1874 they were increased to 37 per cent. 
From that date to 1877 the rail shipments decreased rap- 
idly, but in 1878 they were rapidly increased to 44 per cent. 
In 1879 they constituted 41 per cent of the total shipments 
which now amounted to nearly 30,000,000 bushels. After 
that date the rail shipments underwent a slight relative 
decline with the exception of the years 1881 and 1885 when 
they amounted to 50 per cent of the total shipments. In 
1890 the railroads carried 42 per cent of the total shipments. 
From 1895 to 1897 they carried but 32 per cent of the total 

The diversion of the corn traffic from the lake to the rail 
routes was effected even more slowly and less completely 
than the wheat traffic. A comparison of the eastbound lake 
and rail shipments of corn from Chicago (Table III) shows 
that in 1860, the railroads carried four per cent of the en- 
tire shipments. During the war period, however, the rail 

21 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1988. 


Table II 

Chicago East Bound Shipments of Wheat by Lake and Rail 

prom 1860 to 1890 22 




Tot at. 
( Btthtt'et.q^ 


11 817 476 

377 RA7 

xZ, 195, 123 


15 005 735 

730 873 
1 OU,o i O 


1 8fi2 

13 466 325 

1 IK 399 

xo, o41,b47 

1 8fi4 

10 04-fi 052 

3Q 7fi8 
oy, / Do 


1 8fi5 

q Q83 5fi7 

11J. 07^ 



^02 ^75 

i i a.1 ^i o 

7 C fTA nor 


K 827 84fi 

3 fin^ fii a 


1 8fi8 

8 492 1 87 

1 072 078 
X,U 1 I O 


1 SfiQ 


8 8Q0 fi47 

9 114. 300 


1 870 

Xo 1 \) 

1 3 49Q OfiQ 

9 R91 fiQQ 


1 871 

XO 1 X 

12 120 923 

1 9 fiQ7 <^71 

1 879 

XO I u 

8 831 870 

9 3fi3 810 


11 1 QPJ fifiO 


1 873 
Xo I O 

1 5 528 Q84 

8 14Q 90Q 

93 R78 1 Q3 

1 87J. 
XO I 'i 

Ifi Q74 14-Q 

Q 79 ^ 9^1 
y, / ._._),— ox 

Ron /ion 

1 87^ 
xo i O 

5 Q5fi fiOQ 

99 01 7 fifi3 
— X l ,DDO 

1 87fi 
.15 i O 

7 3fiQ 

5 378 7Q9 

«J,0 < O, I Pii 

1 9 77^ 1 fil 
Xa, t i 0,101 

1 877 

_L v/ jO rtO * V O O 

9 Q57 950 

1 3 303 933 





















































22 The statistics in Table II showing the comparative eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of wheat from Chicago from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1964. 


Table III 

Chicago East Bound Shipments of Corn by 

Lake and Rail 

FROM 1860 TO 1890 23 

Vw A O 



























































1 1874 





















41 561,336 







\ 1881 
















! 1885 




; 1886 




















23 The statistics in Table III showing the comparative eastbound lake a] 
rail shipments of corn from Chicago from 1860 to 1890 are taken from t 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1965. 


shipments declined in both absolute and relative impor- 
tance, amounting in 1862 and 1864 to but four-tenths of one 
per cent of the entire shipments. At the close of the war 
the railroads entered upon a vigorous competition for the 
corn traffic, with the result that by 1870, they had captured 
23 per cent of the entire shipments. In 1876 the rail ship- 
ments suddenly mounted from an annual average of less 
than 5,000,000 bushels to more than 17,000,000 bushels, 
which constituted 38 per cent of the entire shipments. In 
1884, the railroads carried 48 per cent and in 1885 they car- 
ried 49 per cent of the entire shipments. After that date 
the eastbound rail shipments of corn declined in both abso- 
lute and relative importance. In 1894 they carried but 14 
per cent of the total shipments. 

The oat traffic was diverted more rapidly and completely 
from the lake to the rail routes than either the wheat or the 
corn traffic. It will be seen by Table IV that there was a 
rapid growth in the volume of oats shipped east from Chi- 
cago during the war period. This is explained in large part 
by the fact that the principal contracts for supplying the 
armies in the south were filled in Chicago. The blockade 
of the Mississippi Eiver had closed that important highway 
of commerce, hence it was impossible to send commodities 
by that route. Moreover, there were as yet no north and 
south railroads adequate for this purpose, and so it be- 
came necessary to utilize the railroads connecting Chicago 
with the Atlantic seaport cities for the transportation of the 
great bulk of the oats destined for the southern States. 
After the war the rail shipments declined in both absolute 
and relative importance ; but in 1870 the railroads began a 
vigorous competition for the oat traffic, with the result that 
by 1873 they carried 60 per cent of the total shipments which 
now amounted to nearly 16,000,000 bushels. From that date 
to 1886 the railroads secured nearly all the oat traffic. Tn 



Table IV 

Chicago East Bound Shipments of Oats by Lake and Rail 

prom 1860 to 1890 24 





































I, 911,664 


II, 880,719 



I, 492,507 




II, 163,490 

24 The statistics in Table IV showing the comparative eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of oats are taken from the Monthly Summary of Commerce and 
Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 
January, 1900, p. 1965. 



the latter year the lake vessels entered the field again and 
secured a large share of the oat shipments; but the rail- 
roads still continued to retain the major portion of this 

The railroads were therefore more successful in the com- 
petitive struggle for the eastbound oat traffic than they were 
for the wheat and corn traffic. Since oats constitute a com- 
modity of large bulk with relatively low value why did the 
railroads transport a larger proportion of this grain than 
of either wheat or corn! The reasons have been stated in 
part by one writer as follows : 

Oats take up moisture more readily than other grains and as a 
very small amount will cause oats to become musty, and thus unfit 
for horsefeed, this grain when not in the best of condition is gener- 
ally shipped by rail. Recently there has been a device invented for 
"clipping" oats by which the portion that most freely absorbs 
moisture can be removed at slight expense. By "clipping" the 
weight of the measured bushel is also increased by some four to 
six pounds. During the germinating season grain is more liable 
to spoil and during this period it is safer to ship by rail. But there 
is another and far more potent reason for the unusually large rail 
movement of oats. It is the lake rates. These are fixed more upon the 
basis of bulk than weight, and as oats is a bulky product the freight 
per hundred pounds is considerably higher than on wheat and corn. 
Enough oats cannot be stowed away in the hold of a ship to secure 
a cargo equal in weight to that of the same ship loaded with wheat, 
and therefore it is necessary to fix a higher rate per hundred 
pounds upon oats than upon wheat. The grain car, on the other 
hand, is so large that there is no difficulty in loading it to its full 
carrying capacity with the bulky product oats, and as a consequence 
the rail rates on oats are no more per hundred pounds than those 
on wheat and corn. Lake rates per hundred pounds on oats are 
very much higher than the rates on wheat and corn. 25 

2« TunelFs The Diversion of the Flour and Grain Traffic from the Great 
Lakes to the Railroads in The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. V, 1897, pp. 
354, 355. 


Milwaukee was the next important western lake port in 
the competitive struggle between the lake and rail routes 
for the eastbound flour and grain traffic. This city is lo- 
cated about 85 miles north of Chicago on the western shore 
of Lake Michigan. It is therefore farther removed by the 
all-rail route from the seaboard than Chicago; though it is 
correspondingly nearer by the lake route. Consequently 
the railroads were not as successful in securing the east- 
bound flour and grain traffic at Milwaukee as they were at 
Chicago. The rail shipments were sent southward around 
the lower end of Lake Michigan through Chicago. Large 
shipments were also made via the transit lines across Lake 
Michigan and thence by rail eastward and southeastward 
without unloading. The great bulk of the traffic, however, 
was sent directly eastward by the all-lake route. 26 

A comparative review of the eastbound lake and rail 
shipments of flour from Milwaukee shows that in 1876 the 
railroads transported 1,289,147 barrels of flour, or 49 per 
cent of the total shipments. This represented the largest 
shipment of flour, both absolutely and relatively considered, 
that was secured by the railroads throughout the entire 
period. In 1877, the rail shipments from Milwaukee de- 
clined to 102,675 barrels, which represented but 9 per cent 
of the entire shipments. After that date they constituted 
only about 10 per cent of the entire shipments. From 1895 
to 1897 the all-lake shipments amounted to 50 per cent of 
the total shipments ; and the transit line shipments amount- 

26 See Thompson 's The Bise and Decline of the Wheat Growing Industry in 
Wisconsin (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, Economics and Political 
Science Series, Vol. V, No. 3, 1909), Pt. II, Ch. VII; Merk's Economic His- 
tory of Wisconsin During the Civil War Decade, Ch. XV. This is Volume I of 
the Studies published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. See also 
Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Sta- 
tistics, Treasury Department), 1882, Appendix, No. 10. 


ed to 39 per cent ; while the all-rail shipments amounted to 
but 11 per cent. 27 

Milwaukee during the war period became the most im- 
portant primary wheat market in the world — a distinction 
which had previously been held by Chicago but which after 
the war and in the seventies passed back and forth between 
the two cities. In 1873 the Milwaukee wheat shipments 
amounted to nearly 25,000,000 bushels. In 1877 they were 
reduced to a little less than 18,000,000 bushels. After that 
date the Milwaukee wheat market rapidly declined, while 
the Chicago wheat market was for a time maintained as to 
quantity of wheat received and shipped; although Chicago 
was soon overtaken in the early nineties by Minneapolis 
and Duluth-Superior which had now become the leading 
primary wheat markets of the Middle West. Meanwhile 
Milwaukee declined in both absolute and relative impor- 
tance as a wheat market. After 1880 the annual wheat 
shipments amounted to considerably less than 8,000,000 
bushels. The rail shipments during the Civil War period 
were almost negligible. After the war they were suddenly 
increased to over 300,000 bushels, which amount was main- 
tained with slight fluctuations until 1873 when the rail ship- 
ments suddenly rose to about 1,700,000 bushels. From 
1873 to 1876 they averaged nearly 3,000,000 bushels. After 
that date the rail shipments declined in amount but in- 
creased in proportion to the total shipments. In 1873 the 
rail shipments of wheat from Milwaukee amounted to seven 
per cent of the total shipments ; the transit line shipments 
to two per cent, and the lake shipments to 91 per cent. By 
1895 rail shipments had been increased to 57 per cent and 

These statistics showing the relative importance of the eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of flour from Milwaukee from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of tlie United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 1965, 1966. 


the transit line shipments to ten per cent; while the lake 
shipments had been reduced to 33 per cent. 28 

The eastbonnd corn shipments from Milwaukee were of 
minor importance. Throughout the entire period from 
1860 to 1890 there were but three years in which the ship- 
ments exceeded 1,000,000 bushels and but four years in 
which they exceeded 500,000 bushels. The great bulk of the 
corn was shipped by the lake route. In 1872, the lakes car- 
ried 98 per cent of the total shipments ; in 1880, they car- 
ried 92 per cent ; and in 1897 they carried 91 per cent. The 
oat traffic though more important than the corn traffic, did 
not undergo a rapid growth until about 1890. The bulk of 
the oats was shipped out by the lake route. 20 

Chicago and Milwaukee have been selected for this study 
for the reason that competition between the lake and rail 
routes for the western grain and flour traffic was practically 
confined to shipments from these two great primary mar- 
kets to points located on the Great Lakes-Erie Canal-Hud- 
son Eiver waterway and to New York City: the eastern 
terminus of that line. The other leading primary markets 
of the lakes were Toledo, Detroit, Duluth, and Superior, not 
to mention a host of minor cities which contributed very 
materially to the total volume of the eastbonnd flour and 
grain traffic. 30 

28 These statistics showing the relative importance of the eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of wheat from Milwaukee from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1966. 

29 These statistics showing the relative importance of the eastbound lake and 
rail shipments of corn from Milwaukee from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1966. See same reference 
for oat shipments. 

30 Among these cities may be mentioned Racine, Kenosha, Sheboygan, Port 
Washington, and Green Bay. See map showing the freight traffic on the 


The most significant feature of this development was the 
rapid northwestward movement of the wheat growing and 
flour milling industries and the consequent diversion of the 
wheat and flour traffic from Lake Michigan to Lake Superior 
ports. As long as the surplus wheat areas were tributary 
to Chicago the railroads had a strategic advantage over 
the lake vessels in the competitive struggle for the east- 
bound flour and wheat traffic. The rail route from Chicago 
to Buffalo is almost a direct line; whereas the lake route is 
extremely circuitous, thus making necessary a considerable 
deviation from the direct route. That is to say the distance 
from Chicago to Buffalo by rail is 540 miles ; while the dis- 
tance by lake is 889 miles. This is equivalent to saying that 
for every mile by the direct rail route, the lake vessels must 
go 1.65 miles. 31 The movement of the surplus wheat areas 
into Minnesota and the Dakotas in the eighties and the 
nineties brought Minneapolis into prominence as the great- 
est primary wheat market and flour milling center in the 
world; while the construction of the St. Paul and Duluth 
Eailroad brought Duluth and Superior at the head of Lake 
Superior nearer to the wheat fields of the Great Northwest 
than Chicago. Duluth and Superior are no further by lake 
from Buffalo than Chicago and Milwaukee; consequently 
these two lake ports were able to secure the great bulk of 
the surplus wheat destined for the eastern markets. Du- 
luth also became a great flour milling center, thus becoming 
an important shipping point for both wheat and flour. 
Moreover, the completion of the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Sault Ste. Marie Eailroad in 1888 opened up a direct route 

Great Lakes during the year 1890 in the Annual Report on the Internal Com- 
merce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 
1891, opposite p. 96. 

si The time tables of the New York Central Eailroad give 540 miles as the 
distance by the main line and 535.88 miles by the Michigan Central route. 
The Rand McN ally Commercial Atlas of America (1921 edition), p. xl, givei 
the shortest rail distance between Chicago and Buffalo as 513 miles. 


between the twin cities and the east, with the result that 
considerable quantities of flour and wheat were sent over 
this route to Sault Ste. Marie, at which point these com- 
modities were sent by the lake route to Buffalo or over the 
Canadian Pacific Eailroad to Montreal. 

An accurate description of the eastbound flour and grain 
traffic of Duluth and Superior is furnished by the statistics 
of the volume of flour, wheat, and other grains passing- 
through the St. Marys Falls Canal. This statement is sup- 
ported by two facts: first, that there was but little local 
grain traffic on Lake Superior, since most of it was destined 
for the lower lake ports ; and second that the Lake Superior 
traffic had to pass through this canal. In I860 the flour 
shipments through the Soo Canal amounted to 50,250 bar- 
rels. No wheat shipments were reported ; while shipments 
of other grains amounted to 133,000 bushels. In 1873 the 
flour shipments amounted to 172,692 barrels; the wheat 
shipments to 2,120,000 bushels; and all other grains to 
310,000 bushels. In 1884, the flour shipments amounted to 
1,248,243 barrels ; the wheat shipments to 11,986,000 bush- 
els ; and all other grains to 517,000 bushels. By 1890 the 
flour shipment had been increased to 3,239,104 barrels, the 
wheat shipments to 16,217,000 bushels, and all other grains 
to 2,044,000 bushels. 32 

The eastbound flour shipments over the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Eailroad amounted in 1888 to 
931,502 barrels, and in 1889 to 1,367,792 barrels. In 1895 
they were increased to 2,111,455 barrels and in 1897 to 
2,857,942 barrels. This now exceeded the eastbound ship- 
ments from Chicago by both lake and rail which amounted 
to 2,618,076 barrels. 33 

32 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of tine United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1990. 

33 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1988. 


These movements explain the extent to which the lake 
vessels were able to recover a considerable portion of the 
grain and wheat traffic which had hitherto been lost to the 
railroads. The Great Lakes occupied a midway position in 
the movement of grain from the Middle West to the Atlan- 
tic seaboard. Duluth, Superior, Milwaukee, Chicago, Green 
Bay, Port Washington, Sheboygan, Kenosha, and Eacine 
sent vast quantities of wheat, corn, and oats by lake lines to 
the lower lake ports of Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Erie, 
Buffalo, Oswego, and Ogdensburg. From these lower lake 
shore cities the grain and flour receipts were transshipped 
to the eastern and foreign markets. Most of the lake lines 
were in the service of the railroads which reached these 
ports. All the leading trunk lines owned lake lines of 
steamers which transported grain and flour from the upper 
to the lower lake ports. 34 

The principal transshipment point was Buffalo : the gate 
city to the East. Through this city passed the great bulk of 
the western flour and grain shipped east to the Atlantic 
seaboard by the lake route. The rapid growth in the volume 
of this traffic is shown by Table V which gives the annual 
receipts from 1860 to 1890. Of special significance is the 
remarkable expansion in the volume of flour receipts during 
the latter part of this period. It will be noted that the flour 
receipts were increased from 2,903,280 barrels in 1885 to 
6,245,580 barrels in 1890. The rapid growth in flour re- 
ceipts continued after that date, amounting in 1891 to 
11,488,530 barrels. A comparison of the relative quantities 
of flour and wheat received at Buffalo shows that from 
1877 to 1888 the total flour receipts amounted to 22,100,000 
barrels; while the aggregate wheat receipts amounted to 

34 Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1880, p. 158; Annual Report of the New 
TorJc Produce Exchange, 1875-1876, pp. 220, 221. 

VOL. XX — 7 


Table V 

Buffalo Flour and Grain Receipts by Lake 
from 1860 to 1890 35 







( r> ARRELS ) 

1 X> U o JlJliLio J 

l jL> U O I-*- Xx -Li o J 


1 860 

1 122,335 



7 ? 


1 861 

2 150,591 



7 / 


2 846,022 



7 / 


1 863 

2 978,089 


7 7 


7 * 


1 864 

2 048.530 


7 7 


7 / 


1 8fi5 


1 788,393 



7 7 


1 866 

1 213.543 


7 7 


7 ' 


1 8fi7 

1 440,056 



7 7 


7 7 


1 8fi8 

1 502.731 


" 7 


7 / 


1 8fiQ 

1 598 487 


7 7 


7 / 


1 870 

1 470,391 



7 / 


1 871 

XO 1 J. 

1 278 077 



7 / 


1 872 

XO 1 ^ 

762 502 



7 / 


1 873 


1 259 205 



7 / 


1 874- 

XO / ^fc 

1 693 585 



7 7 


1 87^ 
XO I o 

1 810 402 



7 / 


1 87fi 
xo / u 

807 210 



7 7 


1 877 

XO 1 1 

693 044 



7 7 


1 878 
XO / o 

911 980 



7 7 






























































otal Flour 
and Grain 


35 The statistics in Table V showing the flour and grain receipts of Buffalo 
from 1860 to 1890 are taken from the Monthly Summary of Commerce and 
Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 
January, 1900, p. 2015. The total receipts given in the last column include 
barley and rye. See also Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the 
United States, p. 162, in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 


354,800,000 bushels. From 1889 to 1898, however flour 
receipts amounted to 97,700,000 barrels ; while the wheat 
receipts amounted to 594,000,000 bushels. That is to say 
whereas in the first period Buffalo received one barrel of 
flour for every 16 bushels of wheat, in the second period it 
received one barrel of flour for every 6 bushels of wheat. Or, 
to state it in another way, in the first period 22 per cent of 
the total wheat receipts of Buffalo was in the form of flour; 
while in the second period, 42 per cent of the wheat receipts 
was in that form. 36 This change in the relative importance 
of wheat and flour receipts at Buffalo emphasizes the rapid- 
ity with which the milling industry was shifted from the 
Atlantic seaboard States to the Middle West. 37 

The relative importance of Buffalo as the transshipment 
point for western grain and flour shipped by the lake route 
is shown by the fact that in 1890 this city received 92 per 
cent of the wheat shipments, 74 per cent of the corn ship- 
ments, 73 per cent of the oat shipments, 92 per cent of the 
barley shipments, and 63 per cent of the flour shipments. 
Oswego, Ogdensburg, Cleveland, Erie, Chicago, and Mil- 
waukee received nearly all of the remainder. 38 

Buffalo thus continued to be the great transshipment 
center — a position w T hich this city had achieved upon the 
completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 — for the great bulk 
of the flour and grain shipped eastward by the lake route. 
At this point the shipper had the choice of water and rail 

S6 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 2014. 

37 See Thompson's The Rise and Decline of the Wheat Growing Industry in 
Wisconsin (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, Economics and Political 
Science Series, Vol. V, No. 3, 1909), Pt. II, Ch. VI; Monthly Summary of 
Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury 
Department), January, 1900, pp. 1988-1990. 

38 Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1891, p. xxvi. 


routes to the seaboard. The water routes consisted of: 
first, the Erie Canal and Hudson Eiver to New York City; 
and, second, the Welland Canal and the St. Lawrence Eiver 
to Montreal, at which point shipments could be continued 
by that river to Europe or transferred to the Canadian 
Grand Trunk Eailroad to Portland and Boston. The rail 
routes consisted of : first, the New York Central Eailroad to 
Albany and thence to New York City or to Boston; and, 
second, the Erie Eailroad to New York City. 

The Welland Canal-St. Lawrence Eiver route entered 
into competition with the Canadian Grand Trunk and Cana- 
dian Pacific Eailroad for the flour and grain trade destined 
for Montreal. The greater part of the corn traffic was 
handled by the lakes ; while the flour traffic was rapidly and 
completely absorbed by the railroads. Of the total flour re- 
ceipts of Montreal in 1875 the proportion carried by the 
Canadian Grand Trunk Eailroad amounted to 75 per cent, 
thus leaving but 25 per cent for the Welland Canal and St. 
Lawrence routes ; while in 1882, the Grand Trunk Eailroad 
carried 85 per cent of the total shipments received by Mon- 
treal. The wheat traffic was also secured by the railroads, 
although much more gradually. In 1875, the Grand Trunk 
Eailroad carried 14 per cent of the total shipments received 
by Montreal ; while in 1882, they handled 19 per cent of the 
total flour and grain receipts of Montreal. In 1898, the 
railroads carried 83 per cent of the flour, 24 per cent of the 
wheat, 14 per cent of the corn, 77 per cent of the oats, 28 
per cent of the barley, and 17 per cent of the rye. 39 It will 
therefore be seen that the Welland Canal-St. Lawrence 
Eiver route surrendered a considerable proportion of the 
eastbound traffic for Montreal to the railroads. Even so, 
however, it is noteworthy that the Welland Canal had an 

39 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1968. 


advantage over the Erie Canal with respect to length, depth 
and geographic position. At the same time it also occupied 
a more favorable position with respect to its natural com- 
petitors (the Canadian Grand Trunk and Pacific railroads) 
in the struggle for the eastbound flour and grain traffic des- 
tined for Montreal than the Erie Canal occupied with refer- 
ence to the New York Central and Erie railroads in the 
competitive struggle for the traffic destined for New York 

The Erie Canal — once the great highway of commerce 
between the Middle West and the Atlantic seaboard — was 
now superseded by the railroads in the competitive struggle 
which ensued after the Civil War for the western flour and 
grain traffic. For a time the encroachment of the railroads 
upon the canals continued unobserved. Confidence in the 
ability of the canal to compete successfully for the grain 
traffic was frequently expressed. Apropos of the belief in 
the superiority of the Erie Canal and the cost of transport- 
ing a bushel of wheat from the Mississippi River to New 
York City, the following editorial in The Merchants' Maga- 
zine and Commercial Review for May, 1869, is of pertinent 
interest : 

The subject of cheaper transportation from the West to the East 
has attracted much attention of late. The report of the Hon. 
Israel T. Hatch, of Buffalo, to the Secretary of the Treasury ; the 
speech of the same gentlemen before the New York Produce Ex- 
change ; the mission of representatives of New York grain interests 
to the shippers and dealers of the lake cities; the action of the 
Board of Trade in these cities; and, finally, the convention of 
delegates from boards of trade in the lake cities at Chicago during 
the last week, attest the interest that is felt in this matter by 
shippers and commercial men. This action and agitation has been 
stimulated by the conviction that the cost of transportation of grain 
and breadstuffs is higher than is necessary, that the transfer 
charges at Chicago, Buffalo, Oswego and New York are too great. 


and to the further fact that the merchants of St. Louis and New 
Orleans are energetically moving with reference to making the Mis- 
sissippi the outlet to the sea for agricultural products of the North- 
west. Other disturbing causes are the agitation in reference to a 
Niagara Ship Canal, the enlargement of the Welland Canal, and 
the marvellous growth of the railroad interest which menace the 
ordinarily cheaper lines of water communication. 

Grain and flour will, as a matter of course, take that route to 
market which, all things considered, is the cheapest. Time is not 
an important element. To the millions of bushels of grain in the 
Northwest which seek a market various routes are presented, and 
the solicitations of these are of various degrees of strength. Thus 
far transportation by the Lakes and the Erie Canal or by the rail- 
roads direct to the seaboard have been the favorite routes. Rivals 
have risen and grown threatening; direct trade with Europe has 
been talked and dreamed of, but there has been no really formidable 
competition to the route which has for so many years been the 
natural outlet. The fact that the Erie Canal earned over and 
above expenses some $3,000,000 last year, at once suggested the 
thought that the canal tolls were excessive, and this stimulated an 
investigation which has shown that freight and transfer charges 
could be reduced, and that the whole business of shipping grain 
could be transacted at less cost, and the saving to be transferred to 
the pockets of the producer and the consumer. 

In the discussion of this question of cheaper transportation there 
are two classes of reasoners : One believes that the cheapening of 
freight must be in the direction of water transportation ; the other 
looks to the railroads as the certain means for reducing charges 
and as the commanding power in transportation for the future. 
Into this question we do not propose to enter at present. Our 
object is to show that freight and transfer charges are now too 
high, and that they can be reduced. To transport a bushel of grain 
from the Mississippi to the seaboard, it now costs 52^ cents. The 
details are as follows: 

Freight by rail to Chicago 20 


Inspection (in and out) A 

Storage 2 % 

Commissions - 

Freight to Buffalo 61 /2 




Elevator at Buffalo 




13i/ 2 

Commissions at Buffalo 

Freight by Canal to New York 

Expenses in New York 


Total expenses 

52i/ 4 

Of this sum, 40 cents are for carriage, and 12% are for transfer 
and local charges. The railway West of Chicago receives 20 cents 
for 200 miles. The canal, 352 miles, and the Hudson River, 150 
miles, require 13y 2 cents, of which 6 cents are for tolls. The lake 
charges for a distance of more than a 1,000 miles are but 6y 2 cents. 
The aggregate is about $10 a ton from Chicago, or $17 from the 
Mississippi. The charges at grain elevators vary from one cent to 
two cents bushel. The charge for shoveling is from $2 to $5 for 
1,000 bushels. At Buffalo, last year, the transfer and shovelling 
charges on 36,754,948 bushels exceeded the canal tolls by $216,000 ; 
and at Oswego the transfer charges alone on 6,270,466 bushels 
exceeded the tolls by $15,000. To this the charge for shovelling is 
to be added. It is a curious fact that the steam elevators have 
actually been in the habit of charging more than the same work 
could be done for by hand power. Two cases are cited at Buffalo. 
In one instance a cargo of 87,000 bushels of oats was transferred 
by an elevator in fifteen hours. The elevator fees were $1,740, the 
cost of shovelling $435; total, $2,175, or 2y 2 cents a bushel. In 
another case, two vessels were unloaded by hand, and the cargo 
transferred to cars, at a cost of iy 2 cents a bushel. An inspection 
and comparison of these figures indicate that in order to cheapen 
transportation, it is not necessary merely to reduce canal tolls and 
freight charges. The local charges for transfer, etc., also require 

As the elevator charges at Chicago, Buffalo, and New York are 
5% cents a bushel, and the shovelling from 1 to iy 2 cents more, a 
movement for a general reduction has been made. The work can 
be profitably done at half the price, and the leading dealers in the 
ports named have agreed to make the reduction. It remains for 
the Legislature of the State of New York to reduce the Canal tolls 
to a proportionate extent, and for the transportation lines West 


of Chicago to reduce their rates. They now charge from 20 to 30 
cents a bushel. The result of this is that grain is carried past 
Chicago and as the journals of that city complain, it can be carried 
from Central Illinois half way to New York for the cost of carrying 
it to Chicago alone. 

This subject is of great importance not only to New York City 
and State, but to the whole seaboard. It has an interest too for 
every producer in the great Northwest, and it is not strange that 
such vigorous efforts are put forth to secure so important a trade 
in the channels now occupied by it, or to divert it into new chan- 
nels. The business of the Erie Canal comes from the West. Only 
one-ninth of its traffic is local. The residue is from 
There are single States in the West which, when the Erie Canal 
was due, had not even a name, that furnish it now more traffic than 
all that the State of New York now supplies. Year by year this 
business increases, and it is the part of wisdom to see to it that the 
channel of trade is equal to the demands upon it, and that the Erie 
Canal remains what it has so long been, the great route of trans- 
portation between the seaboard and the West. 40 

The railroads with their improved facilities 41 and low 
rates continued nevertheless to encroach upon the Erie 
Canal in the transportation of the eastbound flour and 
grain traffic, and this in spite of the fact that the Erie Canal 
was enlarged, freight rates on the Canal lowered, elevator 
and storage charges lessened, and tolls reduced and finally 
abolished in 1882/ 12 The Erie Canal became less a factor in 
the movement of flour and grain to the seaboard. This is 
shown by a comparison of the total flour and grain receipts 
at New York by the rail and canal routes. In 1860 the total 
receipts of New York by the Erie and Champlain canals 

*o The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, Vol. LX, May, 1869, 
pp. 385-387. 

41 See Schmidt 's The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1860-1890, 
in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XIX, pp. 428, 429. 

42 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 1972-1974. 


amounted to 41,122,000 bushels; while the total receipts by 
the rail routes amounted to 16,010,000 bushels. 43 In 1870 
the total receipts of New York by the canal route amounted 
to 36,312,000 bushels; while the total receipts by the rail 
route amounted to 34,208,000 bushels. 44 In 1880, the total 
receipts by the canal route amounted to 71,090,000 bushels ; 
while the total receipts by the rail route amounted to 97,- 
953,000 bushels. 45 In 1890, the total receipts by the canal 
route amounted to 30,185,000 bushels; while the total re- 
ceipts by the rail route amounted to 90,219,000 bushels. 46 
That is to say, in 1860 the Erie and Champlain canals car- 
ried two and a half times as much flour and grain to New 
York as the railroads ; while in 1890 they carried only about 
one-third as much as the railroads. It will therefore be 
seen that while the Great Lakes were maintaining their 
relative position with the railroads and even regaining in 
part their old supremacy near the close of this period, the 
Erie Canal was becoming less and less important. The 
break in water transportation, however, was not in the west 
but at Buffalo, the point where the lake and canal routes 

In order to understand the nature of the competition be- 
tween the Erie Canal and the New York Central and Erie 
railroads for the eastbound flour and grain traffic it is 
necessary to inquire into the conditions which controlled 
the shipments from Buffalo by the various routes. These 
shipments consisted almost entirely of flour and grain re- 
ceived at Buffalo by the lake route. The railroads connect- 

♦3 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, pp. 338- 

44 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, pp. 338- 

45 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1881, p. 407. 

40 Annual Beport of the Neiv York Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, {>. 5, 


ins; Buffalo with the Middle West brought very little traffic 
to the canal. It was estimated in 1876 that probably not to 
exceed three per cent of all the freights received at Buffalo 
were shipped by lake from that point. 47 But the trunk line 
railroads which competed with the canal at Buffalo had 
both rail and lake connections with the west. This gave 
them great advantages over the canal. The steamer lines 
on the lakes brought to these roads large amounts of grain j 
and flour from Chicago, Milwaukee, and the lake ports. 
Their rail connections also brought them considerable traffic 
from the Middle West. Moreover, the eastern and lateral 
connections of the New York Central and Erie railroads 
afforded these lines great advantages in the competitive 
struggle for the western grain and flour destined for the 
Atlantic seaports and the interior points in the seaboard 
States. These roads were therefore enabled to secure a 
large volume of traffic which led to a great reduction in the 
actual cost of moving grain by rail from the lakes to the 
seaboard. This fact constituted the most important condi- 
tion in the lowering of freight rates. As long as the east- 
bound flour and grain was marketed almost exclusively at 
Chicago, Milwaukee, Toledo, and other lake ports, the Erie 
Canal was the principal transportation route ; but after the 
trunk line railroads were built and direct rail connections 
were formed throughout the Middle West, a large propor- 
tion of the traffic was secured by these roads. The trunk 
line railroads opened up new areas of surplus production. 
Thus was developed an eastbound flour and grain traffic 
which far exceeded the amount diverted from the water 
lines to the railroads. The traffic secured by the railroads 
throughout the country was, as a matter of fact, developed 
by them rather than diverted to them from other transpor- 

47 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, p. 115. 


Table VI 

Freight Rates on Wheat by Lake and Canal, by Lake 

and Rail, and by Rail prom Chicago to New 

York prom 1860 to 1890 48 

Average Rates per Bushel in Cents 

By Lake 

By Lake 


and Canal 

and Rail 

By All Rail 






• ■•■»'• 

• • • ■ 



: • • • • 

• • • • 

• • » • 



• t • • 




• • • • 




• • ■ ■ 




• • • • 




■ • * m 











































































8.71 | 



















« Annual Report of the New York Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, p. 72. 
The lake and canal rates include canal tolls until 1882, but not Buffalo trans- 
fer charges. See also Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 


tation lines. Although rail rates were considerably higher 
than the lake and canal rates, the railroads, by making 
direct shipments, effected such saving of commissions, 
transfer and warehousing charges, insurance, and other 
expenses incident to transportation by the water line as to 
enable them to become successful competitors for the trans- 
portation of flour and grain and other bulky products from 
the Middle West to the Atlantic seaboard. 

The great reduction in rail and water rates may be seen 
by Table VI showing the average annual freight rates on a 
bushel of wheat by lake and canal, by lake and rail, and by 
all rail from Chicago to New York from 1860 to 1890. In 
1860 the lake and canal rates amounted to 24.8 cents a 
bushel. In 1870 they were reduced to 17.1 cents ; while the 
lake and rail rates for that year amounted to 29 cents, and 
the all-rail rates amounted to 42.6 cents. In 1880, the lake 
and canal rates were further reduced to 12.3 cents, the lake 
and rail rates to 15.7 cents, and the all-rail rates to 19.9 
cents. In 1890, the lake and canal rates were still further 
reduced to 5.9 cents, the lake and rail rates to 8.5 cents, and 
the all-rail rates to 14.3 cents. These rates were the pub- 
lished rates. As a matter of fact, there were great varia- 
tions in these schedules. During the summer months when 
the waterways were open the rail rates were lower than the 
published rates ; while during the winter months when the 
waterways were closed to navigation the rail rates were 
considerably higher. 49 The value of the water line in the 

States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1891, p. xliii; Monthly 
Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1973. 

49 This fact was clearly brought out in the testimony before the Windoni 
Committee in 1874. Mr. Hayes, manager of the Blue Line Fast Freight, 
testified that the general freight agents of the western roads based the rail 
rates upon the water rates. That is to say, the water rate was taken as a 
competitive rate and the rail rates were fixed accordingly. 1 1 For seven months 



transportation of western products to the seaboard is there- 
fore to be measured not only by the amount of traffic carried 
by this route, but also by the fact that during a period of 
about seven months in the year when it was free of ice and 
open to navigation it served as a potent factor in reducing 
rail rates, thus effecting a great saving in the cost of trans- 
portation of products from the producer to the consumer. 50 
The westward movement of cereal production and the 
competition between the water and rail routes and in turn 
between the railroads themselves for the surplus flour and 
grain destined for the markets of the east and of western 
Europe effected important changes in the distribution of 
these products at the eastern terminals. Formerly much of 
the grain sent to the Atlantic seaports was shipped by the 
coastwise route from New Orleans. The opening of a new 

of the year during the period of open canal navigation the rates are much less 
than that indicated by the foregoing averages for the year, and during the 
four months in which canal navigation is closed by frost, the rates largely 
exceed the foregoing season averages." — Report of the Select Committee on 
Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (Washington, 1874), Vol. II, pp. 7, 95. 
See also statistical chart showing the average freight rates on grain from 
Chicago to New York for each month during the years 1869 to 1873 inclusive, 
by lake and canal, by lake and rail, and by all rail, in the Annual Report on 
the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury 
Department), 1876, Chart No. 6, opposite p. 254. 

so ' ' Mr. J. C. Brown, statistician of the New York Produce Exchange, shows 
that the average freight rate on wheat from Chicago to New York in 1890 was 
5.85 cents a bushel by lake and canal, and 14.31 cents a bushel by rail — the 
water cost being $1.94 a ton and the rail cost $4,77 per ton. That the rail 
cost between the two points should be less than one-half the average carrying 
rate for all the roads of the country is due to lake competition; and that, low 
as this rail cost is, the lake and canal cost for the same service is more than 
one-half lower still, affords a sharp conception of the great value of the lake 
line to the States of the North and Northwest — for they not only furnish a 
water carriage cheaper by one-half than the lowest rail cost, but they force the 
rail cost down to one-half the general average for the whole country. It 
would be within the limits of a reasonable estimate to say that the 16 feet of 
water all the way from Chicago to Buffalo saves to the people of those States, 
on freight charges, $10,000,000 a year, if not double that sum."— Annual B* 


water route to the east by the completion of the Erie Canal 
in 1825 and the consequent rapid diversion of this surplus 
flour and grain of the Middle West from the southern to the 
eastern routes gave New York City a great ascendancy over 
Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The Erie Canal, in 
short, made New York City 4 4 the commercial metropolis of 
the east." From this port, grain and flour shipments were 
made to the other Atlantic seaports. The completion of 
the Welland Canal in 1833 and the St. Lawrence canals in 
1848 opened up another water route to the east with Mon- 
treal as the terminal shipping point for western products. 
Thereupon began an active competition between New York 
City and Montreal for the traffic between the Middle West 
and the countries of Western Europe which has continued 
to the present. Formerly the competition with respect to 
the transportation of grain and other western products was 
confined almost exclusively to the two rival water lines: 
the Great Lakes-Canadian Canals-St. Lawrence Eiver route 
and the Great Lakes-Erie Canal-Hudson Eiver route. The 
competition of the rail lines for the transportation of grain 
to New York was begun in 1856 ; but it was not until 1867 
that grain was first shipped by rail from the west to Mon- 

port on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department), 1891, p. xlviii. It was further estimated that in 1890 
the Erie Canal effected a saving of $4,000,000 a year on the wheat receipts 
alone, and probably five times as much on all the domestic receipts and ship- 
ments of New York City. Mr. Albert Fink, an eminent authority on the sub- 
ject of railway transportation, testified before a special committee of the New 
York legislature that "the Erie Canal regulates the freight rates on all the 
railroads east of the Mississippi River, not only on those whose tracks run 
parallel with the canal, but upon those which run in an opposite direction.' ' 
Quoted from the Annual Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1891, p. xlix. "It is not neces- 
sary, therefore, that a water line should carry the freight to cheapen the rate; 
it cheapens what it does not carry as well as what it does. In short, it regu- 
lates rates on all lines of carriage that converge at a common point with it." 
— Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1891, p. xlix. 



treal. 51 The railroads connecting these two seaports with 
the west constituted important commercial highways be- 
tween which the competition for western agricultural prod- 
ucts became quite as active as between the two water lines. 

The competition between New York and Montreal was 
confined almost exclusively to the transportation of the 
products of the west to Europe. Montreal did not compete 
with New York City or any other Atlantic seaport for the 
enormous traffic between the Middle West and the Atlantic 
seaboard States. This traffic greatly exceeded the traffic 
between the Middle West and Europe, as shown, for exam- 
ple, by the fact that in 1872, the eastbound shipments of 
grain amounted to 178,000,000 bushels, of which but 63,- 
000,000 bushels, or 35 per cent, were shipped to Europe. 52 
It was the shipment to Europe which constituted the entire 
volume of grain for which the Montreal route entered into 
competition with the routes in the United States. The total 
exports of wheat at Montreal were nearly equal to the total 
receipts of wheat at that port from the United States. 53 
Moreover, all the corn received and shipped at Montreal 
was exclusively of American growth. It may therefore be 
assumed that practically all the American wheat and corn 
transported by the St. Lawrence route was intended for 
exportation beyond Canada. Nearly all the grain exported 
from Montreal was shipped to Europe and chiefly to Great 
Britain. 54 The distance of Montreal from Liverpool via the 

si Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1880, p. 162. 

62 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, p. 120. 

63 For statistics showing the flour and grain receipts and shipments of Mon- 
treal from 1860 to 1890 see the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance 
of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 
1900, p. 1978. 

«4 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, p. 120. 


Straits of Belle Isle (the usual route) was 2766 miles ; while 
the distance from New York City to Liverpool was 3075 
m il es 56_ a difference of over 300 miles in favor of Mon- 
treal, although the comparative distance of export trade 
centers of the Atlantic seaboard from the markets of 
Europe was of no commercial importance in the determina- 
tion of ocean freight rates. 

Montreal became New York's most formidable competitor 
for the western flour and grain destined for the continent of 
Europe. This is shown by the relative increase in the grain 
receipts of these two cities during the period from 1856 to 
1872. The total grain receipts of New York were increased 
from 57,045,000 bushels in 1856 to 90,482,000 bushels in 
1872 — an increase of 33,437,000 bushels, or 57 per cent ; 
while the total grain receipts of Montreal were increased 
from 4,847,000 bushels in 1854 to 17,629,000 bushels in 1872 
— an increase of 12,782,000 bushels, or 263 per cent. 56 The 
rapid growth in the relative importance of Montreal as an 
exporting center for western grain and flour led the com- 
mercial interests of New York to become alarmed lest the 
grain trade would be ultimately diverted to the St. Law- 
rence Eiver. This is evidenced by the Report of the New 
York Produce Exchange for 1875-1876 which observed that 
"If the export Grain trade shall once be turned down the 
St. Lawrence, it will be more difficult to regain it than to 
regain the export trade already diverted to Baltimore and 
Philadelphia. These large seaboard cities will always have 
a large Grain trade, but it will be limited chiefly to their 
domestic requirements for consumption." 57 

55 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, p. 120. 

58 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, p. 237. 
57 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1875-1876, p. 224. 


But while the competition of Montreal threatened the 
supremacy of New York City during this period it was not 
destined to be an effective barrier to the development of 
that city as a flour and grain market. Nor did it divert the 
flour and grain traffic to the St. Lawrence route. Although 
Montreal by the usual route (the Straits of Belle Isle) was 
nearer to Liverpool than New York City, it was subject to 
several serious disadvantages as an export center. These 
disadvantages may be stated as follows: 

First. The trade of Montreal was entirely suspended by 
ice for five months of the year, whereas the harbor of New 
York was never closed. 

Second. The St. Lawrence route was subject to dangers 
and difficulties in consequence of fogs and floating ice dur- 
ing a period of several weeks after the opening and before 
the close of navigation. 

Third. The rates of insurance on vessels and cargoes 
from Montreal to Liverpool were higher than the rates on 
vessels from New York City to Liverpool. 

Fourth. Montreal was not advantageously situated as an 
importing center while New York City was the most favor- 
ably situated of all the seaports not only as an exporting 
but also as an importing center. This was a factor of great 
importance for the reason that the export trade depends to 
a large extent upon the import trade which shall pay a part 
of the expenses of the whole voyage to and from foreign 
ports. The absence of an import trade had the effect of 
raising the cost of ocean freights on exports, which consti- 
tuted a serious disadvantage in competition with ports 
which are favored by a large import trade. 

Fifth. The absence of a sufficiently large and regular 
amount of shipping at Montreal also rendered the grain 
and flour exporting business precarious ; whereas New York 
always had a large amount of available shipping. 

VOL. XX — 8 


Sixth. The distance of Montreal from the West Indies 
and South America was mnch greater than the distance 
from New York City to these countries. The St. Lawrence 
route was not therefore in any sense a competitor of New 
York City and other Atlantic seaports for the flour and 
grain exports destined for these markets. 

Seventh. Grain and flour shipped to Montreal from the 
Middle West could not be distributed to points in the At- 
lantic seaboard States except upon payment of a duty. This 
had the effect of practically prohibiting such trade, thus 
giving New York City another advantage over Montreal as 
a shipping point for western products. 

Eighth. Montreal had practically no home market, while 
New York had a home market which absorbed large quanti- 
ties of the western surplus which was poured into that city. 58 

These conditions gave New York City a great advantage 
over Montreal which was reflected in ocean freight rates on 
grain from these two cities to Liverpool. In 1871 the ocean 
rates on wheat from Montreal to Liverpool by steamer 
were four cents a bushel higher than the New York rates. 
In 1872 the Montreal rate was six and one-half cents higher 
than the New York rates. These rates more than counter- 
balanced the advantages which Montreal enjoyed over New 
York City in freight rates from Chicago. This is illustrated 
by the fact that in 1872 the wheat rate from Chicago to 
Liverpool by steamer was 53.7 cents via New York ; while it 
was 56.5 cents via Montreal. By sailing vessel the rate via 
New York was 51.4 cents ; while the rate via Montreal was 
57.1 cents. Similar though smaller differences prevailed in 
the relative rates on corn shipped to Europe via these two 
cities. 59 

58 See Annual Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau 
of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, pp. 120-125, 1880, pp. 161-166. 

59 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau 
of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1977. 


From 1872 to 1890 the total grain and flour receipts of 
Montreal were maintained at a fairly even level; 60 while 
they decreased relatively to the total receipts 'of New 
York. 61 At the same time Baltimore and Philadelphia, the 
leading Atlantic ports south of New York City, began to 
come in for a larger share of the surplus flour and grain of 
the Middle West destined for the markets of the east and of 
western Europe. The diversion of the eastbound grain and 
flour traffic to these ports therefore next commands brief 

It has already been shown that this traffic favored the 
terminal cities of Chicago and New York City. As long as 
the great bulk of the eastbound flour and grain was trans- 
ported by way of the Great Lakes and thence by the Erie 
Canal-Hudson Eiver route and the New York Central and 
Erie railroads, New York City enjoyed a great preemi- 
nence over other Atlantic ports, her chief rivals being Mon- 
treal and Boston. The advantages thus secured by New 
York City taken in connection with her naturally fine har- 
bor and good terminal facilities gave that city a predomi- 
nant position in the export and import trade of the country, 
which was further strengthened by the density of the popu- 
lation tributary to New York. The extension and develop- 
ment of the trunk line railroads south of the northern water 
and rail routes, however, brought the more southern sea- 
ports of Philadelphia and Baltimore nearer to the markets 

60 See total of grain and flour receipts of Montreal during this period in 
Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1978. 

61 In 1872 the total flour and grain receipts of Montreal amounted to 17,- 
547,000 bushels; while the total receipts of New York City amounted to 
90,217,000. In 1890 the total receipts of Montreal amounted to 17,445,000 
bushels; while the total receipts of New York City amounted to 122,013,670 
bushels. — Annual Report of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, pp. 
372, 376, 1890-1891, pp. 25, 28. 


of the Middle West than New York City. 62 The shorter 
distance of these cities, as well as the advantage of the dif- 
ferent rates which they enjoyed, 63 enabled them to secure a 
larger proportion of the eastbound traffic than they had 
hitherto possessed, with the result that New York City de- 
clined in relative importance as a flour and grain market, 
although the total receipts of this city were maintained at a 
high level throughout the period. 

The relative importance of the four leading Atlantic sea- 
board cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Balti- 
more in the competitive struggle for the western flour and 
grain traffic is shown by Table VII which gives the per- 
centage of the total volume of flour, wheat, and corn re- 
ceived at these ports for the years 1872 to 1890 inclusive. 
Norfolk and Newport News, although of negligible impor- 
tance, are included in this table. It will be seen that while 
New York City in 1873 secured 61.4 per cent of the total 
receipts of these six ports, in 1890 the proportion of the 
traffic secured by this city had been decreased to 50.8 per 
cent. Boston increased its share of the total receipts from 
10.9 per cent in 1873 to 15.2 per cent in 1890. 64 Philadelphia 
increased its share from 14.3 per cent in 1873 to 15.9 per 
cent in 1880; but in the eighties Philadelphia suffered a 
relative decline, its share of the total receipts in 1890 
amounting to 8.7 per cent. After 1890, however, Phila- 
delphia recovered its former relative position achieved in 

62 See note 19 above for statement of distances from Chicago to the six 
Atlantic ports of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, and 
Newport News. 

es See Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 1984-1986. 

64 For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movements 
of Boston, see Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, Nos. 6, 11. 


Table VII 

Percentage op the Total Receipts op Flour, Wheat and 
Corn at Each op the Six Atlantic Ports op New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Norfolk, and Newport News prom 
1873 to 1890 65 






Philadelphia Baltimore 


















65 These statistics are taken from a table in the Beport on Trunk Line Traf- 
fic and Differential Bates in the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance 
of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and 
Labor), April, 1904, p. 3979. See also diagrams showing course of flour and 
grain receipts in millions of bushels at Montreal, Portland, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, New York, Norfolk, Newport News, New Orleans, and Galveston for 
1880 to 1903, opposite pp. 3976, 3978. For a good discussion of the competi- 
tive forces which exerted a controlling influence on the trade relation between 
the Middle West and the Atlantic ports of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore, see the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, pp. 67-91. 


the seventies as a grain and flour market. 66 Baltimore came 
in for a large share of this traffic, securing 13.3 per cent of 
the total receipts in 1873 and gradually increasing its share 
until 1890 when it secured 24.4 per cent of the total re- 
ceipts. 67 However, New York City easily retained the lead 
over its rivals as the foremost flour and grain market on 
the Atlantic seaboard 68 — a position which it has main- 
tained to the present, though threatened in more recent 
years by its competitors on the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards. 
With these facts in mind attention will now be given to a 
brief consideration of the southbound flour and grain traffic 
and the relative importance of New Orleans as a flour and 
grain market during this period. 

It has already been shown that New Orleans had by 1860 
lost its importance as an export trade center for western 
flour and grain. 69 Formerly, the cereals of the surplus pro- 

ee For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movements 
of Philadelphia, see Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1880, Appendix, No. 10. 
See also references under note 67 below. 

67 For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial interests of 
Baltimore, see Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, No. 7, 1879, 
Appendix, No. 16, 1880, Appendix, No. 5, 1885, Appendix, No. 71. 

es For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movements 
of New York City, see Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, No. 2, 
1879, Appendix, Nos. 1, 2. The volumes of the Annual Beport of the New 
York Produce Exchange for this period contain a great deal of valuable his- 
torical information, both descriptive and statistical, bearing on the commercial 
movements of New York City. These reports are also useful for a study of the 
commercial movements of the other eastern ports of Montreal, Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and Baltimore, the Gulf ports of New Orleans and Galveston, and the 
primary markets of the Middle West. The reports of the Statistician in the 
annual reports of the Commissioner of Agriculture may also be consulted to 
advantage in a review of the flour and grain movements of this period. See 
for example the Annual Beport of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 1876, pp. 

69 See Schmidt's The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1850-1860, 
in The Iowa Journal op History and Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 94-124. 


during areas of the Middle West destined for the consuming 
sections of the East and the countries of western Europe 
were sent down the Mississippi River to New Orleans and 
thence shipped by the coastwise route to the Atlantic ports 
or exported to Europe. The opening of the water routes 
and the trunk line railroads between the Middle West and 
the Atlantic seaboard effected a rapid diversion of this 
traffic from the southern to the eastern routes and the conse- 
quent decline of New Orleans as a flour and grain exporting 
center. In 1860 New Orleans exported only 80,500 barrels 
of flour, 2000 bushels of wheat and 224,000 bushels of corn ; 
while the oat and rye shipments were of negligible impor- 
tance. 70 The Civil War completed the destruction of the 
New Orleans flour and grain export trade which this city 
was thereafter unable to recover. This is shown by the fact 
that in 1873 New Orleans exported less than two and one- 
half per cent of the entire corn exports of the country and 
less than one-half of one per cent of the total wheat ex- 
ports. 71 

But while the competitive struggle between the eastern 
and southern routes for the western flour and grain des- 
tined for the eastern and European markets resulted in a 
victory of the former, the southern States continued to 
provide a market for large quantities of breadstuffs, in- 
cluding meat and dairy products, which the Middle West 
was able to furnish. These commodities were shipped 
southward by river and rail routes to St. Louis, Cincinnati, 
Louisville, Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, and other in- 
terior points and seaports which served as distributing 
centers. There was, in short, a considerable southward 
movement for western grain and flour not intended for 

70 Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Agriculture, p. clvi. 

*i Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United Stoics (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1979. 


export but destined for consumption in the south Atlantic 
and Gulf States. This is to be explained in part as follows : 

The Lancashire cotton famine, caused by our Civil War, had left 
its mark in the very high prices for cotton which were obtained 
during the beginning of the decade. Prices ranged from 30 to 100 
and even 200 per cent above those of the antebellum period. The 
result was the going over of the Southern States to the one crop 
system and the cultivation of cotton to the exclusion of cereals. 
The South was hailed as the market for the surplus crops of the 
West, and it was held that it was better to transport grain from 
the center of the grain belt, a distance of 800 miles to the center 
of the cotton belt, than to transport it 4,500 miles to Liverpool, 
especially as it was generally believed that by creating an American 
demand sufficient to absorb the whole crop, the prices of American 
grain would be independent of the fluctuations of the British mar- 
kets. This enhanced grain movement to the South was a consum- 
mation the more devoutly to be wished as transportation charges 
entered far more largely into the price of grain than into that of 
cotton ; the freight to Europe forming only 5 per cent of the Liver- 
pool price for cotton, while for wheat the proportion was 29 and 
for corn 50 per cent. The vigor with which this policy of sending 
corn and corn products to the south, and cotton to England, was 
prosecuted is partially reflected, however, in the extremely low 
prices of cotton which now prevail. 72 

The Select Committee on Transportation Eoutes to the 
Seaboard ascertained from statistics submitted by cham- 
bers of commerce and railroad companies that the east- 
bound shipments of grain from the Middle West in 1872 
amounted to 178,000,000 bushels; while the southbound 
shipments amounted to 35,000,000 bushels. 73 The south- 
bound shipments therefore amounted to about one-fifth of 

72 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau 
of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1979. See also Beport 
of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (Washing- 
ton, 1874), Vol. I, pp. 43-45. 

73 Beport of the Select Committee on Transportation Boutes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 43. 


the eastbound shipments, a considerable portion of which, 
as already pointed out, was destined for exportation to 
foreign countries; while the southbound shipments were 
destined for consumption in the United States. Of the 
southbound traffic 15,750,000 bushels were shipped from St. 
Louis, 5,356,000 bushels were shipped from Nashville^ 
4,965,000 bushels were shipped from Cairo, and 2,784,000 
bushels were shipped from Cincinnati, and 6,145,000 bushels 
were shipped from other points. That is to say, 45 per cent 
of the total southbound flour and grain traffic in 1872 was 
shipped from St. Louis, 15 per cent from Nashville, 14 per 
cent from Cairo, 8 per cent from Cincinnati, and the re- 
maining 12 per cent from shipping points of minor impor- 
tance. The major part of this traffic was still carried by 
river, the shipments from Cincinnati being made chiefly by 
water; while 70 per cent of the shipments from St. Louis 
and 77 per cent of the shipments from Cairo were made by 
that route. 74 Thus the southern route for the southbound 
flour and grain traffic in 1872 still corresponded to a consid- 
erable extent with the old Ohio-Mississippi Eiver route of 
the ante-bellum period. 

St. Louis was the most important shipping point on the 
Ohio-Mississippi-Missouri Eiver system for the surplus 
flour and grain of the Middle West destined for the southern 
States. 75 Situated in the heart of the great agricultural 
empire of the Mississippi Valley and at the junction of the 
Mississippi and Missouri rivers, it occupied a strategic 
position in the development of the intra-valley trade. It 

74 Beport of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, pp. 42, 43. 

75 For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movement a 
of St. Louis, see the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, No. 13, 
1879, pp. 14-35 and Appendix, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 1880, pp. 123-145 and Appendix. 
No. 2, 1882, pp. 19-54 and Appendix, Nos. 1, 24. 


was the gate city through which passed the great bulk of 
the western flour and grain which was shipped to the con- 
suming States of the south; though Cincinnati, 76 and 
Louisville 77 on the Ohio River and Cairo 78 at the junction 
of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers came in for a consider- 
able share of this traffic. St. Louis became, moreover, an 
important railroad center, and the chief competitor of Chi- 
cago for the flour and grain traffic of the Middle West 
during this period. 79 Although St. Louis had become a 
thriving commercial city before Chicago had achieved any 
importance, the diversion of the great bulk of the grain 
traffic from the southern to the eastern routes gave Chicago 
the unquestioned lead over its rival. Even so, however, St. 
Louis held second place among the primary flour and grain 
markets of the Middle West. In 1880 its receipts came from 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebras- 
ka, Kansas, Texas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and California. 80 
It supplied most of the grain consumed in the southern 
States, both east and west of the Mississippi River. It be- 

76 For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movements 
of Cincinnati, see the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, No. 8, 
1880, pp. 72-101 and Appendix, No. 3, 1882, Appendix, No. 7. 

77 For a consideration of the transportation lines and commercial movements 
of Louisville, see the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, Appendix, Nos. 1, 
16, 1879, Appendix, No. 14, 1880, Appendix, No. 7, 1882, Appendix, No. 5. 

78 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1891, p. 80. 

79 For a consideration of the competitive struggle between St. Louis and 
Chicago for the western flour and grain traffic, see the Annual Beport on the 
Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury De- 
partment), 1876, Appendix, No. 5, 1879, pp. 54-67 and Appendix, Nos. 4, 5, 
10, 17. 

so Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1882, p. 32 and Appendix, p. 15. 


came an important shipping center after 1856 — the year 
in which rail connections were first established with the 
Atlantic seaboard — for large quantities of flour and grain 
which were sent eastward via the trunk line railroads to 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. 81 The con- 
struction of the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi 
Eiver in 187 9 82 further increased the importance of St. 
Louis as an exporting center for wheat and corn which 
found its way southward via New Orleans to the western 
countries of Europe. 83 In addition to these considerations, 
St. Louis also became a great flour milling center. 84 

The growth of St. Louis as a distributing point is shown 
by Table VIII giving the flour and grain shipments from 
this city by all routes from 1865 to 1890. This shows that 
while the shipments of flour and grain fluctuated more or 
less there was a steady increase in the total volume distrib- 
uted. From 1878 to 1880, the average annual shipments 
amounted to 37,144,000 bushels; from 1881 to 1885, the 
average annual shipments were increased to 39,749,000 
bushels, and from 1886 to 1890 the average annual ship- 
ments were further increased to 44,697,000 bushels. 

The shipment of flour and grain by the southern and 
eastern routes is of special interest and importance as 
showing the general course of the intra-valley flour and 
grain trade and the conditions governing its movement. 
These two movements may be illustrated by the flour and 

si Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1882, Appendix, p. 15. 

82 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department.), 1882, pp. 54-56, 1887, pp. 254-256. 

Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1882, Appendix, p. 15. 

84 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1882, Appendix, pp. 15, 17, 18, 245-246. 


















t— i 
















. CQ 

^ CO 

"5 D 

W § 



<! co 
O P 

OOit-ONt-HNt-^HClO^ ^ OS^ OJ_ rH OS^ 00^ 00^ 00^ rH\ 

t>T inT aT cT oo" o>" t>T to" a i> o i> co <m co" i— icsocMb-coococM 

Th» OO CM OO rH O lO OO I©, * » ffl CO^ rj^ CO CO ^ ^ CD, OJ OO^ CO^ ^ 

co" oo" TtT r-T to" i-T r-T co* cm" rjT o" ao" to oi <n go os" r-T t- r-j" oo" b^ co" oo" 

O b- 

O 00 

t> H 

of Ifif 

co io 


co in 

10 CD 



^ Hr* O IO OS CM b- CM CO^ rH C5 H H CO^ r>-^ fc^ GO_ lO^ CO^ CO^ CM_ CO^ 

cm" in" co" cm" o" cT go" cT co" cd" t»T rjT i>T i>T eo" co" •«*" tjT co" o" co" b-^ 10" jo as" t> 


O l> l> ^ H ^ OO O O CO CO_ CM b- T|i rl O N © l> CO^ CO^ CO^ rH^ 

o" as" in" -*T b^ <o" cm" t-" in" t>T «o" co" oo" H^" o" in" b-" co" <^>" os" o" in" t-T hT CM 

w t— tcMr— ICMrHCMCMrHr-t H H N (M N CO CO 








*v W *n »s »^ *n w\ *s »\ »s «rs *N «s. *v *S »n •> *^ .r*' ^ *^ * 

CO^'*lf)CO^^I>IONNCC|0<M'*H(M'-' ' 1 ^ - J ■*<"< ' 


tJH OO CO CD OO rH I Q 05 

O CO CM Ol^ rH^ Tj^ Tt^ CM^ CO^ 00^ 05^ W t-^ r-^ kO^ <M^ rl^ CO^ CO^ t>^ b-^ ^ 00^ 

co" cm" cm" r-T cm" do" cm" co" co" co" cm" r-T th" rn" cm" cm" co" t)T co" co" co" cm" co" io" CD b- 

s w 




in oj 

rH rH 

rH t~ 

cm" CD" 

b- . 00 CO O Oi OS CO CO OS *H 051 »0 CM O IO C3) O CO K5 N - O) t«:Cfl 
OS CO OO OO b- OS IO OS OO O fc^ <Z>^ CO^ rH^ OS^ OO^ Od^ OS^ r-^ rH^ 00^ 

Co"rH"oo"b^C^oTcTcxrDo"cxrc3r<M"rH"i^Cr Co" ofco"rH"c>o" rH"^ OJ CO 
HH05C0C0|>CD'!tiNNO00HI>0)NffiCOa>TPT)IO , Tri 
CO CO CM^ CO^ tJH O CM rH^ IO CO^ CO^ CO^ kO^ CO^ CO^ rH^ lO^ H^ OO^ 00^ OS^ CO^ 

^" rn" rH" co" "<r oo" io" ^" co" cm" os" co" oo" t>T io" os" 10" co" o" r-T co" ID o o 

rH ri H rHrHCMrHrHrHCO^f 




O « CO H IO N N t- « H M l> O Ol'CO O) O O IO N © N CO © H B 

t— QO OO CM O IO IO TH CM^ O0^ tJH CD^ rH^ OO^ CO^ 00^ CO^ t-^ CD^ CO^ ^ CM^ lO^ r-^ 

io" rn" cm" io" co" oo" oo" <o" oo" cm" cT o" o" cm" CO th" co" co" t- CM OS CO CM rH CO 


CO CO IO t— CO O OS CM^ OS IO CO^ rt< OS CCV CO^ OS^ Tt^ ^ rH^ CO^ 00^ CO, C» 

,-T th" rn" i-T t-T cm" cm" co" fc-^ rn" co" cm" co" cm" cm" co" IO CO 

Tj)t-^COI>l> | nONl>OOIf3tONOCONI>HH^CO Cf^'* «W 

rH" O" o" Os" CM" o" CD" t-" co" rH" o" b-" io" o" IO CM" CO" Iff t-T rH CO ^ N CS O 

io b- Tt* Tfl rH t- CO CM IO OS ^ CM CM^ CO^ CM^ CO^ CO^ b^ lO^ CM^ lO^ CD^ 00^ CC 

r-f rn" rM" rH cm" r-T cm" cm" cm" <m" cm" <m" cm" cm" co" CO cm" co" CM CO CM CM CM CM 03 03 


«5 The statistics in Table VIII are taken from tables in the Annual State- 
ment of the Trade and Commerce of St. Louis, 1883, pp. 85, 86 ; 1896, pp. 149, 


grain shipments for the year 1878. In that year the flour 
shipments south amounted to 1,018,000 barrels which repre- 
sented 38.9 per cent of the total shipments. Of this amount 
452,000 barrels were sent by rail ; while 566,000 barrels were 
sent by river. The flour shipments east amounted to 
1,601,000 barrels, which represented 61.1 per cent of the 
total. Of this amount 1,579,000 barrels were sent by rail 
and 22,000 barrels were sent by river. The wheat ship- 
ments south amounted to 2,126,000 bushels, or 31.5 per cent 
of the total. Of this amount the railroads carried 228,000 
bushels; while the river handled 1,898,000 bushels. The 
shipments east amounted to 4,625,000 bushels, or 68.5 per 
cent of the entire shipments, and of this amount the rail- 
roads carried 4,610,000 bushels and the river carried 15,000 
bushels. The corn shipments south amounted to 3,747,000 
bushels, or 58.8 per cent of the total shipments, of which the 
railroads carried but 363,000 bushels, while the river 
handled 3,384,000 bushels. The shipments east amounted to 
2,628,000 bushels, or 41.2 per cent of the entire shipments, 
of which the railroads carried 2,604,000 bushels, while the 
river carried but 24,000 bushels. The entire flour and grain 
movement (including wheat, com, oats, barley, rye, and 
flour reduced to bushels) south amounted to 13,373,000 
bushels which represented 46.13 per cent of the entire ship- 
ments, of which the railroads transported 3,314,000 bushels, 
while the river carried 10,059,000 bushels. The shipments 
east amounted to 15,614,000 bushels, which represented 53.9 
per cent of the entire shipments, of which amount the rail- 

150; the Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1880, Appendix, p. 39; the Monthly 
Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 2006, 2007. The writer is indebted 
to Mr. Eugene Smith, Secretary of the Merchants Exchange of St. Louis, for 
assistance in the preparation of this table. 


roads carried 15,456,000 bushels ; while the river carried but 
158,000 bushels. 86 

These statistics show : first, the relative importance of the 
eastward and southward flour and grain movements ; and, 
second, the relative importance of the rail and water routes 
in the transportation of these commodities. It will be noted 
that the establishment of trunk line connections between St. 
Louis and the Atlantic seaboard effected a diversion of a 
considerable amount of traffic from the southern to the 
eastern routes, thus making St. Louis a competitor of New 
Orleans whereas formerly the commercial interests of these 
two cities were identical. The building of the southern 
trunk line railroads in the seventies effected a further di- 
version of traffic from the Mississippi River. While it is 
impossible owing to the lack of statistical data, to show the 
relative importance of the river and rail routes in the trans- 
portation of flour and grain to New Orleans it is clearly 
evident that the railroads in the eighties began a rapid 
absorption of this traffic. 87 Great quantities of breadstuffs 
were also shipped by rail directly into the southern States 
from St. Louis, Cairo, Memphis, Vicksburg, Louisville, and 
Cincinnati. At the same time the construction of the north 
and south railroads west of the Mississippi River brought 
Galveston into prominence during the latter part of this 
period as a flour and grain market. 

The relative importance of the Atlantic and Gulf ports in 
the competitive struggle for the surplus flour and grain 
traffic of the Middle West may now be summarized. 

In 1866 (Table IX) New York easily held first place with 
59,470,000 bushels of grain. New Orleans ranked second 

86 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1879, pp. 25, 26, 1880, pp. 52-59, 135, 136. 

87 See Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 1981. 


Table IX 

Flour and Grain Receipts op the Six Principal Seaboard 

Cities for the Year 1866 88 





New York 
New Orleans 








Total Grain, In- 
cluding Flour Re- 
duced to Bushels 

New York 
New Orleans 






with 12,289,000 bushels. Montreal was third with 10,394,000 
bushels. Baltimore stood fourth with 8,197,000 bushels. 
Boston was fifth with 7,521,000 bushels. Philadelphia stood 
sixth with 7,261,000 bushels. 

In 1870 (Table X) New York held first place with 70,- 
520,000 bushels of grain. Philadelphia advanced from sixth 
to second place with 15,307,000 bushels. New Orleans was 
reduced from second to third place with 14,602,000 bushels. 

88 The statistics used in Table IX are taken from tables in the Annual Report 
of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, p. 338, 1873-1874, pp. 882, 
347, 348, 350, 354. The total grain receipts of these ports as listed in the last 
column include the following items not given in Table IX: Montreal, 1,036,000 
bushels of peas; New York, 418,000 barrels of corn meal, 553,000 bushels of 
peas, and 594,000 bushels of malt; Boston, 26,000 bushels of corn meal J 
Baltimore, 55,000 bushels of peas; and New Orleans, 25,000 bushels of beans. 


Table X 

1 1 

Flour and Grain Receipts of the Six Principal Seaboard 

Cities for the Year 1870 89 





New York 
New Orleans 



3,080,250 i 





Total Grain, In- 
cluding Flour Re- 
duced to Bushels 

New York 
New Orleans 







Baltimore still held fourth place with 13,819,000 bushels. 
Boston still held fifth place with 13,103,000 bushels. Mon- 
treal was reduced from third to sixth place with 12,230,000 

In 1880 (Table XI) New York held first place with 169,- 
042,000 bushels. Baltimore advanced from fourth to second 
place with 60,631,000 bushels. Philadelphia dropped from 
second to third place with 49,255,000 bushels. Boston ad- 

80 The statistics used in Table X are taken from tables in the Annual Report 
of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, p. 338, 1873-1874, pp. 282, 
347, 348, 350, 354. The total grain receipts of these ports as listed in the last 
column include the following items not given in Table X: Montreal, 833,000 
bushels of peas; New York, 827,000 bushels of corn meal, 199,000 bushels of 
peas, and 1,054,000 bushels of malt; Boston, 35,000 bushels of corn meal; 
Baltimore, 40,000 bushels of peas; and New Orleans, 24,000 bushels of beans. 

Table XI 


Flour and Grain Receipts of the Six Principal Seaboard 

Cities for the Year 1880 90 





New York 
New Orleans 












Total Grain, In- 





cluding Flour Re- 

duced to Bushels 






New York 




















New Orleans 




vanced from fifth to fourth place with 37,091,000 bushels. 
Montreal advanced from sixth to fifth place with 25,330,000 
bushels. New Orleans dropped from third to sixth place 
with 22,755,000 bushels. 

In 1890 (Table XII) New York held first place with 122,- 
014,000 bushels. Baltimore continued to hold second place 
with 46,435,000 bushels. Philadelphia still held third place 
with 35,215,000 bushels. Boston continued to hold fourth 

9o The statistics used in Table XI are taken from the Annual Beport of the 
New YorJc Produce Exchange. 1881, pp. 402-407. The total grain receipts of 
these ports as listed in the last column include the following items not given in 
Table XI: Montreal, 2,618,000 bushels of peas; New York, 991,000 bushels of 
corn meal, 291,000 bushels of peas, and 2,820,000 bushels of malt; Boston. 
708,000 bushels of corn meal; Philadelphia, 173,000 bushels of malt; and Nfeffl 
Orleans, 4,000 bushels of beans. 

VOL. XX — 9 


Table XII 

Flour and Grain Receipts op the Six Principal Seaboard 

Cities for the Year 1890 91 






i i 

New York 
New Orleans 










Total Grain, In- 
cluding Flour Ee- 
duced to Bushels 

New York 
New Orleans 






21,575,442 | 

place with 30,816,000 bushels. New Orleans forged ahead 
again from sixth to fifth place with 21,575,000 bushels, thus 
replacing Montreal which dropped from fifth to sixth place 
with 17,445,000 bushels. 

In concluding this study of the internal grain trade of the 
United States during the period from 1860 to 1890 it should 
be borne in mind that the movement of flour and grain from 
the Middle West to the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards may be 

si The statistics used in Table XII are taken from tables in the Annual Be- 
port of the New York Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, pp. 25-28. The total 
grain receipts of these ports as listed in the last column include the following 
items not given in Table XII: Montreal, 1,484,000 bushels of peas; New York, 
619,000 bushels of peas, 5,027,000 bushels of malt, and 1,685,000 bushels of 
corn meal; Boston, 1,251,000 bushels of corn meal; Philadelphia, 204,000 
bushels of malt; and Baltimore, 484,000 bushels of malt. 


divided into the following classes of shipments which were 
subject to varying degrees of competition: 

1. Direct shipments from the Middle West to interior 
points in the States of the Atlantic seaboard. This traffic 
was for consumption at these points. It was less affected 
by the competition of rival lines and of rival seaports. It 
was in some cases confined to one of the trunk lines and 
consequently formed a part of its local traffic. In other 
cases two or three trunk lines might compete for this traffic, 
but it was excluded from the direct competition of all the 
trunk lines by certain well defined geographic limitations. 

2. Shipments from the Middle West to the Atlantic and 
Gulf ports. This traffic was destined either for local con- 
sumption, or for distribution coast-wise or to interior parts 
in the United States, or for exportation to foreign countries. 
It was also competitive but not to such a great extent as 
direct shipments from interior parts of the Middle West to 
the markets of Europe. The movement of grain and flour 
from the Middle West to the seaport markets involved not 
only the question of transportation routes and facilities but 
also the question of relative advantages afforded by the 
several markets, the relative magnitude of the home and 
foreign demand, and the facilities for storage and for inte- 
rior, coast-wise, or foreign shipments at each port. 

3. Direct shipments from interior points of the Middle 
West to Europe. This traffic was in the highest sense com- 
petitive, since the trunk line railroads from such interior 
points connected directly with ocean-steamship lines to 
Europe at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Balti- 
more. 92 

Louis Bernard Schmidt 

The Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 
Ames Iowa 

92 Annual Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United States (Bureau of 
Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, pp. 69-78. 


Recent History of the United States. By Frederic L. Paxson. 
New York : Houghton Mifflin Co. 1921. Pp. 603. Plates, maps. 
This volume covers the period of United States history from the 
close of the Civil War down to the date of publication, eleven of the 
fifty-seven chapters dealing with the part of the United States in 
the World War. While the emphasis naturally is on political devel- 
opments during this period, much attention is given to the indus- 
trial and economic factors and one chapter is devoted to a discus- 
sion of sport in the United States. Each chapter is followed by 

bibliographical notes and an index is provided. 


The Convention of 1846 and The Struggle over Ratification, 1846- 
1847. Edited by Milo M. Quaif e. Madison : The State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin. 1919, 1920. Pp. 827 and 716. Plates. 
These publications constitute volumes two and three of the Consti- 
tutional Series. Volume one, The Movement for Statehood, 1845- 
1846, appeared some time ago. The Convention of 1846 presents 
the story of the first constitutional convention in Wisconsin held at 
Madison in 1846. The Journal of the convention is reproduced and 
supplemented by speeches and editorials from contemporary news- 
papers. Three appendices furnish "A Record of the Votes on Roll 
Call in the Convention of 1846", "The Constitution of 1846", and 
"Biographical Sketches of the Members of the Convention of 

The third volume in the series, The Struggle Over Ratification, 
1846-1847, is almost exclusively a compilation of letters, editorials, 
debates, and speeches relating to the work of the convention and 
the constitution, reprinted from the newspapers of the period. The 
result of the referendum vote was 20,233 votes against the constitu- 
tion and only 14,119 for it. Indices are provided for both volumes. 

To the historian interested in the psychology of the people as 



well as in facts and dates such collections are invaluable. The argu- 
ments for and against banks, homestead exemptions, the election of 
judges, and property rights of women, throw much light on the life 
of the people of that time. 

The Centennial of the State of Illinois. Compiled by Jessie 
Palmer Weber. Springfield: The Illinois Centennial Commission. 
1920. Pp. 489. As its name implies this volume is a report of the 
work of the Centennial Commission and the various activities which 
marked the hundredth anniversary of the statehood of Illinois. 
Included are a number of speeches made on various occasions, docu- 
ments relating to the centennial celebration, lists of names of those 
taking part in memorial programs, and a list of the publications of 
the Commission. A copious index completes the volume. 

John Boss and the Cherokee Indians is a monograph by Rachel 
Caroline Eaton which has recently appeared. 

The House of the Great Kiva at the Aztec Ruin, by Earl H. 
Morris, is a monograph published in a recent number of the Anthro- 
pological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Two of the articles in The Cavalry Journal for October, 1921, are 
the following : The First Regiment of Cavalry, United States Army 
and The Reserve Officers' Training Corps at a Large University, by 
Robert W. Grow. 

American History in Westminster Abbey, by Mary Dudderidge, 
Panama Canal and Recent World Politics, by Guy V. Price, and 
Reorganization of Social Studies in the Secondary Schools, by H. F. 
Taggart, are three of the papers in The Historical Outlook for No- 
vember, 1921. In the following number two of the articles are 
History for History's Sake, by Howard C. Hill, and A Survey of 
Methods Courses in History, by Bessie L. Pierce. 

In One Man's Life-' Being Chapters from the Personal and Busi* 
ness Career of Theodore N. Vail, by Albert Bigelow Paine, is a 
recent biography of especial interest to Iowa readers since Theodore 
N. Vail, one of the prominent leaders in the development of the tele 


phone, was as a young man a resident of Iowa for several years, 
living at Waterloo and Iowa City. 

Four of the articles in the issue of Americana for October, 1921, 
are as follows: Nantucket — Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, by 
Amelia Day Campbell ; American Magazines, Past and Present, by 
Charles A. Ingraham; The Early American Press, by John Woolf 
Jordan ; and The Missouri Centennial, by Fenwick Y. Hedley. 

Charles Mason Dow is the editor of an Anthology and Bibliog- 
raphy of Niagara Falls in two volumes which has been published 
by the State of New York. Travellers' original descriptions, plates, 
and maps add much to the interest of the publication. 


John Elbert Stout is the author of a monograph entitled The De- 
velopment of High-School Curricula in the North Central States 
from 1860 to 1918 which is published as one of the Supplementary 
Educational Monographs of the University of Chicago. 

The Pilgrim Tercentenary Celebration at the University of Illi- 
nois, 1920, a publication of the University, contains an address on 
The Place of the Pilgrims in American History, by Evarts Boutell 
Greene, and a poem The Puritan Pilgrim: To Them that Sit in the 
Seats of the Scorners, by Ernest Bernbaum. jj 

The Journal of History for July, 1921, contains a paper on the 
Periodical Literature of the Latter Day Saints, by Walter W. 
Smith, a biography of James W. Gillen, by H. 0. Smith, and a 
historical sketch entitled The High Council, by Roy L. Roberts. 

Library Notes and News published by the Minnesota State De- 
partment of Education includes in the issue for October, 1921, a 
report of the meeting of the Minnesota Library Association held at 
St. Paul, October 31 -November 2, 1921. 

Missouri One Hundred Years Ago is the title of a centennial 
drama written by Thomas Wood Stevens and published by the 
Saint Louis Missouri Centennial Association. This production was 


prepared and presented in commemoration of the one hundredth 
anniversary of Missouri 's admission to the Union and the actors in 
many cases represent real characters in Missouri's history such as 
Auguste Chouteau, Daniel Boone, and Thomas Hart Benton. Oth- 
ers are representative of a class, as the gambler, the slave dealer, 
and the miner. 


The Alumnus of Iowa State College for October, 1921, contains 
the Commencement address delivered by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt 
in June, 1921. 

Notice to the Guarantor — in Iowa, by Rollin M. Perkins, and a 
review of Recent Iowa Legislation, by Herbert F. Goodrich, Edwin 
W. Patterson, D. 0. McGovney, C. W. Wassam, and E. B. Reuter, 
make up the issue of the Iowa Law Bulletin for November, 1921. 

Rev. C. C. Townsend, Organizer of the First Episcopal Mission 
in Johnson County, Iowa, by Charles W. Irish, is an article of his- 
torical interest in the December, 1921, issue of The Iowa Church- 

The July-September, 1921, issue of Iowa Conservation contains 
an account of the session of the American School of Wild Life, held 
at McGregor in August, 1921. 

The Iowa Library Quarterly for October-November-December, 
1921, contains a report of the meeting of the Iowa Library Associa- 
tion at Ames, on October 12 and 13, 1921. This includes the Presi- 
dent's Address, by C. W. Sumner, an address entitled Stepping 
Stones to Correct Taste, by A. B. Noble, and a brief tribute to 
William P. Payne, pioneer preacher, teacher, editor, and library 
trustee, who died recently at Nevada. 

The Report of Legislative Committee, by H. Michelstetter, is pub- 
lished in the October, 1921, issue of American Municipalities. This 
includes much information concerning the legislation of the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly. In the number for November is the report 
of the twenty-fourth annual convention of the League of Iowa 


Municipalities, held at Sioux City, August 16-18, 1921. There is 
also an article on Iowa Law of Rate Regulation, by Wm. Chamber- 
lain. In the December issue Anson Marston writes of the Iowa 
State Highway Commission and Its Work. 


Aitchison, Alison E., 

Iowa State Geography. Boston : G-inn & Co. 1921. 

Aldrich, Bess Streeter, 

The Man Who Dreaded to Go Home (The American Magazine, 
November, 1921). 

Angell, E. L, (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Marshall County , Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Artis, Gr. H., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Palo Alto County, Iowa, Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Aurner, Clarence Ray, 

Iowa Stories, Vol. III. Iowa City ; Privately printed. 1921. 
The Story of Old Capitol (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 1921). 

Austin, Fred H., 

Cost Keeping on Construction Work (Proceedings of the Iowa 

Engineering Society, 1921). 
Ayres, Q. C, 

Ditch Design and Prevention of Silt Deposit (Proceedings of 
the Iowa Engineering Society, 1921). 

Baldwin, Bird Thomas, 

Measuring the Child's Mind (The Delineator, October, 1921). 

Baldwin, Bird Thomas, (Joint author) 

Charting the Growth of Your Child (The Delineator, October, 



$40,000 for a Hog, How Much for Your Child? (The Delinea- 
tor, September, 1921). 

Bartow, Edward, 

New Chemistry Building (The Iowa Alumnus, November 
i 1921). 

The New Chemistry Building (The Transit, December, 1921). 

Beckman, F. W., 

Journalism for Engineers (The Iowa Engineer, November, 
K 1921). 

Bennett, George, 

The American School of Wild Life, Session 1921 (Iowa Con- 
servation, July-September, 1921). 

Benton, T. H., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Adair County, Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Betts, George Herbert, 

The New Program of Religious Education. New York : Abing- 
don Press. 1921. 

Bowman, James Cloyd, 

On the Des Moines. Boston: The Cornhill Publishing Co. 

Briggs, John Ely, 

The Legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly of Iowa 
(The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, October, 1921). 

Brown, Bernice, 

Being a Nobody (Collier's Weekly, September 17, 1921). 
The Man Who Married a Dumb-Bell (Collier's Weekly, De- 
cember 10, 1921). 

Buchanan, Eobert E., 

Agricultural and Industrial Bacteriology. New York: D. Ap- 
pleton & Co. 1921. 


Butler, Ellis Parker, 

Everybody Thinks Everybody Else is Ungrateful (The Amer- 
ican Magazine, December, 1921). 

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year (poem) (St. Nicholas, 
December, 1921). 

Once a Penguin Always a Penguin (Harper's Monthly Maga- 
zine, June, 1921). 

You Folks in the Audience (The American Magazine, May, 

Camp, Harold Laverne, 

Scales for Measuring Results of Physics Teaching. Iowa City : 
The State University of Iowa. 1921. 

Carr, 0. E., 

The City Manager Plan (Proceedings of the Iowa Engineering 
Society, 1921). 

Carver, Thomas Nixon, 

Principles of National Economy. Boston: Ginn & Co. 1921. 

Ohamberlin, Harold, 

The Men and the Game (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 1921). 

Chassell, E. D., 

Farm Mortgage Bankers and Farmers Unite to Fight Tax Ex- 
emption (The Northwestern Banker, October, 1921). 

Clark, Donald H., 

Eow Iowa Banks Can Help Farmers Hold Grain for Fair 

Prices (The Northwestern Banker, December, 1921). 
Iowa Country Bankers Say That Conditions Are Improving 

(The Northwestern Banker, November, 1921). 
When the First National Bank Went to the County Fair (The 

Northwestern Banker, December, 1921). 

Consoliver, E. L., 

The Field of Automotive Electricity (The Transit, December, 



Corson, George E., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Polk County, Iowa. "Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Craig, Hardin, 

Philological Quarterly (The Iowa Alumnus, November, 1921). 
fCritz, P. F., 

Track Maintenance on Railroads (The Iowa Engineer, Novem- 
ber, 1921). 

Crum, R. W., 

Quality Specifications for Concrete Brain Tile (Proceedings of 
the Iowa Engineering Society, 1921). 

De Puy, Clifford, 

Business Conditions As I Found Them on a 10,000 Mile Trip 
(The Northwestern Banker, December, 1921). 

Devine, Edward Thomas, 

Montana Farmers (The Survey, December 17, 1921). 

Diederichs, W. J., 

A Word about Heat Treatment (The Iowa Engineer, Novem- 
1 ber, 1921). 

Farr, Clifford H., 

Plant Life and Human Affairs (School Science and Mathe- 
matics, December, 1921). 

Farrell, Mrs. Mabel, (Peggy Poe) 

How Daddy Possum and Pappy Rabbit Played Santa Claus 
(The Iowa Homestead, December 22, 1921). 

Ferber, Edna, 

The Girls. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co. 1921. 

Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

Marcia (poem) (The Midland, December, 1921). 

Ford, Arthur H., 

The Adjustment of Automobile Headlights (The Transit, No- 
vember, 1921). 


Gallaher, Ruth Augusta, 

A Race Riot on the Mississippi (The Palimpsest, December, 

Galpin, S. L., 

Quality Specifications for Clay Drain Tile (Proceedings of the 
Iowa Engineering Society, 1921). 

Gross, Chas. E., 

The Construction and Locations of Surface Inlets (Proceedings 
of the Iowa Engineering Society, 1921). 

Hall, James Norman, (Joint author) 

Faery Lands of the South Seas. New York: Harper & Bros. 

Hansen, Marcus Lee, 

Welfare Work in Iowa. Iowa City : The State Historical Soci- 
ety of Iowa. 1921. 

Hanson, Leslie, 

Reduction of Taxes May be a Great Benefit of Disarmament 
Meet (The Northwestern Banker, December, 1921). 

Should the United States Cancel Its Accounts with European 
Countries? (The Northwestern Banker, October, 1921). 

Hart, Hornell, 

A Socialization Test (The Survey, November 12, 1921). 

Heindel, George F., 

The Case Against Our $18,000,000,000 of Tax Exempt Bonds 
(The Northwestern Banker, October, 1921). 

Hinman, Jack J., Jr., 

Water Purification in Iowa (Proceedings of the Iowa Engi- 
neering Society, 1921). 

Horn, Ernest, 

Relation of Silent Reading to Efficiency (Proceedings and Ad- 
dresses of the National Educational Association, 1920). 


Hornaday, William Temple, 

Gorilla that Lived Like a Human (Mentor, November, 1921). 
Study in Offspring Herds (Scientific American, November 

Zebras in New York (Scientific American, October 15, 1921). 

Hough, Emerson, 

The Astonishing Suzanne (The Red Book, June, 1921). 

Hueston, Ethel, 

Little Lady Comb. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1921. 

Hutchinson, Woods, 

Fall Colds (Ladies' Home Journal, November, 1921). 

Hyland, Mark L., 

Football Anecdotes (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 1921). 

Irish, Jno. P., 

Augustus Caesar Dodge (The Palimpsest, December, 1921). 

Jamison, James H., 

Some Observations on the New Iowa Inheritance Tax Law 
(The Northwestern Banker, November, 1921). 

Jones, Franklin D., 

The Status of Farmers Co-operative Associations under Fed- 
eral Law (Journal of Political Economy, July, 1921). 

Knipe, Alden Arthur, and Knipe, Emilie Benson, 

Diantha's Quest. New York : Macmillan Co. 1921. 

The Luck of Denewood (St. Nicholas, December, 1920-October, 

m 1921). 

The Luck of Denewood. New York : Century Co. 1921. 
McPeak, Ival, 

A Prairie Symphony (The Midland, September-October, 1921). 

Mahan, Bruce E., 

Old Fort Atkinson (The Palimpsest, November, 1921). 
The Way to Iowa (The Palimpsest, October, 1921). 


Meeker, Robert J., 

Treasure Undiscovered (Rock Island Magazine, December, 


Meister, Charles J., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Polk County, Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Meredith, Edwin Thomas, 

Business and Agriculture (North American Review, October, 


Merry, Glenn Newton, 

A Speaking Voice Laboratory (The Iowa Alumnus, November, 


Messerschmidt, R. M., 

What Makes a Banker Successful (The Northwestern Banker, 

December, 1921). 
Mitchell, H. L., 

The Circus Comes to Town. Boston : Little, Brown & Co. 1921. 

Murphy, Thomas D., 

On Sunset Highways (Second edition). Boston: Page Co. 


Newton, Joseph Fort, 

Preaching in London (Atlantic Monthly, August, September, 

October, 1921). 
Noble, A. B., 

Stepping Stones to Correct Taste (Iowa Library Quarterly, 
October-September, 1921). 

Parish, John Carl, 

A Study in Heads (The Palimpsest, October, 1921). 

Parrott, F. W., 

Primary and Secondary Road Assessments (Proceedings of the 
Iowa Engineering Society, 1921). 

Patrick, G. T. W., 

The Play of a Nation (The Scientific Monthly, October, 1921). 


Patzig, Monroe L., 

Pavements (Proceedings of the Iowa Engineering Society 
1921). ~ *' 

Perkins, Rollin M., 

Notice to the Guarantor — in Iowa (Iowa Law Bulletin No- 
vember, 1921). 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

Johnny Cook (poem) (The Midland, December, 1921). 
Quick, John Herbert, 

Vandemark's Folly (The Ladies' Home Journal, October, No- 
vember, and December, 1921). 

Vandemark's Folly. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1921. 
Rietz, Henry Lewis, (Joint author) 

Mathematics of Finance. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 1921. 

Roberts, George Evan, 

Remedies for Industrial Depression (The American Review of 
Reviews, November, 1921). 

Ross, Edward Als worth, 

Education in Recent Sociology (Education, October, 1921). 

Rubey, F. E., 

Optimism Is Fine, but Don't Try to Fool Yourself or Your 
Clients (The Northwestern Banker, November, 1921). 

Russell, F. M., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Palo Alto County, Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Seashore, Carl Emil, 

George Trumbull Ladd (Science, September 16, 1921). 

Shaw, Leslie M., 

Sane Taxation vs. the Single Tax (The Northwestern Banker, 
»' October, 1921). 

Smith, Lewis "Worthington, 

On Being Different (The Reviewer, December, 1921). 


Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 

The Friendly Arctic. New York : Macmillan Co. 1921. 

Stout, George L., 

Art Education at Iowa (The Iowa Alumnus, November, 1921). 

Sweeney, 0. R., 

Manufacture of Toxic Gases for Use in Modem Warfare (The 
Iowa Engineer, December, 1921). 

Titus, Lydia Arnold, 

From New York to Iowa (The Palimpsest, October, 1921). 

Watts, C. E., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Palo Alto County, Iowa. Washington : United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Wetherell, Frank E., 

City Planning and the Conservation of Wild Life (Iowa Con- 
servation, July-September, 1921). 

Weichmann, P. C, (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Adair County, Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1921. 

Woodward, S. M., 

Hydraulic Fill Dams and Levees (Proceedings of the Iowa 

Engineering Society, 1921). 


Sixty years on the Mirror, in the Clinton Mirror, October 1, 1921. 

Across the plains in 1864, by John S. Collins, in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, October 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, November 5, 
12, 19, 26, December 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 1921. 

Recollections of the Mississippi River, by J. M. Turner, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, October 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 
November 5, 12, 19, 26, December 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 1921. 

The life and adventures of Captain Stephen B. Hanks, edited by 
Fred A. Bill, in the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, Octo- 


ber 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, November 5, 12, 19, 26, December 3 10 17 
24, 31, 1921. ' ' ' ' 

George McKinley, pioneer stage driver of Marengo, in the Marengo 
Republican, October 5, 1921, and the Marengo Democrat, No- 
vember 30, 1921. 

Journalism in the eighties, in the Sac City Bulletin, October 5 
I 1921. 

William Harrison, an old time fiddler, in the Keosauqua Republi- 
can, October 6, 1921. 

The decay of water transportation, in the Des Moines Plain Talk, 
October 6, 1921. 

Eeminiscences of Indian leaders in Iowa, in the Madrid News, 
October 6, 1921. 

The organization of Iowa Territory, in the Shenandoah Post, Octo- 
ber 7, 1921. 

Ibwa mounds, in the Marshalltown Times-Republican, October 7, 
K 4921. 

McGregor dam built in 1828, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
October 8, 1921. 

J. S. Barnett, pioneer sheriff of Cass County, in the Atlantic News, 
October 8, 1921. 

Old Des Moines River boats and pilots, by Jasper Blines, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, October 8, 1921. 

Fox hunting in Iowa, in the Des Moines Register, October 9, 1921. 

Indian remains in Allamakee County, in the Waukon Standard, 
October 12, 1921, the Newton News, October 21, 1921, and the 
Adel Record, October 25, 1921. 

The Spirit Lake Massacre, in the Spencer Reporter, October 12, 

m 192L 

Reminiscences of early days in Waukon, by Mrs. Callie B. Letch - 
ford, in the Waukon Standard, October 12, 1921. 

vol. xx — 10 


Sketch of the life of Sylvester Lyman, in the Missouri Valley Times, 
October 12, 1921. 

Fredonia, candidate for State capital, in the Keota Eagle, October 

13, 1921, and the Fairfield Tribune, October 20, 1921. 

Semi-centennial of the Salem Lutheran Church, in the Crest on 
Advertiser Gazette, October 13, 1921. 

Frontier experiences of Pleasant Chitwood, sheriff of Boone County, 
in the Madrid News, October 13, 1921. 

John Roush, pioneer miller of Lewis, in the Atlantic News, Octo- 
ber 14, 1921. 

First horse car in Sioux City, in the Sioux City Journal, October 

14, 1921 

Steamboats on the Des Moines River, by Hiram Heaton, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, October 15, 1921. 

Pioneer Scenes in Black Hawk County, in the Waterloo Courier, 
October 15, 1921. 

First school house in Waterloo, in the Waterloo Courier, October 

15, 1921. 

John Barker, veteran railroad engineer, in the Des Moines Register, 
October 16, 1921, and the Waukon Standard, October 19, 1921. 

Semi-centennial celebration at Shenandoah, in the Shenandoah 
Post, October 17, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Asa Piatt, Sac City's oldest resident, in the 
Sioux City Journal, October 17, 1921. 

The disappearance of James Putnam, in the Burlington Gazette, 
October 18, 1921. 

Steamboat Rock, by John F. Kraft, in the Eldora Herald, October 
20, 1921 

Newspaper men from Prairie Township, Keokuk County, in the 
Keota Eagle, October 20, 1921. 


Indian entertainment at Britt, in the Britt News, October 20, 1921 

Road from Keokuk to Iowa City, in the Keokuk Gate City, October 
21, 1921. 

Early history of Fort Crawford, in the Newton News, October 21, 
1921, and the Humboldt Independent, October 27, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Samuel R. Ballard, pioneer railroad builder, 
in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, October 25, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of W. P. Payne, in the Nevada Representative, 
October 25, 1921. 

Escape from wolves near New Hampton, in the New Hampton 
Tribune, October 26, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of William F. King, in the Mt. Vernon Record, 
October 26, 1921. 

Mammoth tooth in Allamakee County, in the Waukon Standard, 
October 26, 1921. 

Ancient firearm in gravel pit in Woodbury County, in the Correc- 
tionville News, October 27, 1921. 

Old rivermen of the Mississippi, by Fred A. Bill in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, October 29, 1921. 

Spillville, little Bohemia in Iowa, by Freeman R. Conaway, in the 
Cedar Rapids Republican, October 30, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Eugene Schaffter, in the Eagle Grove Times, 
November 3, 1921. 

Reminiscences of the grasshoppers, by Frank Davey, in the Water- 
loo Courier, November 4, 1921. 

W. C. Brown, railroad executive in Iowa, in the Oakland Acorn, 
November 10, 1921. 

Cedar County's first court house, in the Tipton Advertiser, Novem- 
W ber 11, 1921. 

Sacagawea, "The Bird Woman" scout, by Elmo Scott Watson, in 
the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, November 12, L921. 


Story of the Iowa flag, in the Charter Oak Times, November 16, 

Early days along the Cedar River, in the Mt. Vernon Record, Nov- 
ember 16, 1921. 

William Ewing, first farm agent in Iowa, in the Fairfield Ledger, 
November 17, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Lewis Miles in the Corydon Democrat, Nov- 
ember 17, 1921. 

Pioneer days in Estherville, by C. W. Jarvis, in the Estherville 
Republican, November 23, 1921. 

The history of Iowa, in the Muscatine Herald, November 24, 1921. 

Indians and whiskey, by Jas. N. Miller, in the Sac City Sun, No- 
vember 24, 1921. 

How old is Lenox?, in the Lenox Time Table, November 24, 1921. 

Clarke County in the World War, in the Osceola Tribune, Novem- 
ber 24, 1921. 

How Cedar Palls missed the capital, in the Cedar Falls Record, 
November 26, 1921. 

Atlantic fifty-two years old, in the Atlantic News, November 26, 

Sketch of the life of William Vincent Lucas, in the Waverly Dem- 
ocrat, November 17, 1921. 

A. L. Bixby, pioneer of Iowa, in the Estherville Republican, Nov- 
ember 18, 1921. 

Jefferson County incidents, by Hiram Heaton, in the Fairfield 
Ledger, November 18, 28, December 6, 1921. 

Fayette County's territory, by Freeman R. Conaway, in the Cedar 
Rapids Republican, November 19, 1921, and the Independence 
Journal, December 1, 1921. 

The Old Thompson Mill and cock fighting in Iowa, in the Des 
Moines Register, November 20, 1921. 


The Green Tree Hotel in the Hall of Fame for Trees, in the Musca- 
tine Journal, November 29, 1921, and the Dubuque Herald 
November 30, 1921. 

Early settlers of Page County, in the Shenandoah Post November 
30, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of William A. McHenry, in the Denison Review 
November 30, 1921, and the Des Moines Capital, December 4 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Elizabeth Dennis, in the Cedar Rapids 
Gazette, November 30, 1921. 

The pioneers and their homes, in the Eldora Herald, December 1 

The Danish settlement in western Iowa, in the Audubon Republi- 
can, December 1, 1921. 

Early days at Dyersville, in the Monticello Express, December 1 

Madrid was once Swede Point, in the Madrid News, December 1 
» ; 1921. • 

J. L. McCreery wrote "There Is No Death" at Delhi, in the Monte- 
zuma Republican, December 1, 1921. 

Early history of Benton County, in the Vinton Eagle, December 
2, 9, 16, 23, 1921. 

rhe Mormons at Winter Quarters and Kanesville, in the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil, December 4, 11, 1921. 

Jharles G. Patten, the Burbank of Iowa, in the Des Moines Capital, 
December 4, 1921. 

Sarly Pottawattamie County, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, 
December 4, 1921. 

"owa survivors of Andersonville, in the Des Moines Capital, De- 
cember 4, 1921, the Garner Democrat, December 8, 1921, the 
Anamosa Journal, December 15, 1921, the Maquoketa Exam- 
iner Record, December 16, 1921, and the Bellevue Leader. 
December 22, 1921. 


Christmas time in Boone County, in the Madrid News, December 
9, 1921. 

Early Iowa land grant, in the Griswold American, December 8, 

Sketch of the life of T. Mack Easton, in the Sioux City Journal, 
December 13, 1921. 

First railway in Greene County, in the Perry Tribune, December 
13, 1921. | 1 

Sketch of the life of John B. Montgomery, in the Madrid News, 
December 15, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Alfred F. Brown, in the Waterloo Courier, 
December 19, 1921. 

Robert Lucas aud the beginning of Iowa, in the Newton News, 
December 21, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Herman Hue, in the Waterloo Times, Dec- 
ember 21, 1921. 

Early days in Greene County, by A. R. Mills, in the Jefferson Bee, 
December 21, 1921. 

The return of the Musquakie Indians to Iowa, in the Madrid News, 
December 22, 1921. 

Old school houses in Van Buren County, in the Keosauqua Repub- 
lican, December 22, 1921. 

The seventy-fifth anniversary of the State of Iowa, in the Newton 
News, December 22, 1921, the Marshalltown Times-Republican, 
December 22, 1921, the Keokuk Gate City, December 22, 24, 
1921, the Des Moines News, December 27, 1921, the Oskaloosa 
Herald, December 28, 1921, the Des Moines Capital, December 
28, 1921, the Des Moines Register, December 28, 1921, and the 
Des Moines Plain Talk, December 29, 1921. 

Notes by the way, by Hiram Heaton, in the Fairfield Ledger-Jour- 
nal, December 24, 1921. 


Jacob St. Lawrence, early resident of Des Moines, i n the Des 
Moines Register, December 26, 1921, and the Osceola Sentinel 
December 29, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Emily Goan, in the Dubuque Journal 
December 28, 1921. 

Log cabin days in Iowa, in the Marshalltown Times-Republican, 
December 28, 1921, and the Fort Dodge Messenger, December 
28, 1921. 

Old times in Emmet County, by George E. Delevan, in the Esther - 
ville Vindicator-Republican, December 28, 1921. 

The Old Capitol is older than the State of Iowa, in the Clinton 
Herald, December 30, 1921. 




The Battle of Franklin, The Key to the Last Campaign in the 
West, by W. W. Gist, Tennessee Department of Library, Archives 
and History, by A. P. Foster, and A Yankee Schoolmaster's Remi- 
niscences of Tennessee, by Marshall S. Snow, are the three papers 
in the Tennessee Historical Magazine lor January, 1921. 

The Indiana Magazine of History for September, 1921, con- 
tains the following articles: New Albany and the Scribner Family, 
by Mary Scribner Collins Davis ; Miles Cary Eggleston, by Blanch 
Goode Garber; and the second installment of The Fugitive Slave 
Law in Indiana, by Charles H. Money. 

The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation for April, 1921, contains an article on Sectionalism in Writ- 
ing History, by James Sullivan, and one on The Origins of Prison 
Reform in New York State, by Harry E. Barnes. 

The Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1921, con- 
tains the following articles and papers : Conditions in Texas Affect- 
ing the Colonization Problem, 1795-1801, by Mattie Austin 
Hatcher; the first installment of The Bryan-Hayes Correspond- 
ence; Early Irrigation in Texas, by Edwin P. Arneson; and the 
Journal of Lewis Birdsall Harris, 1836-1842. 

Two of the articles in the September, 1921, number of The 
Georgia Historical Quarterly are The Beginnings of the Public 
School Sijstem in Georgia, by William H. Kilpatrick, and Macon: 
An Historical Retrospect, by Mary Lane. 

The issue of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 
for July, 1921, contains a number of papers and poems on John 
Brown. Old Brown, by Wm. D. Howells, and John Brown, by 
Coates Kinney, are the poems. John Brown, by C. B. Galbreath, 



The Execution of John Brown, by Murat Halstead, John Brown at 
Harper's Ferry and Chariest own, by S. K. Donovan, are the three 
articles in this number. 

The Minnesota Historical Society has issued its twenty-first bi- 
ennial report for the years 1919 and 1920 as an extra number of the 
Minnesota History Bulletin. 

The Essex Guards, by Lawrence Waters Jenkins, The Boston 
Revere Beach and Lynn Narrow Gauge Railroad, by Francis B. C. 
Bradlee, and Salem Vessels and Their Voyages, by George Gran- 
ville Putnam, are three articles in the October, 1921, issue of The 
Historical Collections of the Essex Institute. 

A report of the sixty-eighth annual meeting of the State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin is published in the Proceedings of the 
Society for 1920. In addition there is an account of an early legis- 
lative group under the title, The Rump Council, and a paper by 
Joseph Schafer on Wisconsin's Farm Loan Law, 1849-1863. 

New Jersey in the Colonial Wars, by E. Wayne Parker, and The 
Preakness Valley and Reminiscences of Washington's Headquarters 
in the Hey Mansion, by Joseph Fulford Folsom, are two of the 
articles in the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 
for October, 1921. 

The Last Phase of the Oregon Boundary, by Andrew Fish, is 
begun in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society for Sep- 
tember, 1921. In the documentary material is a second installment 
of The Letters of the Rev. William M. Roberts, Third Superintend- 
ent of the Oregon Mission. 

Stevens' Diary, Some Valley Notes, contributed by Charles E. 
Kemper, and Lists and Calendars of Source Material, collected for 
the Virginia War History Commission, are three of the papers in 
The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography for October, 1921. 

Charles Lee — Stormy Petrel of the Revolution, an address by 
Edward Robins, is one of the articles published in The Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography for January, 1921. The 


two articles which make up the number for April, 1921, are the 
following: Journal of Col John May, of Boston, Relative to a 
Journey to the Ohio Country, 1789, and a continuation of Thomas 
Rodney, by Simon Gratz. 

The Adventure of Walker's Ranch, by B. E. Bengston, A Small 
Historic Spot in Hamilton County, by the same writer, and Good 
Templars in Nebraska, are among the contributions in the October- 
December, 1920, number of Nebraska History and Record of Pio- 
neer Days. Announcement is made that the next number will ap- 
pear in magazine form. 

A second and concluding installment of Frederick W. Loetscher's 
Presbyterianism in Colonial New England, Was John Knox a Royal 
Chaplain?, by Louis F. Benson, and The Journal of Rev. and Mrs. 
Lemuel Foster, edited by Harry Thomas Stock, are the three con- 
tributions to the Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 
for September-December, 1921. 

Captains Gray and Kendrick: The Barrell Letters, edited by 
F. W. Howay, Naming Stampede Pass, by W. B. Bonney, The 
Oregon Latvs of 1845, by John T. Condon, The Peace Portal, by the 
Peace Portal Committee, an installment of the Origin of Washing- 
ton Geographic Names, by Edmond S. Meany, and a continuation of 
The Nisqually Journal, edited by Victor J. Farrar, are contribu- 
tions to The Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 1921. 

Democracy in Canada, by George M. Wrong, Some Reflections 
on Anonymous Iconoclasm, by R. Hodder Williams, and The Gold 
Colony of British Columbia, by Walter N. Sage, are the three arti- 
cles in The Canadian Historical Review for December, 1921. The 
second article is a discussion of such books as The Mirrors of Down- 
ing Street, Mirrors of Washington, and Masques of Ottawa as his- 
torical authority. 

The Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Mississippi Vall&y His- 
torical Association, In Re That Aggressive Slavocracy, by Chauncey 
S. Boucher, The Political Career of Ignatius Donnelly, by John D. 
Hicks, and Rhodes' s History of the United States, by Lester Burrell 



Shippee, are four papers in The Mississippi Valley Historical Re- 
view for June-September, 1921. Under the heading Notes and 
Documents there appears Trudeau's Description of the Upper 

The Evolution of American Penology as Illustrated by the West- 
ern Penitentiary of Pennsylvania, by Harry Elmer Barnes, Fore- 
fathers, a poem by Edmund Blunden, Some Aspects of Pittsburgh's 
Industrial Contribution to the World War, by Frank R. Murdock, 
The Lucases, by Henry L. Patterson, Reminiscences of Early 
Pittsburgh, by Mrs. C. Simpson, and George Croghan and the 
Struggle for the Ohio Valley, 1748-1758, by Clarence R. Thayer, 
are contributions to the Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 
for October, 1921. 

Some Pastors and Pastorates During the Century of Presbyte- 
rianism in Illinois, by James Gore King McClure, In St. Louis 
During the "Crisis", by Cyrus B. Plattenburg, Old-Time Cam- 
paigning and the Story of a Lincoln Campaign Song, by "William 
Hawley Smith, Life Sketch of Samuel Seaney, by Mildred Seaney, 
My Retrospection of Four Score Years, by Gaius Paddock, Brief 
Record of the Mexican, Civil, Spanish Wars and the World's Great 
Conflict, by Gaius Paddock, A Mattoon Pioneer, by Adolf Sumerlin, 
Pike County Settled 1820; 100 Years Ago, by Jesse M. Thompson, 
Pioneer Log Church, Coles County, Illinois, by Alfred B. Balch, 
Mrs. Abbie Fay Newman, Early Methodism in Mount Carmel, Illi- 
nois, by Theodore G. Risley, and A Lost Stark County Town, by 
William R. Sandham, are addresses and papers in the Journal of the 
Illinois State Historical Society for April, 1920. 

The December, 1921, number of The Wisconsin Magazine of His- 
tory contains the following papers and articles : Memories of Early 
Wisconsin and the Gold Mines, by John B. Parkinson; Document- 
ing Local History, by Joseph Schafer; and Historic Spots in W%+ 
consin, by W. A. Titus. The last named article is an account of 
St. Nazianz, a Unique Religious Colony. A brief paper entitled A 
Treasure Quest appeals to all history lovers who regret to sec so 
much valuable material stored away for years only to be burned or 


sold for waste paper. Under the head of Documents are some 
World War letters of Eldon J. Canright. 

The first volume of the Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association for 1918 contains the Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Historical Association for 1918 and in addition the following 
papers: Vagaries of Historians, by William Roseoe Thayer; A 
Brief History of the Sheep Industry in the United States, by L. G. 
Connor; Dr. John Mitchell, Naturalist, Cartographer, and His- 
torian, by Lyman Carrier; Historical Aspects of the Surplus Food 
Production of the United States, 1862-1902, by William Trimble; 
Early Days of the Albemarle Agricultural Society, by Rodney H. 
True; Minute Booh of the Albemarle (Va.) Agricultural Society, 
prepared by Rodney H. True; and a Directory of the American 
Historical Association for 1920. A supplemental volume contains 
the Writings on American History, 1918, compiled by Grace Gard- 
ner Griffin. The second volume containing the Autobiography of 
Martin Van Bur en, edited by John C. Fitzpatrick, appeared some 
time ago. 

An extra number of The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 
for November, 1921, contains the Proceedings of the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association for 1919-1920. In addition to the 
reports of the Association the following papers and articles are 
included: The Timber Culture Acts, by William F. Raney; An 
Historical Detective Story, by Jacob P. Dunn; Elijah Clarke's 
Foreign Intrigues and the <e Trans-Oconee Republic", by E. Merton 
Coulter; The Undertow of Puritan Influence, by Arthur L. Kohl- 
meier; The Moravian Mission Settlement in Indiana, by Arthur W. 
Brady ; The Use, the Abuse, and the Writing of Textbooks in Amer- 
ican History, by Wilmer C. Harris; How the War Should Affect 
the Teaching of History, by Herriot C. Palmer; The Trials of a 
History Teacher, by Charles Roll ; Perils of River Navigation in the 
Sixties, by William C. Cochran ; Dr. Josiah Gregg, Historian of the 
Old Santa Fe Trail, by William E. Connelley ; The Construction of 
the Miami and Erie Canal, by Arthur H. Hirsch; The Strategy of 
Concentration, as Used by the Confederate Forces in the Mississippi 


Valley in the Spring of 1862, by Alfred P. James; and the Final 
Report of the Committee on Standardizing Library Work and Li- 
brary Equipment for History in Secondary Schools. 

The double number of the Michigan History Magazine for July 
and October, 1921, contains a large number of papers and articles 
among which are the following: Polygamy at Beaver Island, by 
Milo M. Quaif e ; A Daring Canadian Abolitionist, by Fred Landon ■ 
What the Glaciers Did for Michigan, by Franklin S. Dewey; His- 
toric Spots Along Old Roads and New, by "Willard M. Bryant ■ A 
Forgotten City (Holland, Michigan), by Ralph Chester Meima; 
Overland to Michigan in 1846, by Sue I. Silliman ; Pioneer Days in 
Wexford County, by Clarence Lewis Northrup; Rail Growth of 
Michigan's Capital City, by Glen K Stimson; Historical Sketch of 
the Muskegon Schools, by Addie Littlefield; The Story of Battle 
Creek's First Bank, by Forest G. Sweet; Early Days in Dearborn, 
by Henry A. Haigh ; and Memories of Early Marquette, by Mrs. 
Philo M. Everett. 


A meeting to organize a Jewish historical club was held at Des 
Moines on October 20, 1921. Young people between the ages of 
fifteen to twenty-one are eligible to membership. 

A meeting of the Hawkeye Natives was held at Burlington on 
November 7, 1921. Eleven new members were added. At the 
meeting held on December 5, 1921, twenty-four new members were 

An open meeting of the Historical Society of Marshall County 
was held at Marshalltown on December 12, 1921. An address by 
Aaron Palmer on " Historic Spots in Iowa", and one by Mrs. J. M. 
Whitaker on "The Little Brown Church" were part of the pro- 

The fifteenth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley His 
torical Association will be held at Iowa City, Iowa, on May 11, 12, 
and 13, 1922. Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Superintendent of 


The State Historical Society of Iowa, has been appointed chairman 
of the Local Arrangements Committee. The program is in charge 
of a committee of which Dr. George N. Fuller of the Michigan 
Historical Commission, Lansing, Michigan, is the chairman. 

The thirty-sixth annual meeting of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation was held at St. Louis on December 27 to 30, 1921. The 
following officers of the Association were chosen for 1922 : presi- 
dent, Charles H. Haskins; first vice president, Edward P. Cheyney; 
second vice president, Woodrow "Wilson ; secretary, John S. Bassett; 
treasurer, Charles Moore. Announcement was made that the meet- 
ing of the Association for 1922 would be in New Haven, Con- 
necticut, and for 1923, in Columbus, Ohio. 


A second volume in the series Iowa Chronicles of the World War 
is ready for distribution by The State Historical Society of Iowa. 
This is Welfare Work in Iowa, by Marcus Lee Hansen, whose vol- 
ume on Welfare Campaigns in Iowa appeared some time ago. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. Ben F. Butler, Sibley, Iowa; Mr. George 
Bennett Cullison, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. H. C. Meyer, Britt, Iowa; 
Mrs. C. H. Morse, Eagle Grove, Iowa ; Mr. C. B. Clovis, Atlantic, 
Iowa; Mr. F. R. Conaway, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Henry Dall, 
Battle Creek, Iowa; Mr. John Jessup, Harlan, Iowa; Mr. S. C. 
Kerberg, Audubon, Iowa; Mr. L. Dee Mallonee, Audubon, Iowa; 
Mr Leonard L. Ryan, Audubon, Iowa; Mr. Allan F. Saunders, 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Mrs. W. S. Slagle, Alton, Iowa; Judge Truman 
S. Stevens, Des Moines, Iowa; Mrs. Harriet H. Sweet, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. George A. Bieber, Ft. Atkinson, Iowa; Judge John W. 
Gwynne, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. H. Moschel, Ottumwa, Iowa; Mr. 
George Schnucker, Aplington, Iowa; Dr. W. B. Small, Waterloo, 
Iowa; Mr. W. W. Wainwright, Connersville, Indiana; and Mr. 
FredWyman, Davenport, Iowa. Mr. Thomas Teakle of Spokane, 
Washington, has been enrolled as a life member. 


The thirty-third annual reunion of the Eighteenth Iowa Volun- 
teer Infantry was held at Chariton on October 11 and 12, 1921. 

The thirty-sixth annual reunion of the Van Buren County Vet- 
eran Association was held at Keosauqua on October 6, 1921. Forty- 
five veterans were present representing regiments' from several 
States in addition to Iowa organizations. J. A. Fowler was elected 
president; W. H. Harryman, vice president; and R. R. McBeth, 

Shenandoah celebrated its fiftieth anniversary on October 12-14, 
1921, by a parade, a golden wedding, and a pageant. Some six 
hundred persons took part in the pageant which represented the 
history and the spirit of Iowa and the vicinity. 

The twenty-fourth annual convention of the League of Iowa 
Municipalities was held at Sioux City, August 16-18, 1921. The 
following officers were elected: Ingalls Swisher, Iowa City, presi- 
dent; Robert S. McNutt, Muscatine, vice president; and Frank G. 
Pierce, Marshalltown, secretary and treasurer. 

The thirty-first annual meeting of the Iowa Library Association 
was held at Ames, on October 12, 13, and 14, 1921. The following 
officers were elected : W. F. Riley of Des Moines, president ; Grace 
Shellenberger of Davenport, first vice president; Mrs. Edgar W. 
Stanton of Ames, second vice president; Mary E. McCoy of Indian- 
ola, secretary ; Mae C. Anders of Des Moines, treasurer ; and Annie 
Allen of Mason City, registrar. 

Eugene Schaffter was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, on September 
3, 1864, moving to Eagle Grove, Iowa, in 1882. Here for some 
years he edited a newspaper, worked for the Chicago and North- 
western Railroad, and later practiced law. In addition to filling I 
number of local offices, Mr. Schaffter was State Senator in Iowa 
from 1918 until his death on October 31, 1921. 

i :»9 


Louis Bernard Schmidt, Professor of History in the Iowa 
State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Keceived the 
degree of Ph. B. from Cornell College in 1901 and A. M. in 
1906. Graduate student in History at the Universities of 
Chicago and Wisconsin and in Political Science at the State 
University of Iowa. Member of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation, Mississippi Valley Historical Association, State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, and American Association of University 
Professors. Lecturer on War Issues at the United States Army 
School located at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts during the summer of 1918 and Chairman of 
the War Issues Course at this institution in the fall quarter of 
the same year. Contributor to The Iowa Journal op History 
and Politics and other magazines and periodicals. Author of 
Topical Studies and References on the Economic History of 
American Agriculture. (See also The Iowa Journal op His- 
tory and Politics for October, 1912, p. 593.) 


1 ME 

lov§, Journal 

;-| , iMifi of . 

H i storyeoxd Politics 

APRIL 1922 

|§1 ; Published Quarterly ./>}.,. 


Iowe^Ci^Iowaii •' • • 

Associate Editor JOHN C. PARISH 

1 Vol XX 

APRIL 1932 

No 2 


A Trip Across the Plains in 1857 
The Judiciary of the Territory of Iowa 

William Clark 

Jacob A. Swisher 

Some Publications 
Western Americana 

Historical Societies 

Notes and Comment 



Copyright 1922 ly The State Historical Society of Iowa 


Published Quarterly 
at iowa city 

Subscription Price: $2.00 Single Number 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 

50 Cents 



VOL. XX — 11 


[This account of a trip to Salt Lake City and California was written by 
William Clark, originally in the form of notes made during the journey. 
Years later these notes were rewritten and the original scraps of paper were 
destroyed. The footnotes have been added by the editor, and occasional altera- 
tions have been made in capitalization and in the spelling of words and place 
names. The manuscript was secured and presented to the Society by Mrs. 
Louis Bernard Schmidt of Ames, Iowa. Mr. Clark died in February, 1920, in 
Ames, Iowa. He had been twice Mayor of that city. — The Editor] 

I started from Freeport, 111., about the middle of June 
for St. Louis. Mo., not knowing where I would finally make 
a stop for any length of time, as I was undecided what I 
would do. 

The first night in St. Louis, by chance, I fell in company 
with three young men: one from Peoria, 111., by the name 
of Edwin Leach, a bright young man of about twenty-one 
years of age, and George Tuttle and Martin Sherwood 
from Oshkosh, Wis. These two were chums and had come 
down the Mississippi from the pinery on a raft and were 
very agreeable young men. 

We started together to ' ' take in" the city. In the morn- 
ing we strolled along the levee and went aboard several 
boats — one soon to start up river to Leavenworth City. 

It was suggested by some one that we all go up to 
Leavenworth on this boat, which was agreed to at once, 
and we gathered up our baggage, got aboard of her, and 
paid our fare to Leavenworth. 

On this boat were bills posted stating that Majors, Russol 
& Waddel 1 wanted several hundred young men to drive ox 

1 The name of this firm is usually written Russell, Majors, and WaddeU, 
Alexander Majors began freighting across the plains in 1848. It is said thai 
he never drank nor swore and that he made his employees sign a contract not 
to drink, gamble, or swear. In 1855 he combined with another freight lag fan 



teams across the plains to Utah, and would pay $30 per 
month for the round trip or $40 and take our discharge at 
Salt Lake City. 

We all concluded we would hire out to them and make 
the trip. 

After landing in Leavenworth, we disposed of our lug- 
gage and started out to get what information we could in 
regard to the trip we were about to undertake. 

We learned that the government was going to establish 
three military posts in Utah Territory and that Majors, 
Eussel & Waddel 2 had a large contract to deliver their beef 
cattle and soldiers' supplies to these posts. That Col. 
Vanvliet 3 had gone on ahead with an escort of twenty men 
to hunt out and locate them and be ready to receive the 
soldiers and supplies when they arrived; and that Majors, 
Eussel & WaddelV contract would require twenty-six 
trains of twenty-six wagons each and require six yoke of 
cattle to each wagon. The cattle were nearly all wild 
steers, four and five years old and each team would be 
allowed only two yoke of gentle cattle. The men would 
have to load their own trains, would have to stand guard 
half of every other night, and do their own cooking; and 
it was rumored that we would be made to drive Sundays. 

under the name Majors and Russell, but in 1858 the firm name became Russell, 
Majors, and Waddell. This was the largest of the freighting companies, using 
in the year 1858 some 3500 wagons, 40,000 oxen, and 1000 mules. Over 4000 
men were employed. The business was extended to include passenger and 
express service and in 1860 at the suggestion of William H. Russell, one of 
the partners, the Pony Express was established. — Hartman's The California 
and Oregon Trail, a thesis in the possession of the library of the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa; Visscher's The Tony Express, pp. 18, 20, 22; Coman's Economic 
Beginnings of the Far West, Vol. II, p. 355; Rhodes 's History of the United 
States, 1850-1877, Vol. Ill, p. 237. 

2 See above, note 1. 

s This was Captain Stewart Van Vliet. — House Executive Documents, 35th 
Congress, 1st Session, Vol. X, Doc. No. 71, p. 26. 

4 See above, note 1. 


We concluded to go to one of the contractors, William 
Kussel, 5 to make our bargain, and not trust to an agent. 

"We made our bargain with him and enrolled ourselves 
for the trip, with the express understanding that we should 
not be asked to drive Sundays, unless for the want of grass 
or water. We pledged ourselves together to stand by our 
bargain, and not to be run over by our train boss, as we 
had learned that they would undertake to force us when 
out on the plains, so as to make extra time and give them 
notoriety for making a quick trip. 

We learned that most of the men, or teamsters, and all 
of the train bosses were southern men and most of them 
were hired in the south to come to Kansas to drive the free 
state people from the polls and carry the election in the 
interest of slavery. Most of the teamsters in our train 
had their expenses paid and were armed, and some paid 
as high as one hundred and sixty dollars in cash for this 
purpose. This was shortly after the Jim Lane 6 trouble in 
Kansas, so there was not the best of feeling between them- 
selves and the 6 'Yanks" as they called us. 

It was, I think, about the 24th of June [1857] that we 
commenced our work of loading our wagons for the trip. 
Our loading was done at the Fort, a short distance out. 
We carried one hundred pound sacks of bacon, sugar, and 
rice and loaded up the wagons. When night came, we were 
a dirty greasy looking set of " tender feet" as we had 
handled one hundred pound sacks all day on the run for 
we worked as though every thing had to be done in one day. 

In the morning we got up sore and lame from our work 

5 William H. Russell. — Visscher's The Pony Express, p. 29. 

6 James Henry Lane was president of the Topeka constitutional convent ion 
in 1855, was second in command of the free state forces in the so -called 
Wakarusa War, and was chosen United States Senator from Kansas in 1856 
under the Topeka constitution, but his election was not recognized by the 
Senate. — Spring's Kansas, pp. 70, 92, 272. 


the day before, as we had not been used to work for some 
time. But they sent us to the corral to help brand a lot of 
cattle. After the buccaro had roped the cattle we would 
have to help hold them to be branded with a hot iron used 
for that purpose. It was no easy job, as we were jerked 
about unmercifully which did not help to rest us much. 

We ate our meals at the outfit house— bacon, saleratus 
bread, and stewed apples, all cooked by a man who, I do 
not think, ever cooked many meals before and did not care 
whether he ever cooked many more. 

The next day was Sunday, and we were to start on our 
trip Monday. 

We were a sick and sore set of fellows, but determined 
not to give up the trip before us, as we had an eye on 

We passed the day as best we could, getting things ready 
to take with us. As we were not allowed to take our 
trunks, we concluded to take what clothing we needed in a 
grain sack. I sent my trunk with my best clothes to an 
uncle at Lawrence, Kan., to care for till I called for them, 
which I did ten years later. 

We went to bed at the outfit house and Monday morning 
at three o'clock, they called two of us to get up and go to 
the Company's store to get our guns and blankets that the 
Company furnished and charged to us, as every man had 
to be armed with a rifle at least. 

We all four got up but the boss said they needed only 
two of us. We told him we all went in that train or none 
of us went, as that was our bargain with Eussel. 7 So when 
they found we were determined, they gave in. 

Then we were taken in a wagon four miles out to Salt 
Creek, from which place we were to start. We got there at 
day break. 

7 See above, note 5. 


Our cattle were soon driven into corral for us to yoke. 
Our train crew of a wagon boss, by the name of Chatham 
Kennick-a big, six foot two inch man, an assistant 
wagon boss, twenty-six teamsters, and two extra hands 
making thirty men in all. But we had ten extra men to 
help us get the train started. 

We went into the corral with three lasso ropes to catch 
our cattle and fasten them to a wagon wheel to put their 
yokes on, as they were so wild it was the only way we 
could get them yoked. We would then chain this one to 
a wheel till we got another and so on till each team was 
yoked. Then to get them hitched to a wagon tongue was 
another big job, but at two o'clock in the afternoon we 
succeeded in getting them all hitched on and started to 
break corral, and a lively time we had. Now the fun be- 
gan, not for the teamsters, but for the lookers on. It was 
life work for us to keep our wagons right side up. Twenty- 
six teams of nearly all wild cattle going in every direction 
—three hundred and twelve head of crazy steers pitching 
and bellowing and trying to get loose or get away from the 
wagon, and teamsters working for dear life to herd them 
and keep from upsetting or breaking their wagons; and 
every now and then a wagon upsetting, tongues breaking, 
and teams getting loose on the prairie. 

It kept every extra man on the jump to keep the cattle 
moving in the right direction. 

Fourteen men on horseback and twenty-six teamsters 
had a lively experience that afternoon and evening, and 
finally, at nine o'clock that night had succeeded in getting 
nine wagons two miles from starting point and getting the 
cattle loose from the wagons in a demoralized condition. 
Some of the teams had one or two steers loose from the 
yoke, and the others were dragging the yokes. Everything 
was in confusion. 


The rest of the train was strung over the prairie— some 
wagons tipped over, some with broken wheels, and some 
with the tongues broken; and, in fact, were in rather bad 
condition for a journey of twelve hundred miles in a 

The men had had nothing to eat since four o'clock in the 
morning, and were all nearly played out ; but we went to 
work to get some ' 6 grub", as we called it, to stay our 
stomachs. I could hardly wait for it to be cooked. I found 
a settler that lived close to where we were and asked him 
to bring me some milk and bread for which I gladly paid 
him, and we four chums made our supper of bread and 

We were ordered on guard the first part of the night. 
Chat Eennick, our wagon boss, stationed each man on 
guard. It fell my lot to go down the valley and keep the 
cattle from a piece of timber. Tuttle was stationed on the 
west to keep them from going over the hill, and was fur- 
nished a mule to ride, as his beat was considered to be the 
hardest. Ed Leach on the east near the wagon and Mart 
Sherwood on the north had little to do, as the cattle were 
determined to go to the timber or over the hill. 

It kept me on the run as hard as I could to keep them 
from the timber, and Tuttle was worked equally hard to 
keep them in from the west. 

About midnight Tuttle came over on the run as fast as 
his mule could go, met me, and turned back on the jump 
up the hill, and his saddle girth broke and let him off, 
saddle and all. His mule got away and ran off and he had 
to take it on foot. We both worked as hard as we could 
to keep the cattle until our relief came, which did not come 
till two o 'clock in the morning. As the men did not go to 
bed till about eleven o'clock that night, the boss concluded 
he would divide the time with us. 



When Kemiick came with the men to relieve us, I had 
just reached the spot where Tuttle's saddle lay, and I was 
so exhausted and completely tired out, that I fell to the 
ground, and dropped to sleep in a moment. It was with 
difficulty that Eennick and Tuttle could awaken me and get 
me to the wagon to bed, as I would drop as soon as they 
let go of me. I would beg of them to let me sleep where 
I was, but they got me to camp, and I knew no more till 
seven or eight in the morning. 

This was a fine morning, and Eennick had sent back to 
Leavenworth for more wagons, wheels, tongues, etc. to 
repair what was broken the day before, and also a lot of 
teamsters as over half of his men had skipped out, and 
left only eight or ten out of twenty-six teamsters. 

Those of us who were on guard the night before were 
allowed to take it easy that day and rest up. 

Eennick succeeded in getting more men and extra help, 
and gathered up the balance of the train and got it up to 
camp that night and ready for another start. 

The next morning we commenced another day's work and 
succeeded in getting four miles that day and getting all 
the wagons into camp; although several wagons had been 
upset and some breakages. But we were prepared with 
several extra wagon tongues and some other repairs and 
a kit of tools to mend any ordinary breakage. 

We pulled out the next morning and worked hard all day 
with the usual mishaps, and made five or six miles, and, in 
six days we reached Grasshopper, 8 forty miles from Leaven- 
worth. There was not a day without some mishaps or 

The next day was Sunday, and, I think, the Fourth of 

After breakfast, we changed our clothes, cleaned up, and 

s The Grasshopper River flows into the Kansas River from the north. 


washed our clothes, and were lying around to rest our- 
selves as best we could, after our hard weeks work, as we 
were nearly worn out, when the boss concluded it was "time 
to hitch up" and make a short drive. We four Yanks told 
him the rest could drive if they wished but that we would 
not. We had done enough for one week. 

The rest seemed willing to go, but, as we would not, he 
did not urge very hard. 

That day I ate my first frogs' legs. "Old man" Clark 
from Cape Jerdo, 9 was in our mess. He was fond of fried 
frogs' legs and he caught and cooked some, and gave me 
some, but I can not say that I liked them very much; al- 
though they are considered a very choice dish by some 
people. But I had not much of an appetite then for any 
thing that was in reach, for the overwork and poor "grub" 
began to tell on me, as I was not used to the kind of food 
we had — bacon, saleratus bread, boiled rice, and dried 
apples. As none of us were cooks, we would take turns 
in cooking. Our bread would be black and solid, not fit to 
eat. I began to get so I could not eat half a meal. 

We rested all that day and in the morning made another 
start and drove all day with but one or two upsets and a 
broken tongue or two. 

We went on with the usual mishaps all of that week and 
camped Saturday night on the Big Blue, near where Crete, 
Neb., now stands. 

We had fine weather all the week and we travelled over 
a beautiful country, mostly prairie with an occasional belt 
of timber along the streams, and now and then a claim 
shanty which was a welcome sight along these prairies. 

The shanties were particularly welcome to me for I was 
starving with a train loaded with provisions, such as they 
were; but I had got so that the sight of this kind of food 

9 Possibly this is Cape Girardeau, Missouri. 



was sickening to me. It was with the greatest difficulty 
that I could swallow any thing except a little coffee, and 
my chums would go a mile to get me a little milk, sweet or 
sour, as that was all w^e could find that I could relish. Any- 
thing we did not have I craved, but what we had to eat my 
stomach revolted at sight of, and I had become very weak, 
so much so that my chums would yoke my oxen and hitch 
them on for me, and each would favor me all he could by 
letting me ride and they keeping my cattle in the road. As 
Tuttle was ahead of me and Sherwood and Leach behind, 
on fair roads they could herd my cattle along, but it was 
so hard for them to run back and forth to look after my 
team that I would sit on the tongue and do all I could to 
keep them up. All this time I went on guard every other 
night for half of the night, as the boss was rather cranky ; 
but my chums would not allow me to do any herding — only 
sit on my beat, and they would do the running for me. 

There were two claim shanties near so that I got my 
supper of milk and also my breakfast Sunday morning, 
which strengthened me and gave me new life, and I felt 
quite well, only very weak. 

My chums did the usual Sunday chores and we four went 
up the creek a short distance to see if we could not get a 
fish or two for me. 

After a short time Eennick sent a man to call us to go 
and drive up the cattle and hitch up as he was going to 
make a drive the rest of the day. But we told him that 
they could drive as far as they liked, but we did not drive 
on a single rod, and that, if we thought he was going to 
ask us to drive every Sunday, we would unload our traps 
and stop right here, as this country suited us very well, 
and we didn't hire to drive Sundays nor be dogged about 
by any body. We were willing to do our duty but drive 
Sunday we would not and that we might as well settle thai 


question today for the rest of the trip, as we rather liked 
the looks of this place to stop. He gave us to understand 
that he would not ask us to drive on Sundays any more, 
unless actually compelled to for the want of grass or water, 
and this settled the question for the time. 

But we heard occasional remarks from some of the men, 
stating what they would do with the " Yanks" when out on 
the plains but paid no attention to them, concluding to do 
our duty as men, and trust to luck, as trouble would come 
fast enough without borrowing any. We thought Chat 
Eennick had sense enough to know who of his men did 
their work the best; for nearly all of his Missourians were 
a low, shiftless, and quarrelsome set, always in a jangle 
among themselves, and kept him scolding them half of the 
time. We concluded the remarks of such men would have 
no weight with him. The assistant boss was little better 
than the rest. 

The next day we drove all day without anything of in- 
terest happening, as by this time our cattle were fairly 
well broke in. 

I missed the claim shanties, the last one being at Big 

I had eaten nothing since morning, but I tried hard to 
eat down a little supper, but could force down very little. 

Nothing exciting occurred for several days. 

I could not gain my appetite and consequently grew 
weaker all the time. My chums had the most of my work 
to do. Although very hard for them, they did it cheerfully. 
There were two extra hands for the purpose of driving 
when needed, but their time was occupied, either in favor- 
ing some of their kind or feigning sickness. 

I had told Eennick that I was not able to drive and he 
could not have helped knowing it, for I had fallen away 
thirty or forty pounds, and was a mere skeleton, just able 


to crawl. Finally, Bill Eads, one of the extras came and 
drove my team part of the time for two or three days, and 
my chums would do the rest. They were willing to do all 
they could and the others were willing they should. 

The day we reached Eock Creek, I was scarcely able to 
walk and had ridden all day. 

That night the boys fixed me a bed on the ground near 
the camp fire. Then they got supper and begged me to 
eat a little, but the very sight of it made me sick and it 
seemed to me I would break in two in the middle. 

Here Mr. Eennick began to show a little sympathy for 
me. He said I must eat something. I told him I couldn't. 
He said I would not live till morning if I did not eat 

They handed me some bread and coffee. I took a swal- 
low of coffee and a bite of bread, chewed it and tried to 
swallow it, but could not do it any more than I could swal- 
low an ox team. 

I craved cold water. We had bad water all the way. 

They commenced to hunt through the train for some- 
thing I could eat, and finally found some corn meal which 
a fellow by the name of Albert Frank had. He brought 
it to me and asked me if I could not eat a little gruel. They 
made some and I drank it. It tasted good to me. In ten 
minutes I felt better. It stopped the pain in the small of 
my back. They gave me a little several times during the 
night. In the morning I felt quite smart, only very weak. 
The boys made more gruel to take along in the wagon and 
I took a little quite often during the day. 

That night Ave camped close to a spring of good cold 
water. I slid out of the wagon, cup in hand, and managed 
to get to the spring before Eennick saw me. He camo 
running up, telling me to stop drinking or I would kill my- 
self, but before he got to me I had swallowed two or three 


cups of water. I never had water taste so good before, 
and I told him I would like to die feeling as good as that 
water made me feel. Eennick led me back to the wagon 
and they let me have a little water often, which, with my 
gruel, made me feel quite cheerful. 

In the morning I was considerable better, and Eennick 
let me have his individual two-gallon keg which the boys 
filled with this cold spring water. Then they wet a blanket, 
wrapped the keg in it and put it in the wagon for me. It 
kept cool all day. I drank my porridge often and by night 
I had a little appetite for bread and coffee. 

The next morning I felt better. My appetite began to 
come to me, and I could eat a fair allowance of bread and 

bacon. . 
The boys had improved in bread making and made quite 

good bread by this time. 

In a day or two I got so I could drive my team and eat 
a square meal of such food as we had. In fact, I thought 
it good enough for anyone, as, by this time I had a wolfish 
appetite and could eat six times a day and relish my food. 

Everything went nicely till we reached the sand hills, 
eight or nine miles from Fort Kearny. Here were about 
three thousand Sionx Indians, camped a short distance 

from the road. 

The Sioux and Cheyennes were not on very good terms. 
The Sioux had gathered near the Fort and would send their 
warriors out from here to plunder and steal from the 

They were friendly to the whites while near the Fort, 
but forty or fifty of them came and met us and begged 
tobacco and anything they could get, bothering us con- 
siderably. They would try to get into our wagons— would 
climb in behind to steal what they could. We had to watch 
them, and pulled them out of the wagons often. They 


followed us till near the Fort, where we camped for the 
night, then we made them leave. 

Here I succeeded in buying some bottled pickles and a 
few beans of the soldiers. After getting them I went 
straight to camp and put on a kettle of beans to stew, and 
had a fine supper that night. I got enough for two or three 
messes, so I had a little change from bacon and bread, but 
anything tasted good now. 

_ In the morning we started on and, after going five or 
six miles, we came across a few scattering buffalo. 

Mr. Eennick and the mounted men— four in all— started 
after them, running them a while, but did not get any. 

At noon we camped near a large herd. As soon as we 
had unyoked our cattle, Ed Leach took his gun and started 
out after one. He succeeded in getting near enough to 
one to get a shot. The buffalo was pawing and throwing 
the dirt in a buffalo wallow when he shot him. He fell but 
got up again. Leach loaded again and gave him another 
shot and run for camp very much excited and told what he 
had done. Three or four of our mess went back and found 
the buffalo badly wounded. They shot him two or three 
times before he fell. He was a large old bull and some 
distance in advance of the herd. 

Several of the men now started out for more, but did 
not succeed in killing any. 

We dressed this fellow and divided it up with the train 
crew. We had a fine feast of buffalo meat— the first taste 
of fresh meat we had had since we left Leavenworth. We 
all decided it was the best and sweetest meat we had ever 

We had just got into the buffalo range. The grass was 
nearly knee high before we struck this range, but here it 
was quite well fed down. 


That afternoon we saw several large herds some distance 
off along the sand hills. 

The next morning was fine, and we were in sight of 

thousands of buffalo. 

There was one large herd after another all along the 
sand hills as far as the eye could reach. 

This range of sand hills extends along the south side of 
the Platte Eiver, from one to four miles from the river. 

Every now and then a big herd of buffalo, moving north, 
crossed the river, and we could see large herds across the 

As the atmosphere is clear and dry here, we could see 
many miles. It was a beautiful sight. I had never dreamed 
there were as many buffalo in America as we saw that day. 
We were not out of sight of thousands of them half an 
hour at a time all day long. We killed several and were 
loaded down with buffalo meat, and we had some salted 
down for future use. 

The next day was the same— drove after drove all day 
long. We thought best not to kill any more as we could 
not use them. 

Every little while a big herd would start down toward 
the river to drink, two or three miles ahead or behind our 
train. They went on the run and would make the earth 
tremble several miles away. 

That night we camped near the Platte Eiver. The men 
on guard were cautioned to keep a good lookout and not 
let our cattle get near the buffalo, there being several 
large herds in sight but none nearer than half a mile. 
Rennick had planned our camp so as not to be too near for 
fear of losing some of our cattle among the buffalo. An 
extra guard was placed to herd the cattle. 

About midnight the whole crew was aroused. There was 
a big herd of buffalo moving towards our cattle, going to 


the river. We all got around our cattle and, while some 
drove the cattle out of the way, others went to turn the 
course of the buffalo and by shooting into the herd, we 
finally succeeded in changing their course and driving them 
around our cattle. 

There had been several instances where parties, crossing 
the plains in the season of the great buffalo move, lost their 
cattle by the buffaloes ' getting in contact with the cattle 
and stampeding them. 

It seems that we were in the great move north, as trains 
a week ahead of us or two weeks behind us, saw very few 

The next morning we started on our journey and drove 
to Plum Creek and camped. We were still in the same 
buffalo range. We had a fine camp ground. 

Nothing unusual occurred that night. 

The next day was Sunday. We got our breakfast and 
did our washing. Then we ran some bullets, cleaned our 
guns, and put them in good condition for use. 

Frank McCarthy, the assistant wagon boss, came riding 
up on his mule and ordered us to put up our traps and 
go and help drive the cattle up, and yoke up, for they were 
going to make a drive. We told him we would not. He 
then said, " You can consider yourselves discharged". 

We told him he had better send some one around that 
had authority to discharge us. Then he rode off after the 

Albert Frank now came over to where we were with his 
gun and clothes and said that if we were discharged, he 
would go with us. 

It was evident that they intended to show us right here 
what they would do with the "Yanks when out on Che 
plains' ' as we were seventy miles from the nearest settle 
ment which was Fort Kearny. 

vol. xx — 12 


An agent of the Company's, Mr. McCann, had come up 
and camped with ns the night before. 

Soon the cattle were driven into the corral. Mr. McCann 
was at the entrance of the corral guarding that gap while 
the men were yoking the cattle. 

They all grabbed their yokes to yoke their cattle except 

us five. 

As we were in the front mess of one wing of the corral, 
it brought us close to where McCann stood. 

Chat Eennick came and ordered us to go and yoke our 

We told him we would not yoke an ox that day. 
He said we could consider ourselves discharged from the 

We told him all right, that we would as soon have our 
pay and go back from here as to go the whole trip. He 
said that we could never get back, that the Indians would 
kill us. 

We told him we would take our chances on that. Then 
he said he would not let us take our guns along. We plain- 
ly told him that we had them and before they got them 
from us, they would be liable to get the charge that was 
in them, and that they were loaded for buffalo too. 

Mr. McCann spoke up and said that there, were men 
enough to make us drive. 

At this George Tuttle told him to repeat those words 
again and there would be one less Missourian, and drew 
his rifle. We all had our guns in our hands. 

Eennick now spoke up and said * ' Hold on there, I don't 
want any of that kind of work". 

Then we told him what brags had been made by his men; 
that now was a good time to settle it, as they had us out 
on the plains. There were men enough to massacre us but 
not enough in that train to make us drive a single rod, and 



we meant just what we said. Then we told them that they 
might as well begin quickly and get the job off their hands 
as soon as possible, as they might have another that would 
need their immediate attention. 

Eennick said he did not want any trouble with us, but 
wished we would drive, as the other men found no fault 
about driving Sundays. 

We told him that he could go on as fast as he wished, as 
these Yanks wouldn't bother him. We would go our way 
and they could go theirs. That we were discharged and 
did not belong to his train any longer. Then we proceeded 
to pack up our things and put them in shape for our home- 
ward trip. 

Eennick now began to urge us to put our things back 
into the wagon and go along and they would make but a 
short drive. 

We told him he had discharged us without a cause, and 
asked him if he had any men in his train that did their 
work anv better than we had. 

He said, "No not as well, only you will not drive Sun- 

We said we were glad to hear that, and that there was a 
law in regard to a train boss discharging a man over 
twenty-five miles from a settlement, and that the Company 
was responsible for the acts of a train boss. We had a 
more paying job than to drive a team for him any longer. 
As he had acknowledged that we had done our duty better 
than any other men he had, for we had hired to William 
Kussel 10 with the understanding that we were not to drive 

Then he began to get real good natured, and, I think, a 
little uneasy; for, if five men left, there was no show to get 
anyone to drive our teams through. McCann was going on 

10 See above, note 5. 


the next day to catch up with the train ahead. Even if the 
two bosses and the two extra men drove, it would leave one 
team without a driver and no one to look up camping 

Eennick now began to argue the case with us for a com- 
promise of this difficulty. We spent an hour or two before 
a settlement was reached. He made several propositions 
to us before we accepted. Finally he asked us if we would 
put our things back into the wagon and get in and ride to 
camp and McCann, himself, and the extra men would tie 
their mules behind the wagons and drive our teams that 
afternoon, and we should not be asked to drive again on 
Sunday unless actually necessary for want of grass or 

We accepted this proposition. 

As we had lost a couple of hours since the cattle were 
yoked, we could not get far. 

We all got into our wagons and rode to camp, except 

Soon after starting, I was taken quite sick with a violent 
chill. Tuttle went to Mr. Eennick to get some medicine 
for me, as the company had sent a chest of such medicines 
as thought necessary on such a trip, in care of the train 
boss. Tuttle took Eennick's whip, and he came to my 
wagon, found the condition I was in, and went and got me 
some quinine and such other medicine as he thought I 

Tuttle then told Eennick to get on his mule, and he 
would drive the rest of the day. Mr. Eennick did so and 
went ahead to hunt a camping place, and in a short time 
we camped. 

Mr. Eennick showed considerable sympathy for me, com- 
ing often to my wagon to see how I was getting along, and 
began to take quite an interest in us. In fact, he was 


naturally a good man, although he had listened a little too 
much to some of his worthless men. I think he began to 
see his mistake, and, from this time on, I would not wish 
a better boss. He worked hard for the interest of his Com- 
pany and began to appreciate his best men. 

In a short time he came into our mess and stayed with 
us all the way through. 

Monday I was not able to drive and he furnished a man 
to drive for me. 

We travelled all day in sight of large herds of buffalo. 

In the afternoon we saw a very large herd, reaching 
more than a mile, coming directly towards us, and as we 
could not drive past before they came upon us, we doubled 
up our train in as small space as we could and as quickly 
as possible. We were none too soon for by the time the 
men got their guns out the leaders were within ten rods of 
our wagons and still coming. The men fired at them, kill- 
ing nine in their tracks and wounding many more. Some 
of them still acted as though they would not be driven off, 
and Martin Sherwood ran to my wagon, put a cap on my 
gun, and, pointing to a big buffalo which stood defiantly 
not more than ten rods from my wagon, said, ' ' Clark, shoot 
that big fellow.' ' 

As I had not shot a buffalo yet, I turned over, put my 
gun out of the wagon and fired. I did not even hit him. 
J was so sick I did not see my gun barrel— only the buffalo. 

Albert Frank had his gun reloaded by this time and shot 
him just back of the fore leg. He bellowed, then turned 
and ran back into the herd. By this time the other men 
had reloaded and fired into them again. The wounded 
turned and ran back into the herd, parting them, and they 
charged by before and behind us. 

We were here some time before they all passed. There 
were thousands in this herd. 


After they had passed the men took their knives, and, 
cutting a strip along the back bone, cut out the tender loin 
of a few of those lying nearest us and left the rest, as we 
had more buffalo meat than we could use. 

Nothing particular occurred during the rest of the day. 

I began to get better and the next day drove part of the 

We were still in the buffalo range, but they were not as 

plenty as before. 

We camped that night about six miles from the crossing 
of the Platte, and drove in the next morning, camped, got 
an early dinner, and prepared for crossing. 

We hitched on to about one-third of our wagons with 
fifteen yoke of cattle to each wagon, but started into the 
river with only three wagons. 

Mr. Eennick had ridden across the river to see how the 
ford was, and found the river was full of holes, some a foot 
deep and others seven or eight feet deep. Unless we zig- 
zagged from one sand drift to another, it would be im- 
possible to cross, as the whole bed of the river was a shift- 
ing bed of sand. 

We had driven but a few rods before we stalled, with 
our wagons in four or five feet of water. We swung our 
cattle up and down several times and tried to make a start, 
but it was of no use, as the sand began to settle around our 
wagon wheels. So we sent out and got six yoke of cattle 
more for each wagon. By the time we got them hitched 
on for another pull, the sand had drifted around our 
wagons till they were hub deep in the sand, and the cattle 
were knee deep. The men would have been in the same 
fix had they not kept stepping around. 

We swung our cattle and made a pull but we were fast 
and could not move. We had to get our shovels and shovel 
around the wheels and oxen. Then we took another pull 


and this time got the wagons on the move, but only for a 
short distance, when we stalled again. It was such hard 
pulling, the cattle could go but a little way at a time. Every 
stop the sand would gather as before, and it was almost 
impossible to get another start. Occasionally a chain would 
break and we would have to get another or repair it with 
a link made on purpose. It was impossible to get more 
than eight or ten rods in an hour. Some of our cattle be- 
gan to get discouraged which made it still worse. The 
river is about eighty rods wide at this point. 

We finally succeeded in getting three wagons across and 
our cattle back to the balance of the train by nine o'clock 
that night. You can guess we were a tired and wet lot of 
teamsters, after being in the water ten hours, part of the 
time waist deep. 

After changing our clothes and having our supper we 
were glad to go to bed, except those who had to stand 

We left three men on the other side of the river and 
Eennick sent three more over on mules to stay with them. 

In the morning we drove all our cattle into the corral 
and yoked three teams of eighteen yoke each, of the oldest 
and best cattle and started across. 

As we had zigzagged across the river for several rods 
up and down in crossing the day before, we had learned 
the best route. 

We got across with these wagons without much difficulty. 
In the course of the day we got the balance of the train 
across and made a short drive and camped. 

We had not been molested by Indians so far. We had 
met parties of twenty or thirty at different times, but had 
been cautious. When they came riding near us, we would 
double up our train and prepare for them, and they would 
soon ride away apparently friendly. 



This day, after crossing the Platte, we met an Indian 
trader with quite a train, loaded with buffalo hides that he 
had bought of the Indians and was taking to Leavenworth 
to sell. 

He told us that the Indians had attacked the train which 
was two days ahead of us at Ash Hollow, our next camp- 
ing place. 

Having had no trouble with the Indians, the boss had be- 
come careless and had allowed his train to string along, 
the wagons being some distance apart. 

At Ash Hollow there is a steep hill, and, as the head 
teams were going down this hill, the Indians ran in and 
cut off the three hind wagons from the rest of the train 
and stampeded the cattle, upsetting two of the wagons. 
They killed the two teamsters and plundered the wagons. 
The third teamster got his gun and jumped behind his 
wagon, and succeeded in keeping the Indians off till the 
front teamsters came up and drove them away, wounding 

This made us a little nervous and still more careful. 

In the morning we drove to the top of the hill and closed 
our train up as close together as we could, and while go- 
ing down the hill at Ash Hollow, kept a good guard out, 
for we could take only two or three wagons down at a time. 
It was a very bad hill to get down with such heavy wagons, 
and took us some time to get our train down, but we finally 
got down all right, and camped near the North Platte. 

Here William McCarthy, a brother of Frank McCarthy, 
our assistant boss, met us. 

He had been sent out by Majors, Eussel & Waddel 11 in 
charge of a herd of eight hundred beef cattle to drive them 
to Salt Lake. He had eight men, and a team and wagon to 
haul their supplies. 

11 See above, note 1. 


At Plum Creek, where we had our mutiny a week before, 
while they were getting their dinner a party of Indians, 
apparently friendly, came into camp, stayed a short time, 
and went away. Soon after they left, McCarthy, fearing 
some mischief, got on his mule and started to go out around 
his cattle. Another party of Indians came charging to- 
wards his cattle. McCarthy put spurs to his mule but they 
got between him and the cattle and stampeded them. 

As soon as McCarthy had got a little way off the other 
Indians fired into camp, wounding two of the men. They 
returned the fire, wounding several Indians, then ran to- 
wards the herd to meet McCarthy who, by this time, was 
making toward camp as fast as his mule could run, with 
several Indians in hot pursuit, one quite close. As he came 
to a little slough, his mule stopped. The Indian fired and 
shot his collar off on one side. He then wheeled in his 
saddle and shot the Indian, and got his mule started again. 

As the other men were coming to his rescue, the other 
Indians turned and started toward the cattle, and the men 
went back to the wagon. 

The two men at camp were only slightly wounded, one 
through the leg and the other in the side. 

They dressed the wounds and concluded to stay here 
over night, as their cattle were gone. About sundown they 
were made glad by the arrival of one of the Company's 

Majors and Eussel 12 by this time had their twenty-six 
trains on the road only a day or two apart. 

In the morning McCarthy put his outfit in charge of this 
train, then got on his mule and started on ahead, going 
from one train to another till he reached ours where his 
brother was, and stayed with us till we reached Fort 

See above, note 1. 


These two Indian scares made us more cautious. We 
kept good guard around our wagons at night. We were 
now in the worst Indian country on the route, and we kept 
close together. 

The next day was Sunday and we did our usual chores, 
but were not asked to drive. 

Monday morning we moved on. In the afternoon we saw 
quite a large party of Indians riding toward us. The boss 
stopped the head team and commenced to corral. The ex- 
tra men came charging back, ordering us to corral as quick- 
ly as possible, for the Indians were coming upon us. 

Every man hurried his team up, and we got them cor- 
ralled with the cattle inside. Then every man got his gun, 
and got inside the corral, ready for them, except Eennick 
and the mounted men. 

But before the Indians got to us they began to slow up. 
They came up and appeared friendly. Whether it was be- 
cause we were so well prepared for them or not, we never 
knew. They chatted awhile with the boss and rode off. 

We strung out our teams and moved on for the rest of 
the day without further trouble. 

About noon the next day we came in sight of Chimney 
Eock. It looked bat a short distance from the road, but 
we travelled the rest of that day and till noon the next, and 
camped right opposite of it. 

As soon as we had our dinner, three or four of the boys 
took their guns and started out, saying they were going to 
climb Chimney Kock, as we were going to rest here an hour 
or two. 

They started out and travelled till the middle of the 
afternoon before reaching the rock. It being so late, they 
did not climb the rock but made tracks for camp, fearing 
the boss would be after them. It w^as just dark when they 
reached camp, so we had to stay here till morning. 


We heard afterward that it was seven miles out to Chim- 
ney Kock from where we camped, but it did not look to be 
over a mile. The atmosphere here being so dry and clear 
that it made objects in the distance look very much nearer 
than they were, and travellers were often badly deceived. 

This country was quite different from that we had passed 
over. From Leavenworth across to where we struck the 
Platte Eiver near Fort Kearny, it was a fine, beautiful 
country mostly prairie, with an occasional belt of timber 
along the streams. But up the South Platte it was com- 
paratively a level, grassy plain from the river back to the 
sand hills, with no timber, and here we had to substitute 
buffalo chips for fuel. After reaching Ash Hollow we be- 
gan to get some scrubby wood. 

The whole appearance of the country had changed. It 
began to be more wavy and rocky, and occasionally there 
were some scrub cedars, scattered among the rocky hills. 
The tops of the waves were covered with rock in all the 
shapes the imagination of man can picture. 

After leaving our camp near Chimney Kock, we travelled 
in the midst of this grand and beautiful scenery a few days, 
undisturbed by Indians, much to our relief. We now came 
to Fort Laramie. 

The country along the North Platte was nearly the same 
all the way, although it changed a little as we neared the 
Laramie range of mountains. There were more of the 
scrub cedars on the rocky bluffs. 

The Laramie Mountains were quite bald, there being 
little timber except in the canyons. 

From Laramie we moved on up the river without any 
excitement, and, arriving at Horse Shoe Creek, oamped 
close to the Laramie Mountains at Horse Shoe Bend. Eere 
the creek runs in the shape of a horse shoe, and we oamped 
at the mouth of the bend, turning our cattle down in the 


bend— a nice place to herd. At the lower end of the bend 
was some timber. f 
George Washington, Tuttle, Sherwood, and myself were 

on guard the first part of the night. 

After Eennick had come out, as was his custom, to see 
if every man was on duty before he went to bed, and had 
gone back, we told Tuttle and Sherwood to go to camp and 
to bed, as they were not feeling well. As we had so far 
had no use for our guns while on guard, we sent them to 
camp by the boys. We were not allowed to fire a gun at 
night unless at Indians. 

After the boys had been gone a short time, George Wash- 
ington fell asleep. He was on the side next the timber. 
The cattle started into the timber and I ran around to 
head them off and wake him up. We drove back what we 
could find, and as we were standing by George's camp fire, 
we heard more tramping around in the timber. I went 
into the timber for them while George watched those we 
had. It was very dark in there. Just as I reached the 
cattle a pack of wolves set up an unearthly yell close be- 
hind me. The cattle jumped and ran as fast as they could, 
and I was as close behind them as I could keep. The wolves 
ran after us, yelping at every jump. The cattle ran into 
the bed of the creek, it being dry, and up toward our camp, 
leaving the creek opposite my camp fire and running into 
the herd. I stopped at my fire badly scared. The wolves 
stopped within a rod or two of the fire, keeping up their 

I stuck close to my fire, occasionally throwing a fire 
brand at them, as they came near, when they would run 
off a few rods only to return again. I kept them off in 
this way till our relief came. They were the big gray tim- 
ber wolves, and there were ten or fifteen in this pack. While 
standing by my fire, I wished I had my gun. I should have 


fired it, even though I disobeyed orders in doing so. After 
this I kept my gun when on guard. 

We had not got out of sight of camp in the morning be- 
fore ten or fifteen of these ravenous beasts came into our 
camp ground to pick up our crumbs. 

We moved on for several days around the Laramie 
Mountains to where Fort Fetterman 13 now stands, with but 
little change in the scenery. Occasionally we met an Indian 
trader with his train of furs and buffalo hides going to- 
ward the States. 

Our course took us through near where Fort Casper 14 
now is. Here the country is different. Occasionally a strip 
of sand, then some sage brush and alkali spots. 

We left the river here for Pacific Springs. 15 The boss 
told every mess to fill their water kegs before leaving the 
river, as we would have a dry camp before reaching the 
Springs. Our mess and some of the others obeyed, but 
there were two messes who were always short. Each man 
was afraid he would do more than the others. They did 
not get any water. We told them that we wouldn't go dry 
to furnish them water and that they had better fill their 
kegs, but they did not. 

Before we had gone far they were begging water. We 
gave them water to drink all day, but when night came and 
supper to get, the whole train was short of water, and only 
those who had filled their kegs had any for cooking. When 
these poor fellows came for water to cook with, they were 

is Fort Fetterman was established in 1867 at the point where La Prele 
Creek empties into the North Platte. 

"This fort was located near the site of the present town of Casper, Wyo- 
ming. C. G. Coutant says the spelling should be Caspar and that it was named 
in honor of Lieutenant Caspar Collins who was killed by the Indians in 1805. 
— Coutant 'a The History of Wyoming, pp. 477, 478. 

15 This is apparently an error. Pacific Springs was on the other side of 
South Pass beyond the Sweetwater River. The writer may mean Willow 



refused. But they would not take "no" for an answer, 
and came in a body and were going to get it by force, when ij 
the muzzles of several rifles were levelled at them. They 
went away, after receiving some good advice from Eennick. 

They went back to their messes, and to bed hungry, but 
wiser men. They were very thirsty before reaching Pacific 
Springs 16 the next day. 

Here we had the worst thunder storm I ever saw. The 
wind blew a perfect gale and the rain came down in sheets. 
The first storm we had had on our trip. In the morning 
we had quite a job to find our cattle, as they had stampeded 
in the storm. This was in a sage brush country. 

We travelled for some days through a rough hilly 
country to the Sweetwater Eiver. Here we drove down a 
long hill into the bed of the river and travelled some dis- 
tance down the river close to Independence Eock. 

This rock was covered as high as men could climb with 
names of men who had crossed before us— some as early 
as 1848. 

It was rough rocky travelling in the bed of the river and 
we were glad to strike a dry road again. 

Not far from here we came to Soda Lake. This "lake" 
was a bed of soda or alkali, white as snow, four or five 
inches deep. We tested the quality of this soda in bread 
making and it took the place of saleratus very nicely. 

Here was the largest sage brush that I ever saw— five or 
six feet tall. We saw our first elk here and tried to shoot 
him but failed. We had seen very little game except buffalo 
and a few antelope which were very shy. 

We travelled up the Sweetwater some distance, and 
camped by the river one day, and, finding plenty of fish, 
we improvised a seine by taking a wagon cover and attach- 
ing an ox chain to it for a sinker. We seined the river 

is See above, note 15. 


awhile, catching nearly a bushel of fish— mountain shiners 
— and had a grand feast. 

We passed the Eattlesnake Hills and Sweetwater 
Mountains and crossed the Eockies at South Pass. 

We drove on the west slope of the mountains till we 
reached Dry Sandy Creek. Here we had poor water and 
heavy, sandy roads, and our cattle were getting weak from 
the long journey. It w T as slow traveling down this stream, 
and we would have to double our teams to get through the 
sandy streaks. 

We went from here on down Big Sandy Creek, and 
across to Green Eiver near where Granger now is. 

We had quite a hard time in crossing this stream. 

Here we found a sort of trading post, and they had 
farmed a little. Eennick found some potatoes here and 
bought some. They were the first vegetables we had had 
since leaving Leavenworth, and it was a treat to us all. 

Here we laid over, as we were in no hurry now. Colonel 
Vanvliet 17 had gone into Salt Lake City, and Brigham 
Young refused to allow the soldiers and their supply 
trains to enter the city. The Mormons had an armed force 
stationed along the road out, nearly to old Fort Bridger, 
one hundred miles from Salt Lake City, and they were 
building fortifications to keep the government trains out. 
There were twenty-five hundred armed Mormons stationed 
along this road. 

Colonel Vanvliet 18 came back, and when he met the first 
train, ordered them to turn back to Ham's Fork and stop 
till further orders. He left part of his escort with them, 
exchanged part of his mules, and rode back to Fort Lara- 
mie as fast as he could, changing mules at each train and 
ordering each train to stop at Ham's Fork. 

17 See above, note 3. 

18 See above, note 3. 


We were twenty-six miles from the Fork when he met 


We rested here a while, then drove in and camped near 
the other trains. There were four trains ahead of us. 
This was about the last of September. 
There was a fine camping place with plenty of good 
water and fine grass for our cattle. 

Other trains kept coming in every day or two. 
After we had been here about a week, Oct. 4, I think it 
was, Lot Smith, a Mormon captain with two hundred 
mounted men came riding into camp, stopped awhile, then 
rode off toward Green Eiver. About seven miles out, he 
met one of the Company's trains. He stopped them and 
ordered them to go back. The boss, seeing that they had 
the advantage of him, said that his cattle were nearly worn 
out, and that he would have to rest them before he could 
go far. Smith allowed them to camp and rest up, and then 
he and his men rode on. When he was out of sight they 
yoked up and came on to Ham's Fork. 

Smith reached Green Eiver just as another train had 
unyoked, and drew their guns and demanded their arms. 
The boss, seeing they had no show, surrendered. Smith's 
men set fire to their train. 19 The boss plead for their pri- 
vate property— clothing, bedding, guns— and the mess 
wagon with their provisions which they finally allowed 
them, but burned the twenty-five wagons of government 
goods before their eyes. Smith then ordered the men to 
take good care of the cattle till he came back after them. 
He and his men went from here to the Sandy and came 

19 Various authorities differ as to the burning of these wagon trains. H. H. 
Bancroft gives three on Green Eiver; Colonel E. B. Alexander, commander of 
the advance guard, and William A. Linn both give the number as one on the 
Big Sandy and two on Green Eiver— Linn >s The Story of the Mormons, pp. 
489, 490; Bancroft's History of Utah, pp. 515, 516; Bouse Executive Docu- 
ments, 35th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. X, Doc. No. 71, pp. 31, 63. 


upon two trains close together, camped for dinner, the next 
day, and burned the wagons, allowing the men their private 
property and mess wagons and cattle to haul them back to 
the States. They drove the rest of the cattle back to Green 
River, where the others were, and left them there. 

The boss of the Green River train, with his assistant, 
came to Ham's Fork the next dav. 

In a couple of days Rennick and four or five men from 
each train, with ten soldiers that Vanvliet 20 left, went to 
Green River, got these cattle, and drove them to Ham's 
Fork. Then we moved up the Fork two or three miles to 
shift camp as our herd was now so large and trains were 
still coming in. We stayed here a few days and moved 

Rip Van Winkle, boss of one of the trains that was 
burned, was in charge of the cattle while moving this time. 
As they were driving the herd along about a half mile be- 
hind the wagons, Lot Smith came charging up, took all the 
men prisoners, and drove off the whole herd of thirteen 
hundred cattle. He turned the prisoners all loose that day 
except Rip Van Winkle. They kept him two days before 
turning him loose. 

We now moved camp every day or two on account of 

In about two weeks Colonel Alexander 21 came up with 
one thousand soldiers, but with no orders. . 

The Mormons burned the grass ahead of us for several 

After the teams had all arrived, Colonel Alexander con- 
cluded, as the Mormons had Echo Canyon route so well 
fortified, he would have to take the Soda Springs route, 

20 See above, note 3. 

21 Colonel E. B. Alexander was in command of the advance guard of United 
States soldiers. 

VOL. XX — 13 


down Bear Eiver and in by the northern settlements. So 
he ordered us to move up to Soda Springs, eighty miles 

The Mormons had, before this, captured four teamsters 
and escorted them into Salt Lake City. 

While preparing to move, and after tying up my bed 
which had been under some willows, I stepped back for my 
gun which had been under the bed. I took hold of the 
muzzle, and, as I raised it, the hammer caught on a twig 
and I got the charge all in my hand which made an ugly 
wound, disabling me for driving. 

We moved on, and in a few days reached Soda Springs. 

It was now quite cold, and we had some snow before 
reaching the Springs. In a day or two after eight or ten 
inches of snow fell and it was very cold weather. 

After we had been there about a week an express mes- 
senger from Colonel Albert Sydney Johnston came riding 
into camp with orders for us to move back to the crossing 
on Ham's Fork, and stay there till he arrived. 

We started back. It was very cold and our cattle were 
weak. We could make but eight or ten miles a day. We 
left some of our poorest cattle at each camp, they not being 
able to travel. We arrived at the crossing in eight days. 
Two days afterwards Colonel Johnston came in with his 

Some of them rode out to old Fort Bridger, and, after 
looking it over, came back and ordered us to move on to 
Bridger, and they would go into winter quarters there. 

By this time several mountaineers had fallen in with us 
and travelled in our company for protection, as the Mor- 
mons had killed one or two alreadv. 

These mountaineers all had squaws for wives, some of 
them quite nice looking. The men had some of the finest 
buckskin suits I ever saw, made by their squaws. The 



seams were welted and fringed and the coats were trimmed 
with otter fur around the collars and cuffs, down the front, 
and around the bottom. Across the shoulders and on the 
sleeves were patterns wrought in beads of various colors. 
The pants and vests were also trimmed with beads in fine 

A company of Dragoons came up to camp before we 
started. This made about two thousand five hundred men 
— soldiers and teamsters. 

It w T as a bitter cold day that we started. The train was 
six miles long. The last of the train did not leave camp 
till noon, and it was dark when they got into camp that 

It was a very cold night and the herders could not stay 
w^ith the cattle. In the morning we found we had lost one 
hundred and sixty head which had strayed off in the storm, 
and sixty head of government mules had died in camp. 
This weakened our teams so that we could move only a 
part of our train at a time, many of the cattle left being 
too weak to w T ork. We were six days getting this train 
twenty-six miles to Ford Bridger. 

Here Charley Morehead, Major & Bussel's 22 pay master, 
came in to pay off the teamsters that wanted to stop here. 

Many of them took their pay and volunteered to go into 
the army. Others went back to the States, being fitted out 
with teams by the Company. 

It was two weeks before our loads had been turned over 
to the government officers. 

Then my comrades and myself took our pay. 

Sherwood, Leach, and myself had decided to try to go 
through Salt Lake City and on to California. 

George Tuttle had found a brother here among the Dra- 
goons that had run away from home and enlisted. He was 

22 See above, note 1. 



under age, and George said he would stop here and try to | 
get him out. 


Utah was under martial law. The troops had captured 
four Mormon prisoners, among them "Dock" Hickman, 
a brother of "Bill" Hickman's. 23 

The Mormons had plotted to kill Hurt, 24 an Indian agent 
that was stationed near Spanish Fork, south of Salt Lake. 
He had taken to the mountains and came to the soldiers' 
camp for protection. He brought the news of the Mountain 
Meadows Massacre 25 and the Parish 26 murder, also that the 
Mormons had the Aikin 27 brothers and comrades in prison. 

Chat Eennick had long before this got to be a warm 
friend of ours. He tried to persuade me to go back to 
Leavenworth with him and said he would guarantee me a 
train in the spring at one hundred dollars a month if I 
would go. But I was determined to try to get to California. 

Colonel Johnston had forbidden any one going into Salt 
Lake City, and had his pickets out five miles. 

23 Bill Hickman, one of the leaders of the radical group of Mormons, had 
been implicated in the murder of the Aikin party of six men in the spring 
of 1857. — Linn's The Story of the Mormons, p. 450. 

24 Garland Hurt. For his reports on the troubles with the Indians and Mor- 
mons see House Executive Documents, 35th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. X, 
Doc. No. 71. 

25 The Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred in September, 1857, in the 
southwestern part of Utah. Over one hundred and twenty emigrants, who 
had been persuaded by the Mormons to leave their camp where they were de- 
fending themselves with difficulty from the Indians, were killed by the Mor- 
mons who had promised to save them from their Indian enemies. Seventeen 
small children were kept until their release was demanded by the government. 
— Linn's The Story of the Mormons, pp. 517-534. 

26 This was probably William E. Parrish, a Mormon who, it was believed, 
had become dissatisfied with the administration of Brigham Young. He and 
one of his sons were assassinated by the Mormons— Linn's The Story of the 
Mormons, pp. 448-450. 

27 This was the incident referred to above in note 23.— Linn's The Story of 
the Mormons, p. 450. 


The Mormons had twenty-five hundred soldiers stationed 
between here and the City. There was no other way of 
going except through the Mormon camps. 

We each bought an Indian pony. Leach and Sherwood 
got saddles also, but I could not get one, so I had to use 
my blankets for a saddle and had rope stirrups. 

We went to Colonel J ohnston for a pass to go through 
their lines, but he refused us, and also forbid our going. 
We asked him what we should do. He told us we could 
either volunteer or go back to the States. He would give 
us fifteen days' rations to take us to Laramie where we 
could get another supply. 

This was about the middle of November and very cold 

We were not the kind of boys that turned back. We did 
not care to be soldiers and winter here on quarter rations 
as it was evident they would have to do. Seventy-five 
wagon loads of provisions had been burned, we had lost 
twenty-five hundred head of cattle by the Indians and Mor- 
mons and those that strayed off. Colonel Johnston had sent 
Colonel Marcy across the country to Mexico with pack 
mules for supplies. 

We concluded to take the fifteen days' rations and make 
sure of that, and then try for California. As Kennick had 
crossed to California the year before, we concluded to make 
a confidant of him, tell him our plans, and ask his advice. 
He tried to discourage us, saying the Mormons would never 
let us go through. If they did not kill us themselves they 
would put the Indians on us. 

But as he could not discourage us, he gave us what in- 
formation he could as to how we could get around the 
pickets, and helped us to some provisions on the sly. Then 
we started, as was supposed, for the States. 

We went fifteen miles toward the States, then struck 


across the bench to a stream called the Muddy, 28 and got 
down the bluff just at night. It was a very cold night, but 
we found wood and very good grass on the hill sides, and 
hobbled our horses for the night. 

Then we made some coffee and thawed out our frozen 

bread and ate supper. 

The next day we travelled down the stream, keeping 
close under the bluff, till night, and camped close to thirty 
head of our cattle that had run off the night we left Ham's 
Fork. Here we felt easy. 

We built a good fire, mixed some bread in the top of the 
sack, and baked it in the ashes, as our cooking utensils con- 
sisted only of a coffee pot and three tincups. 

After supper we concluded we could make a little stake 
by driving these cattle back to the soldiers' camp. The 
soldiers were so short of food that we thought we would 
be well paid for them. So the next morning we mounted 
our ponies and drove the cattle to camp and turned them 
over to Eennick. He said that we should get good pay for 
that work. Eennick delivered the cattle to the quarter- 
master who said he would settle with us the next day. 

He came with several wagon bosses the next day to de- 
cide on a fair price to pay us. Most of the men thought 
that two dollars a day would be enough, but Eennick told 
them that we ought to have big pay, no wages about it; 
that we had taken big chances, lost three days in the dead 
of winter and our provisions ; and these cattle were fifteen 
hundred dollars clear to the government, and the soldiers 
needed them badly, but the cheap men prevailed. They 
concluded to pay us fifteen dollars apiece. Mr. Eennick 
was so provoked at this that he gave us more provisions 
and got a pass for us to go and hunt more cattle. He went 

28 Probably Muddy Creek, a stream a short distance north of the camp at 

Fort Bridger. 


with us out past the pickets and got us into our camp that 
night, then went back to the fort. 

We travelled all next day and reached the crossing of 
the Bridger road, thirteen miles from Bridger, just at dark 
Here we camped. 

Soon it began to snow. We stuck up some sticks and 
stretched a wagon cover which we had brought with us to 
shield us from the storm. 

After supper Captain Maxwell, a Mormon officer with 
twenty-eight men came riding up, and ordered us to saddle 
up and go with them, and be quick about it too. We had 
footed it all day through a foot of snow to save our ponies 
and were very tired. We asked permission to stay where' 
y^e were till morning. He said he didn't want any back 
talk. So we packed our ponies, mounted, and rode six 
miles as fast as our ponies could go, with about half of 
the men in front and the others behind us, to the Mormon 
camp where there were two or three hundred more men. 

They took our ponies for the night and in the morning 
sent us with an escort of five men to Bear Eiver. Here 
Leach and Sherwood traded horses with the Mormons and 
gave their guns to boot, as guns were of no use to us now. 
They got good strong ponies. 

Here they amused us for some time by asking questions. 
We answered them as we thought best. Finally, when bed 
time came, they sang some of their Mormon songs and had 
prayer. But such a prayer I never heard before. They 
prayed for the destruction of Johnston's army and for the 
torture of all Gentiles— not excepting present company 
even. Although hard to listen to we stood it like majors, 
as we knew there was no other way, and kept as cheerful 
as we could. We joked with them and made ourselves quite 
at home, although, I confess, we were very badly Beared. 
Below is a sample of their songs— one verse only : 


Squaw killer Harney's on the way, 

Duda duda day, 
The Mormon boys for to slay. 

Duda duda day. 
Come let us be on hand, 

By Brigham Young to stand, 
And if our enemies do appear, 

We'll sweep them from the land. 

Next morning they sent five men with ns to their big 
camp at the entrance of Echo Canyon. There were nine 
hundred soldiers here. This is a very deep canyon. The 
road ran close to the rocks and wound along the stream. 
The Mormons had stone fortifications all along on top of 
the mountains. They could get behind these and shoot the 
soldiers as they passed through. It was a very strong 

P °ihe° Mormons were armed with every conceivable kind 
of guns from a toy pistol up. 

They had prayer here also before retiring. 

These were the poorest specimens of humanity that I 
had ever seen together, nearly all English, Danes, and 
Welch. And such clothing! It was impossible to tell what 

the original goods were. 

Eemnants of old bed quilts and blankets served as over- 
coats They were a set of bigots— claimed that they could 
whip the whole world, and that Johnston's army would not 
be a breakfast spell for them, as they had the Lord on their 
side to help fight their battles. 

We agreed with them in everything and were very 
anxious to find what settlement would be the best place for 
us to stop at and make our home. 

Next morning they brought up our ponies and we pre- 
pared to start with an escort of seven men, Bill Hickman, 29 
their ' 6 destroying angel ' in charge. 

29 See above, note 23. 



As we started he asked each of us our names. Sherwood 
and Leach gave their names first. He turned to me. 

I said, ' ' They caU me Bill Clark." 

4 'Well, I can recollect that, for my name is Bill Hick- 
man", said he. "I suppose you have heard of me. You 
heard Dock Hurt 30 speak of me, didn't you"? 

I said that I believed I had. 

"I reckon he gives me a hard name." 

"I didn't hear him say much of anything. Hurt stayed 
at the soldiers camp and I was with the freighters", said 

"I'd like to get in reach of him with my old rifle, he 
wouldn't tell any more tales, and I'll get him yet", said 

Then he said to me, "Ain't you afraid of me"? 

' ' No", said I, "why should I be afraid of you any more 
than anybody else." 

1 6 Haven't you heard I was a mighty bad man"? 

I told him that I had heard lots of things I didn't believe. 

"Why are you not afraid to go with me"? "Because", 
said I, "I never was anywhere yet, but that if I behaved 
myself I was treated like a gentleman, and for that reason 
expect to be with you, and among the Mormons. If we 
were very much afraid, we wouldn't have travelled three 
days to get around the pickets to get in here." I lied a 

Hickman laughed and said, "Well I guess you will be." 

Then I said, "Mr. Hickman, how will you trade horses?" 

"I can't spare this one," said he, "I have rode him from 
Bridger to the City, one hundred and sixteen miles, in four- 
teen hours". 

"He would just suit me, and you would look pretty well 
on my pony, and I would look lots better on yours." 

30 See above, note 24. 


He laughed and said, "You'd look better on that 'ere 

little pack mule ahead". 

I told him I thought he'd feel had to have such a good 
looking prisoner on top of that little mule, and top of that 
load too. Then I never did like a pack saddle to ride on. 

He said that he would take me into the City on it. 

I said that it would look lots better if he would put me 
on that big mule he had loose. 

"At the next stop you may get on him and ride to Weber 
Canyon. I'm going to leave him there." 

In a few miles we came to a camp and I put my things 
on him and rode ten miles to Weber Canyon. 

We had kept up a lively conversation and Hickman got 

quite jolly. 

It was just noon when we got there, and he asked us into 
the cook-house to get dinner with him, saying we need not 
go hungry while with him, and told us to leave our pro- 
visions here, as we did not need any while we were with 

After dinner I got on my pony, and Hickman said I could 
ride him a few miles, or till he gave out, then he would 
pack me on the little pack mule. 

I said, "Not much. You don't know the kind of stuff 
that pony is made of. He's not one that will get his master 
on a pack saddle." We rode on to Little's camp. This 
was on top of the mountain, and their last camp before 
reaching the City. We got here just before dark. There 
were two of Brigham's sons here, Joseph and Brigham, Jr. 
These Mormons were a more surly and sarcastic set, full 
of stinging remarks to us. We kept as cheerful as we 
could and did not pretend to take their slurs, although hard 
to bear. 

Here they sang several of their Mormon songs. They 
had board seats to seat the whole camp. They invited (?) 


us to take seats near the middle with Mormons surround- 
ing us. Then a tall, slim, hatchet faced man by the name 
of Little knelt in front of us and commenced to pray. 

He prayed for a full hour, and asked the Lord to bring 
death and destruction to the United States officials, to 
Johnston's whole army and every sympathizer, and every 
Gentile living. He prayed that they should all be tortured 
in the most horrible manner. 

I think it must have taken the whole combined talent of 
the heads of the Mormon Church to invent this prayer. It 
was a hard thing to listen to and keep our nerves quiet and 
hands off. But to look crooked would have been death to 
us, so we bore it with all the grace we could command. This 
was a long night to us, after this prayer. 

There were about two hundred Mormons in this camp. 

After breakfast in the morning we gave our wagon cover 
to the Mormons, as we had no more use for it, and started 
out. Hickman said I might ride my pony a ways, then he 
would put me on the pack mule. I told him my pony was 
all right. 

We had a good deal of rough road, and going over the 
mountain, I would jump off and walk, and rest my pony, 
every chance I got. 

Every little while Hickman would ask if my pony was 

give out. 

I would tell him 6 6 No, nor he wasn't going to either". 

Then he would start off on the jump for a while. 

"We travelled on till noon, when we came to a station and 
got dinner and fed our horses well. It being very cold, 
we rested a good hour, then started on. It began to get 
warmer, and in a few miles it was muddy. Every little 
hill that we went over, I would walk and rest my pony. As 
we turned out of Emigration Canyon there was quite a hill, 
and I was leading my pony. 


Hickman called, "Is the pony give out"? 
"No", said I. 

We were now nine miles from the City. 
' ' Well, come on then", said he, and we went on the jump 
as fast as my pony could run, clear to the City, without 
ever letting up for a moment. 

I was eight or ten rods behind, doing my best to keep 
up, when we went down the bench into the suburbs of the 
City, and every Mormon woman and child was out to see 
Hickman and his prisoners. 

They could tell a Gentile as far as they could see him by 
their hair and dress. The Mormons all had long hair. Every 
house we passed, they would rush out to see us. I didn't 
blame them much for looking at me. I think I would have 
made a good picture for a comic almanac. I was six feet 
and an inch and slim. My pony weighed about seven hun- 
dred pounds. With my blankets roped around him and 
rope stirrups, gun slung across my back, my sack of cloth- 
ing in front of me, and a Scotch cap with a shiny visor on 
my head, I didn't wonder that they stared at me. But we 
kept on the jump and when the others reached Main Street 
they halted till I came up, then we rode down Main Street. 

I rode up beside Hickman and said, "You look dry. 
Can't we get something to warm us up"? I had sized him 

6 6 No" said he, "they are not allowed to sell a drop m 
the Territory, but you might inquire at Kimbal's there". 

"Hold on, I'll see". I got off and went m and said, 
"Give me a little good stuff— Valley tan if you have it." 

They said, "We are not allowed to sell a drop in the 

I laid a five dollar gold piece on the counter and told 
him to give me a quart in an old tin. 

He took the gold piece, put it in the drawer, handed me 


three dollars, took a two quart pail, went into the back 
room, then came back and gave it to me. I took it out and 
told Hickman, as we were namesakes, we would test it first 
and, if it did not kill us, we would give the others some. 

I drank and passed it to him. We concluded that it 
would not kill us and passed it around. There was a little 
left, so Hickman and I finished it. Then we went to Town- 
send 's Hotel. 

Hickman introduced us to the landlord as "three Gentile 
prisoners he had captured in the mountains", adding 
"They are pretty good boys. Take good care of them, and 
I will be in in the morning." 

I pursuaded Hickman to stop and take supper with us 
He consented, and the rest of the escort went their way. 

He got to be very sociable and said he had a "fool Gen- 
tile brother" and he would bring him in and introduce him 
to us, and that he would come tomorrow and take us up to 
Brigham's and get us a pass to travel where we wished in 
the Territory, as after a while we would join the Church 

We told him we liked it here very much and would try 
to enjoy ourselves the best we could. 

He had begun, by this time, to think we were just about 
green enough for good Mormon converts, and we were will- 
ing that he should. 

A great many came in to see the prisoners, among them 
Hyram Smith, Kimball," and others at the head of the 
Church. They asked us all sorts of questions regarding 
Johnston's army. We were very ignorant, knew but little 
about it. We were ox teamsters; all we knew about them 
was that their supplies were short, and they would be on 
short rations. This pleased the Mormons, and thev would 
say, The Lord will take care of us and fight our battles", 

« Probably Heber C. Kimball, a prominent Mormon leader. 


and that Colonel Johnston's army conld never come into 

Salt Lake City. , x , 

We agreed with them in every thing that seemed to please 


Griff Williams, the mail carrier from San Bernadino, 
was also there that night. . 

In the evening before going to bed, the office being clear ! 
except Williams and ns boys, Williams moved over to 
where we were sitting and said in a whisper, "Be very 
careful what yon say in this house. These walls have ears. 
I know what I am talking about. The man who keeps this 
house is a villain, an one wrong statement from one of you 
might put vou all out of the way." 

He said that he had just come in from San Bernadino 
with the mail. He had hard work to get through, both 
from Indians and Mormons. A cousin of his, living at 
Eedfield, had hard work to save his life while in her own 
house. Finally on account of his having the U. S. mail they 
concluded to let him pass and told his cousin that they 
would "fix" him on his return. But he had had another 
man to take the mail back and he was waiting here for 
Amasy Lyman, 32 one of the twelve apostles, from Califor- 
nia, that he was acquainted with, and expected him here in 
a day or two, and he would go south with him for pro- 
tection. He said Lyman did not approve of the Mountain 
Meadows Massacre or any of the murders that had beer 
committed in Utah. He had charge of the San Bernadinc 
Mormons, and, after the Mountain Meadows Massacre 
Brigham had ordered him and his flock home to Utah. H( 
had just come into the southern settlements with one trail 
and part of his wives, and was going to send a train fron 
Johnson's Fork back to California for the rest of hii 
family, and help others to come that were not able 

32 Amasa W. Lyman. 


Williams was going to California with this train. A Mr. 
Savage was to take charge of the train. He was a good 
man, and Williams thought that, if we could reach his 
place, we might get him to intercede for us. Although, if 
the Mormons let us pass, the Indians would hardly let 'us 
for the Mormons had them completely under their control,' 
and a wink from a Mormon would settle us. The Mormons' 
had missionaries among them to keep them stirred up all 
the time. These missionaries claimed that they had to 
promise the Indians more scalps when Williams came back 
in order to let him pass. 

Williams also said that the Mormons had had the 
iikins 33 brothers and comrades-six in all-in prison for 
wo months on one charge or another, and had just sent 
hem out the south route with an escort with Porter Eock 
veil in charge, and, if we ever heard of them again, we 
rould probably hear that the Indians had killed them 

Porter EockweU and Bill Hickman were the leading 
)amtes, or "Destroying Angels", and with Porter Kock- 

Char ^ e was P ro °f that they would never reach 

I will state here the condition of the Mormon Church at 
iat time. 

Brigham Young and his officials had a death grasp on 
^ery man m the Church_or out of it in Utah. He made 
jery Mormon consecrate all of his property to the Church, 

mrchTv ^ d6ed SUbjeCt t0 the station of the 
mrch. They could not take any property out of the Terri- 
ry, except with Brigham's permission. 

nfes! aU olT * * ^ M ~ ™* 

•1st of I J™ CrimeS t0 the bish °P s a "d %h 
jest of their settlement, and they did so 

He had a set of officers called Danites scattered through 

3 See above, note 23. 

» ' 


the Territory, for the purpose of putting any of the* 
brethren out of the way when they became dissatisfied wi h 
the Church, also to take care of any Gentiles they couid 
find Hence the Mountain Meadows Massacre, the Aikins 
murder, the Parish- murder, the Potter murder, and a 

hundred others. 

There were many Mormons who did not sanction these 

butcheries, but dare not say a word against it for fear that 

their turn would come next, but they dare not disobey an 

order said to come from Brigham. 
Brigham Young would preach inflammatory sermons, 

and lost order a murder by saying, « You must make a 
settlement" with such and such people "or I will turn the 
ndians loose upon them". The bishops and ^apost wouM 
do the same. It was difficult for a man not m full sympathy 
with all of their doings to escape their vengeance. To d s- 
obey an order from Brigham was almost certain death 
and, in the outer settlements, to disobey an order from « 

bishop was the same. 
But to return to the Townsend Hotel. 
About ten o'clock in the morning Bill Hickman came r 
with his "fool Gentile brother", introduced him to us an 
^as quite jolly. As I found that "medicine" which we ha 
the night before at Kimbal's did Hickman so much goo< 
I asked him if we hadn't better go and get another dos> 
He thought we had. So we went to Kimbal's store a, 
said we would like to go into his back room. He opeiic 
the door, handed me a cup, and pointed to a barrel % 
went in, drew some, and all drank a little. I paid the b, 
and then we went for a walk. 

After awhile we went to Kimbal's again. Then Hickm: 
said that he would take us up to Brigham's, introduce 
to him, and see what he could do for us there. 

34 gee above, note 26. 

. ■ in 



We went to Brigham's office, and Hickman introduced us 
as " three Gentile prisoners/ ' and said, 6 6 They are pretty 
good boys too, and are going to stay with us. They want 
a pass to travel around to find a good place to stop this 

Brigham gave us a pass and we chatted awhile, then went 
back to Kimbal's, as we had learned how to treat Hick- 
man's case. Hickman then invited us to come out to his 
place and stay over night. He told us that, if we couldn't 
get anything to do to make a living for the winter, he 
would donate us a fat ox and twenty bushels of wheat and 
we could get through on that. Then he shook hands, bade 
us goodby and rode away. 


The next day a man by the name of Brown came in from 
the soldiers' camp with a fine horse. 

I tried to trade a gold watch that I had for his horse, 
but, as he lived at Fillmore, one hundred and fifty miles 
south, he said that he couldn't trade, as he would have no 
way of getting home. I told him that we intended to go 
down that way in about a week, and, if I wanted the horse, 
I would call and see him. He said that I could have him 
then if I wanted him. 

One day we got on our ponies and went out to Hickman's 
place, eight miles from the City, as we had agreed. He 
was not at home, but we stayed all night. We came back 
to the City the next morning. 

We started south the next day, saying that we were go- 
ing to Cottonwood, but we went on south. In the afternoon 
we fell in company with a young man by the name of Gid 
Finley from Salt Creek, one hundred and ten miles south 
of Salt Lake. 

vol. xx — 14 


He had been out to the Mormon camp with some supplies 

for the soldiers. 

We rode along in company with him for some time, and, 
as our luggage was burdensome, he said that we might put 
it in his wagon, which we did. I put my gun in also. 

He was quite a nice young man. He wanted my rifle. I 
told him that I would like to trade my pony and rifle for 
a larger horse. He said that he had a good horse at home 

that would suit me. 

That night we stayed at American Fork with the bishop. 

In the morning we started on, intending to go home with 
Gid Finley and make a trade. We began to place a little 
confidence in him. When we got to Springville, he told 
us to stop at Bishop Kedfield's for dinner, and he would 
go to an acquaintance's of his, and if he started before we 
did, we would find him at Pay son at the bishop's that night. 

We stopped at Bishop Kedfield's, and they were very 
nice people. They got us a fine dinner, and we stayed two 
hours. We told them that we were going to Johnson's 
Fort to try to go through to California with Savage's train. 
The bishop said, "You better not try it. The Indians are 
very bad." 

We said that we would be careful in going from one 
settlement to another, and that we were in company with 
Mr. Finley. 

He said, "You can trust him. He is a good young man. 
But he can't keep you from the Indians. They are very 
bad. I know what I am talking about. ' ' 

His wife tried to persuade us to stop with them for a 
while, for it would be impossible for us to get through. 

But, as our baggage was with Finley, we thought that 
we would take our chances, and catch up with him. 

The bishop said, "From the bottom of my heart I wish 
you no harm". Then, throwing his head back, "The In- 


dians are mighty bad, and not altogether the Indians", As 
he said this, the tears rolled down his cheeks. 

But we saddled up, and he and his wife came out, and, 
with tears rolling down their cheeks, gave each of us a 
hearty shake of the hand, saying, "May the Lord bless 

We started, badly scared inside if we did not show it 
outside, and rode on to overtake Finley. 

As we had lost two hours, we rode to Spanish Fork with- 
out coming up with him. Here we inquired about him and 
learned that he was half an hour ahead. We pushed on 
out of town and across the creek, then about a mile to the 
top of a hill which sloped down to the bottom which we had 
to cross to go to Pay son. 

At the top of the hill we met a man coming with his horse 
on the lope. As he came up to us, he halted and said he 
had been watching for us all the afternoon, as Jack Brown 
had told him to be sure to tell us to go through from Span- 
ish Fork in the night, or the Indians would kill us. I asked 
him who Brown was. 

"Why, he is the man that was talking about trading his 
horse to you for a gold watch". 

I said that I remembered him. 

"He said that he rode through from Salt Lake to Fill- 
more in three days, and the Indians had heard that you 
were coming before he got home, and were on the lookout 
for you. 

"You see that smoke there on the flat near Dock Hurt's 35 
old place?" 

"Well, fifteen or twenty Indians have just camped there. 
They described you three and inquired of me if I had seen 

85 See above, note 24. 


you. I told them that I had not. They are on the look out 

for you". 

We asked if he had met Finley. 

He said that we could just see him. "He can travel any- 
where. The Indians never trouble us Mormons. We all 
can talk their language and go where we please". 

I said that Finley had our clothes and my gun. 

' ' Let him go with them", said he, and you go back to 
Spanish Fork and stay a day or two, for it is impossible 
for you to pass that Indian camp". 

I asked him if he would go back and get our things. 

He said that he would for five dollars. I told him that 

I would give it. 

He said that he would be back to the bishop's by eight 
o'clock that night, and for us to go there to stay. ^ 

We went back and stayed with the bishop that night, but 
our clothes and gun did not come. 

WTien bed time came they had prayer, and all knelt down 
but me. When they arose, the bishop took me to task for 
it, but I told him that I had too much respect for their 
religion to make a mock of it ; that I did not belong to any 
church, and did not wish to insult them on religious mat- 
ters. He accepted my apology, but it left Sherwood and 
Leach in a fix, and he turned to them for an explanation 

of their actions. 

But Sherwood was equal to the occasion, although a little 
embarrassed. He spoke right up and said that he and 
Leach were different from Clark as they were both brought 
up under religious influences and were used to kneeling 
with church people, and since they came to Utah the Mor- 
mons seemed near to them, and they deemed it a privilege 
to kneel with them in worship. 

This explanation satisfied him. 

The next day about ten o'clock the man came in with our 



clothing but no gun. He said that his horse got scared 
and he dropped the gun and could not find it, and as he 
had lost the gun, he would not charge us anything for 
bringing the rest and seemed sorry that the gun was lost. 

That day a Mormon claimed Mart Sherwood's horse that 
he had got in trade from a Mormon soldier, proved that it 
was his, and took it away. 

Now that his horse was gone, Sherwood concluded that 
he would stay here and join the Church. 

He had that day found a Mormon that came from near 
where he did in Wisconsin. Sherwood joined the Church, 
and, in the spring got out. 

I bought his saddle, and in a couple of days, as the In- 
dians had moved their camp about half a mile from the 
road, Leach and myself determined to go through if 

So we started just at dark and rode to Payson, twelve 
miles and put up with the bishop. 

The next day we reached Salt Creek and stopped with 
the Finleys. The young man was sorry that I had lost my 

They were clever people and seemed very much alarmed 
for our safety. That night the sister of the young man's, 
an old maid, made one of the most pathetic prayers that 
I ever listened to. She prayed especially for our safety 
on the trip, asking the Lord to protect us from the Indians 
or any harm that might come to us, and that we might 
reach our destination in safety. 

Six days before this the Aikins brothers and comrades, 
who left Salt Lake City the day we arrived under an escort 
with Porter Kockwell in charge, had, four of them, been 
killed on the Sevier Eiver, sixteen miles from here, and the 
other two were wounded and ran back here and went to 
the bishop's for protection. He kept them four days, then 


there was an official meeting called, and orders given for 
them to be taken out to Willow Creek and killed. This 
creek we crossed four miles from here. 
It was at this time reported to us as having been done 

by the Indians. 

In the morning we rode out into the foot hills with Fin- 
ley to find his pony. We drove him up and I traded with 
him giving him twenty dollars to boot. 

We got our dinner and it was two o'clock before we 
started We learned that Amasa Lyman and Griff Wil- 
liams, the mail carrier, had passed. We mounted our 
ponies and started to overtake them. 

There was no settlement for thirty miles, and we rode 
hard, determined to overtake them before camping which 
we did about dark on the Sevier Eiver and camped close 
to where the Aikins boys were killed a week before. 

The snow was a foot deep and it was a very cold night. 
We had no shelter but plenty of wood. 

We moved our fire and when the ground got cool enough, 
we spread our blankets down on the warm place and went 
to bed and to sleep, but about midnight woke up nearly 
frozen We got up shivering and moved our fire again, 
and soon had another warm bed. But before daylight we 
froze out again. After this we made our bed on the snow 
and slept more comfortable. 

The next day we arrived at Johnson's Fort where Sav- 
age was getting ready to start for California. 

Here we stopped, and Griff Williams went on with 
Lyman to Cedar City. Before going they spoke a good 
word to Savage for us. 

There were two buildings here, and they were forted m 
with a high adobe wall for protection against Indians. 
This was five miles south of Fillmore and fourteen south 


of Corn Creek Reservation where there was quite a tribe 
of Indians. 

Savage went to Fillmore to complete getting ready to 
start, and Leach and myself went with him. Here I met 
Jack Brown, the man who sent word for us to come through 
m the night. He told us that we would have to be very 
careful, as the Indians were very anxious about us He 
said he would do all that he could for us, and thought 
Savage could keep them off. 

When we got back to the Fort that night, there were a 
dozen or more Indians there. Mrs. Johnson told us they 
were planning to steal our horses and saddles. She had 
overheard their plans. They had picked out our horses and 
saddles and looked them over, and, unless we guarded them 
closely, they would have them. 

She told Savage about it, and he called the Indians and 
told them that he had bought our horses and saddles He 
gave them a big talk in their own language and they went 

In the morning we made a bargain with Mr. Savage to 
ake us through. We gave him our horses and saddles and 

twenty dollars apiece, besides driving and taking care of 

a tour mule team, and he was to do the best that he could 
o get us through to San Bernadino-a good one hundred 

and twenty-five dollars apiece besides our work, for our 

grub and his influence. 

We now started for California. There was another Gen- 
We by the name of Dickey that had come in from Califor- 
nia with Amasa Lyman with goods to sell in the Territory 
He went with us. 

settw n + had /° ne j ahead *° Santa Clara > the 
EST* E T , arrangements as he went along to 

San a C, ^ ° n the ™ te from John ^'s Fort to 
Santa Clara pacified to let us pass, and sent word for all 


of the Indians to come into Santa Clara the day that we 
we there. He also sent for Ira Hatch, the. best Indian 

"wTgoHo Fillmore the first day. Here a train joined 
us Our train was made np of teams from each settlement 

along the road to Cedar City. When ^ Cedar 
City we were joined by Lyman and Griff Wniiams 

We took the Mountain Meadows route and camped by a 
spring, four miles from the Meadows. Next day we went 
over the ground of the Mountain Meadows Massacre,- the 
most brutal and barbarous massacre ever committed on 
the American continent-and this plotted and planned b 
Mormon officials. Bishop Higbee and President Haight of 
Cedar Citv, and John D. Lee" of Harmony were leaders of 
Sds massacre. There were one hundred and thirty-t™, 
emigrants killed, and they saved seventeen children. This 
was said to be the richest train that had ever crossed the 

Pla The Mormons and Indians got $80,000, over three hun- 
dred head of stock, and the outfits from this massacre he 
Indians getting but a small share. Joel White, one of th 
Mountain Meadows police, was with our tram We were 
the first train that ever passed over this ground after that 
wholesale murder, and we Gentiles were ordered to stay 
close to our wagons and not be looking around, as it would 
not be safe for us if we did. But I counted eighteen skele- 
tons close to the road, mostly of women and children with 
the hair still on their skulls. It was enough to make a 
man's blood run cold, and to know that some of the per- 
petrators of that deed were in our train ! 

36 See above, note 25. 

37 J 0hn D Lee was the man who persuaded the emigrants at Mountain 
Meadows to'Jave their eamp. He was later tried on the charge o murder 
knd exeeuted by shooting on the seene of the massacre xn March, 1875. 


It will be remembered by the readers of the trial of John 
D. Lee, a few years later, that Joel White, though not 
actively engaged in the killing of any, was on police duty, 
and reported the progress of the massacre to the settle- 
ments, it being nearly a week after they were attacked be- 
fore they surrendered and the massacre took place. 

That night we camped near Hamlin's ranch,, just over 
the divide. It was quite cold here. 

The next day we rolled down to the Santa Clara. 38 Here 
it was warm summer weather. "We had come from cold 
winter, in one day, into a fine warm climate. We stayed 
here the next day, and the Indians came in from some dis- 
tance around to meet the great apostle, Amasa Lyman and 
receive instructions from him. 

He preached to them for some time and Ira Hatch, the 
interpreter, repeated his sermon to them. Lyman instruct- 
ed them to let this train and us four Gentiles pass through 
their country unharmed, and requested the chief of this 
tribe to send a messenger from one tribe to another for 
our protection. 

This chief sent an under chief to the next tribe on the 
; Eio Virgin, and from there the chief sent a messenger to 
! the Muddy, 39 where the big camp of the [Paiutes] 40 was. 
[Here the Mormons had two missionaries, 41 McConnel and 
Liston. This was the place where they had the Indians 
worked up to kill Griff Williams on his way down. But 

38 The Santa Clara River is in the southwestern corner of Utah and flows 
into the Virgin River. 

39 This is probably a small stream flowing into the Virgin River, west of 
the larger stream. 

4 This name has been supplied. There was a reservation of these Indians 
at this place. — Hodge's Handbook of American Indians, Vol. II, p. 187. 

41 For an account of the difficulties of the Indian agents with the Mormon 
missionaries, see Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1857, pp. 305- 
308. Brigham Young, at this time was Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 
Utah Territory by virtue of his position as Governor of the Territory. 


after Dickey had gone through with Lyman's train, they 
thought best to let Williams pass and they would be sure 
of them both when they came back. 

So they had hard work to get him through this time. 

The under chief got in here half a day in advance of us 
and had the Indians quieted down before we arrived. They 
seemed quite friendly, although some of them acted rather 

surly. . j§ 

After dinner, as I was seated on my wagon seat mending 
some clothing and Williams sitting beside me, McConneU, 
one of the missionaries, came up to the forward wheel of 
the wagon and began to tell Williams what hard work he 
had to keep the Indians from killing him when he went 
through before. After he had explained how hard he had 
worked to save his life, a big young buck stepped up to the 
wagon, climbed up, put his arm around Williams' neck, and 
said, "Poshupe, McConnel lies. McConnel say Poshupe 
Americuts, cots wino (bad) and to kill Poshupe". As he 
said this he stuck his finger into McConnel's face. 

"Poshupe always give Piute tobac (tobacco) and shotcup 
(food). Piute like Poshupe but McConnel say Poshupe was 
Americuts, c-o-ts w in o Americuts, and to kill Poshupe". 

McConnel did not know what to say, and did not say a 

word, but went away. 

Poshupe was the name that the Indians gave Williams 
on account of his long heavy eyebrows. 

Here we left the Muddy and went up a long ravine nine 
miles, out on the descent to the Vegas Springs about sixty 

About two weeks before, a large train from the States 
had passed through Utah, the first train after the Mountain 
Meadows Massacre. This was Crooks, Cooper, and Col- 
lins 's train. They had been very careful not to arouse the 
Mormons, and had hired Ira Hatch and another inter- 


preter, the two best in Utah, to guide them through and 
pacify the Indians. They piloted this train through by way 
of Old Harmony, instead of over the massacre ground. 

While that train was moving up this ravine the Indians 
charged down on them and drove off all of their loose 
stock, about one hundred head. The men were going to 
protect themselves, and their property, and there were 
enough to have done so, there being sixty in the train, but 
the interpreters ordered them not to or they would all be 
killed ; but let the Indians have their stock and not get into 
a fight with them, and they would go and get the stock 
back. They took their advice and Hatch and the other man 
went off after the cattle, but never returned. The Company 
paid the interpreters one hundred dollars apiece in ad- 
vance, and now they had lost their stock in the bargain. 

We went on to the Vegas Springs 42 without any trouble. 

This desert is covered in many places with desert brush, 
and along the road was a great variety of cactus. 

The bayonet cactus grows out of the ground like a mass 
of bayonets to the height of four feet. The cactus tree, 
which was plentiful, grows to be twenty feet high, and the 
trunks of some were a foot through. The top branches 
were covered with bayonet like leaves. The body was a 
mass of wiry fibers woven through and through, filled in 
with a light punky substance. When dead, a man could 
carry quite a large tree. These dead trees made a beauti- 
ful fire, and in the night, when crossing this desert, we 
would set fire to them as we went along, just to see them 

We were nearly two days and one night in crossing this 
desert to the Vegas. Here was a nice camping place. 
We arrived at the Vegas Springs on January first, 1858. 

42 The springs mentioned here and on the following pages are difficult to 
locate. Vegas Springs was evidently in southern Nevada. 


Three or four of us took a bath in this spring on New 
Year's Day. Although out of the bathing season, we en- 
joyed it very much. 

There was quite a party of Indians here, but they ap- 
peared friendly. 

Our next camping place was at Cottonwood Springs, a 
nice place to camp. There was some cottonwood timber 

There is a little history connected with this camp. 

Early in the fifties a man by the name of Pomroy crossed 
the plains to Utah with a train of merchandise, eight or 
ten loads. He went to Salt Lake City, sold his goods, and 
started across to California. 

After he had got out on the desert, he found that his 
men were planning to steal his money, and he feared they 
would kill him to get it. So, when within a day's travel of 
Cottonwood Springs, Pomroy took a mule and some pro- 
visions, and started for San Bernardino, leaving his train 
and money in charge of his wagon boss. The night that he 
reached San Bernardino he dreamed that he saw his saddle 
bags, containing his money, move from his wagon into a 
bank about twenty rods from camp. 

He got up wild with excitement over his dream, as he 
had over $10,000. He hunted up a man by the name of C. 
L. Kingston who had carried the mail across to Utah, told 
him of his trouble, and hired him to go back with him to 
hunt his money. They each packed a pack mule and start- 
ed. It was two hundred and fifty miles to Cottonwood, 
where he dreamed that his money was. 

They went out to the Mojave and met the train. His 
wagon boss told him that the money was stolen the night 
they camped at Cottonwood. Pomroy and Kingston pushed 
on. When they got to Mountain Spring, 43 twenty-five miles 

43 Mountain Spring is in southern Nevada southwest of Las Vegas. 


from Cottonwood, they camped for the night. In the morn- 
ing Pomroy said that he had had another dream. He saw 
his money move out of the bank where it was hid and out 
of sight. He was discouraged now and wanted to turn 
back, but Kingston would not now, and said they would go 
on to the place. 

He had hard work to get Pomroy to go. Pomroy said 
it was useless, as the money was gone. But, as Kingston 
insisted, they rode on to the place, and Pomroy pointing 
to a bank, said, "It was right over there in the side of that 
bank, but it is not there now." 

Kingston got off of his horse, went to the place, and 
found fresh dirt. He looked around and found a string. 
Then he called Pomroy, who said that it was the string 
which fastened his saddle bags. It was greasy, having 
been covered up with bacon in the mess wagon. 

They went down the "wash", as they could see that the 
gravel had been disturbed. They followed the wash about 
twenty rods and came upon his money, all spilled out on 
the gravel, and picked up every dollar, $10,300. 

The wolves had smelled the greasy saddle bag, dug it 
out, dragged it along by one corner, and spilled the money 
out in a pile. 

I knew this man Kingston from '58 to '64, and have 
heard him tell this story several times, and believe it to 
be true. 

Our next camp was at Mountain Spring. There were 
some Indians here, but we had no trouble with them. 

All of the Indians, after leaving the Mormon settlements, 
are Piutes. They are not very strong. Scarcely any of 
these little tribes could muster over fifty warriors. They 
never had any horses. If they get one, they kill it for food. 
They^ are a sort of Digger Indian, living mostly on roots 
and lizards, and in the season when there is no travel they 


set very poor. In the winter, when there is considerable 
get very P Everyone that crosses expects 

travel, they fat up like pigs. ^™ L y 

to feed them and they seldom attack a tr^*np4 
off a man if they can catch him away from camp. They 
Zi me in the brush and shoot down a horse or mule m 
r earn, then they get it for food. They never have be«a 
known to attack much of a train, unless helped by the 

M ° F r rTm n here we went to Kingston Spring, forty-five mile, 
This spring was discovered by C. L. Kingston and Pomroy 
on thel return, after finding Pomroy's money, who gave 

" B^foreTat the route had been by the Besting Springs 
We left the Kingston Spring and crossed the next deser 
of forty-five miles to Bitter Springs. At these two deser 
springJthe water is very poor, having a bitter taste but 
JaTefers have to put up with it. We seldom saw Indians 

he Our next drive brought us to the foot of the Mojave. 
Here we found better water and very good grass. 

This stream sinks out of sight and there is no water 
along it, except in holes, for thirty miles. 

At the end of the next day's drive we camped at th< 

head of this stream. . . 

From here we drove into San Bernardino, arnvmg then 
on the thirteenth day of January, 1858. It was warm an, 
delightful weather and the grass was green. 

Here we found Crooks, Cooper, and Collins. When the; 
found out what Mr. Savage charged us to let us work on 
passage through, they were determined that ^he , shoul Iff* 
Is back our horses and saddles. But we told them tha h 
ship that landed us safely out of Utah, no matter what ft 
cost, was welcome to all it got, for now we could breatt 


I will go back to my friends— Tuttle, whom I left at Brid- 
ger to get his brother out of the army, and Sherwood at 
Spanish Fork among the Mormons. 

Sherwood, I afterward learned, joined the Church, and 
worked around and got enough money to make a payment 
on a house and lot. He gained the good graces of a pro- 
minent Mormon's daughter, and got Brigham's consent to 
marry her. Then he got an outfit to go back to the States 
after a threshing machine, and, when spring opened so that 
he could cross the mountains, Brigham gave him a pass to 
go after his machine, and he started. 

When two days out, he met a man with a few wagons 
loaded with merchandise. This man had come out and 
wintered at Bridger, and was going into the city to sell his 
goods. Tuttle, having succeeded in getting his brother out 
of the army, was with him. 

This man feared that Brigham would not allow him to 
sell them in the Territory and offered Sherwood and Tuttle 
a good commission if Sherwood would get a permit from 
Brigham and help sell them. 

Sherwood went back to Salt Lake City and told Brigham 
that this man was owing him, and his only show to get his 
oay was out of these goods. 

Brigham gave him a permit and he went back, and they 
)ought the goods, and sold them at a big commission, mak- 
ng quite a little stake out of it. 

Then Sherwood with Tuttle and his brother went back 
o Wisconsin. 

In 1862 I was in Spanish Fork, but Sherwood had not 
rot back with his threshing machine, nor to claim his Mor- 
ton girl. 



The year 1833 was one of unusual interest and import- 
ance in the history of Iowa for it was during this year 
hat the first general influx of white population ^came* 
the unsettled country west of the Mississippi. Among the 
newcomers were two miners, Patrick O'Connor and George 
O'Keaf, hoth natives of Ireland. O'Connor was a man of 
vicious character who had lived for a time a t Galena 
Hlinois, hut had become involved in crime and had be n 
forced to leave that vicinity. Upon his arrival m Iowa he 
formed a partnership with George O'Keaf, and for a tune 
save promise of industry and reform. 

The two men built a cabin about two miles south of 
Dubuque, where they engaged in operating a mine It was 
not long, however, until trouble ensued. On the 19tt 
of May 1834, O'Keaf went to Dubuque to secure provision 
and up n his return found that his partner had locked th 
door, men asked to open it O'Connor replied thatch 
would do so when he got ready. Thereupon O'Keaf place 
his shoulder against the door and forced it opem O Cm 
nor, who was seated at the opposite side of the room 
leveled his musket and fired, killing O'Keaf instantly. 

Soon a crowd of miners gathered and some one suggeste 
that the murderer be immediately hanged to .a tree , m Jro 
of the cabin. Indeed, a rope was procured for that pm 
pose, but a more deliberate judgment prevailed, and it w 
S eed to investigate the case before taking such rad c 
action. Accordingly, O'Connor was taken to Dubuque, a 
on tl 20th of May, 1834, the first trial for murder m wk 



is now Iowa was held in the open air, beneath the wide- 
spreading branches of a large elm tree. 

Captain White was appointed prosecuting attorney and 
Captain Bates of Galena, Illinois, who happened to be 
present, was selected by O'Connor as his attorney. Twenty- 
four men were named from among the bystanders, and 
from this group Woodbury Massey, Hosea L. Camp, John 
McKensie, Milo H. Prentice, James Smith, Jesse M. Har- 
Jrison, Thomas McCabe, Nicholas Carrol, John S. Smith, 
jand Antoine Loire, with two others whose names are not 
[known, were selected as jurors by O'Connor. These men 
being seated upon some logs, Captain White asked O'Con- 
nor if he was satisfied with the jury. O'Connor replied 
that he had no objection to any of the men, but insisted 
that there was no law in the country by which he could be 
legally prosecuted. This objection was quickly overruled 
and the trial proceeded. 

I After the witnesses had been examined the attorneys 
began their addresses to the jury. 1 Captain Bates urged 
that the case be taken to the State of Illinois for a hearing. 
(Captain White replied that other offenders had been sent 
to Illinois, and had been released on a writ of habeas 
corpus. He contended, moreover, that the State courts had 
no jurisdiction in cases arising west of the Mississippi 
jRiver. Following these arguments the jury retired and 
Mter an hour's deliberation returned with the following 
verdict : 

We the undersigned, residents of the Dubuque Lead Mines, be- 
ing chosen by Patrick 'Conner, and empanneled as a Jury to 
try the matter wherein Patrick 'Conner is charged with the 
murder of George O'Keaf, do find that the said Patrick O'Connor 
is guilty of murder in the first degree, and ought to be, and is 

1 Black's Lynchings in Iowa in The Iowa Journal of History axu 
Politics, Vol. X, p. 169. 

VOL. XX — 15 


by us sentenced to be hung by the neck until he is dead ; which 
sentence shall take effect on Tuesday the 20th day of June, 1834, 
at one o'clock P. M. 2 

O'Connor was accordingly executed on the date fixed. 
Thus it will be seen that the first murder trial in the Iowa 
country was conducted, and the first execution directed, 
by a self-appointed court. The case is interesting, more- 
over, because it was the first attempt at judicial procedure 
within the limits of the Commonwealth of Iowa, and it is 
important chiefly for the reason that it attracted wide 
attention and exhibited the need of a regularly organized 

judicial system. 

Soon after the execution at Dubuque the Iowa country 
was reorganized. This was accomplished by an act of 
Congress approved on June 28, 1834. This act provided 
that the country north of the State of Missouri and be- 
tween the Mississippi and Missouri rivers should be tem- 
porarily attached to the Territory of Michigan. 3 The land 
included in the transfer embraced not only the present 
State of Iowa, but the eastern half of North and South 
Dakota and the larger portion of what is now Minnesota. 
At the close of the Black Hawk War, in 1832, the Sac and 
Fox Indians had ceded to the United States government a 
strip of territory in Iowa, which extended some fifty miles 
westward from the Mississippi Eiver, and from the north- 
ern boundary of Missouri northward to the southern bound- 
ary of the Neutral Ground.* This Sac and Fox cession was 
known as the 6 1 Black Hawk Purchase' 9 and later as the 
< 6 Iowa District". It was this "Iowa District" which was 
now organized into counties of the Territory of Michigan 

2 Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. Ill, pp. 569, 570. 

3 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 701. 

* See map accompanying Garver's History of the Establishment of Comtie 
in Iowa in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, p. 441. 


On September 6, 1834, the Legislative Assembly of Mich- 
igan divided this district into two counties, by running 
a line "due west from the lower end of Eock Island/' 5 
The territory north of this line was named Dubuque 
County, all south of it was Demoine 6 County. A court was 
organized in each county, to be held at Dubuque and Bur- 
lington. John King and William Morgan were appointed 
judges of the respective districts. The first court was held 
in a log cabin in Burlington in April, 1835. 

The organization of the Iowa district under the juris- 
diction of the Territory of Michigan was, however, of brief 
duration. The people of Michigan were at this time agitat- 
ing the question of statehood. Moreover, it was apparent 
that the Territory was too large to be admitted as a State. 
Accordingly, George Wallace Jones, a Territorial delegate 
to Congress, on the 7th of January, 1836, presented a bill 
providing for a division of this land, and for the establish- 
ment of a new Territory. On the 20th of April this bill 
became a law, and the Territory of Wisconsin was created. 7 
It included the area of the present States of Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, and South 

Under the organic law of this new Territory the judi- 
ciary was vested in a Supreme Court, district courts, pro- 
bate courts, and justices of the peace. 8 The Supreme Court 
consisted of a chief justice and two associate justices. The 
law further provided that the Territory should be divided 
into three judicial districts; and that a district court should 
be held in each of the districts, by one of the judges of the 

5 Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. Ill, p. 1326. 

6 This is the spelling found in the act. 

7 Parish's George Wallace Jones, p. 18. 

8 Organic Act of Wisconsin, Sec. 9, in Shambaugh's Documentary Material 
Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 84. 


Supreme Court, at such times and places as might be pre- 
scribed by law. 9 

Henry Dodge, Governor of the Territory, in his first 
annual message to the Legislative Assembly, on October 
26, 1836, recommended the early action of that body, "in 
defining the jurisdiction and powers of the several Courts 
of this territory, dividing the territory into judicial dis- 
tricts, and prescribing the times and places of holding the 
proper Courts." 10 In emphasizing the importance of this 
matter he said: "There is now in confinement in several 
counties in this territory, criminals charged with capital 
offences; and the due administration of justice requires 
that they should be tried as early as competent courts can 

be organized." 11 

In accordance with this suggestion, the legislature on 
November 15th passed an act relative to the judiciary. This 
act provided that the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines 
should constitute the second judicial district, to which 
David Irvin, one of the judges of the Territorial Supreme 
Court, was assigned as judge. 12 The law further provided 
that there should be two terms of the district courts held 
annually in each of the counties. The times appointed for 
the holding of such courts were : in Dubuque County, on the 
first Monday in May and the second Monday in October; 
in Des Moines County on the first Monday in April, and the 
first Monday in September. 18 

9 Organic Act of Wisconsin, Sec. 9, in Shambaugh 's Documentary Material 
Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 85. 

10 Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. I, p. 3. 

11 Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. I, p. 3. 

12 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 18. 

is Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, pp. 19, 20. 


Under the provisions of this act the first District Court 
convened in Dubuqne County in May, 1837. This session 
was held in a two-story log house, at Fourth and Main 
streets, Dubuque, Judge David Irvin presiding. Owing to 
the ill-health of Judge Irvin nearly the whole docket was 
continued until the June term of 1838. 14 

In the original county of Demoine no district court was 
held. This condition was due to the fact that before the 
time appointed for the holding of such court a law had been 
passed dividing the county, and providing for courts in 
each of the new counties. This law was entitled "An Act 
dividing the county of Des Moines 15 into several new 
counties." It was approved December 7, 1836, and went 
into force immediately. By its terms the territory included 
in the former county of Des Moines, together with the 
Keokuk Reservation 16 was divided into seven new counties, 
one of which retained the name of Des Moines. The other 
six counties created at this time were: Lee, Van Buren, 
Henry, Louisa, Musquitine, and Cook. 17 

The times appointed for the holding of the district courts 
in the several counties were as follows: At the "town of 
Madison, in the county of Lee, on the last Monday in March 
and on the last Monday in August in each year; in the 
town of Farmington, in the county of Van Buren, on the 
second Monday in April and the second Monday in Sept- 
ember in each year ; in the town of Mountpleasant, in the 
?ounty of Henry, on the first Friday after the second If on- 
lay in April and September in each year ; in the town of 

14 01dt's History of Dubuque County, Iowa, pp. 448, 449. 
15 The spelling is modernized in this act. 

" The Keokuk Reservation had been ceded to the United States on Sept- 
mber 28, 1836. See United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 517. 

^ 17 For a complete discussion of the establishment of counties in Iowa see 
he Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, pp. 375 I5G. 


Wapello, in the county of Louisa, on the first Thursda; 
after the third Monday in April and September m eacl 
year; in the town of Bloomington, in the county of Mm 
quitine, on the fourth Monday in April and September u 
each year." 18 The county of Cook was attached to th 
county of Musquitine for all judicial purposes. 

In accordance with the terms of this act the first distnc 
courts held in the counties of southeastern Iowa convene 
during the early months of 1837. The first of these wa 
held at Fort Madison, in Lee County, on March 27th. TJpo 
this date a number of persons were summoned to servi 
as a grand jury, but were found to be illegally drawn an 
were discharged. It soon became apparent to the com, 
that a proper number of grand jurors could not be pre 
cured. Hence after a session of two days, the court ac, 
journed until the next regular term. On August 28, 183' 
the second session of the court convened. The grand jur 
at this time returned sixty-two indictments, of which fiftj 
six were for gambling, three for assault, one for injuria 
cattle, and two for assault with intent to kill. The tw 
latter cases were against Wade Hampton Rattan. Whe 
these cases came up for trial in April, 1839, the defendai 
failed to appear and default was entered. The other a 
dictments, with two or three exceptions, were dismissed t 

being defective. 19 

In Henry County the first session of the District Lou: 
convened at Mt. Pleasant on the 14th of April, 1837. . 
grand jury was chosen and given a room in a log cab 
in which to deliberate. After some time the jury returnc 
and reported that they had no presentments to offer. Tl 
court was evidently displeased with this report, for i 
sooner had the jury been discharged than a new one w; 

is Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 78. 

i» The History of Lee County, Iowa (Western Historical Company), p. I 


impaneled. This time the jury did better, and returned 
some five or six true bills, each of which charged the de- 
fendant with assault and battery. The second session of 
the court convened on September 15, 1837, but as the judge 
failed to appear, court was adjourned until the following 
| April. At this time there was but one important case 
tried. It was that of United States v. William S. Tally, 
indicted on the charge of arson. The jury returned a ver- 
dict of not guilty and the prisoner was dismissed. 20 

In the counties of Van Buren, Louisa, and Muscatine, 
cases similar to these arose and were dealt with in much 
the same manner. In a majority of cases prosecution failed 
to result in punishment. The records in Louisa County 
show that court convened on Thursday, April 20, 1837. On 
the following day there was a motion to quash twelve in- 
dictments—eight of which were for assault and battery. 
The grounds of the motion were: first, there was no seal; 
second, there was no indorsement by an attorney. The 
motion was sustained and the indictments quashed. 21 

In returning to the two original counties, Dubuque and 
Des Moines, it will be remembered that there was one term 
of the District Court held in Dubuque County in 1837, and 
that a majority of the cases were continued until the June 
term of 1838. This latter term did not convene, however, 
owing to the fact that prior to this date— on December 21, 
1837— the legislature passed an act dividing the county of 
Dubuque, and forming fourteen new counties. 22 In the 
creation of these counties the legislature included not only 
the original county of Dubuque, but also a large part of 
the Sac and Fox Cession of 1837, and even extended the 

™ History of Henry County, Iowa (Western Historical Company), pp. 398, 

21 Springer's History of Louisa County, Iowa, pp. 75, 78. 

22 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, pp. 132-138. 


boundaries into the Indian country not yet ceded to the 
United States. The fourteen counties formed at this time 
were: Dubuque, Clayton, Jackson, Benton, Linn, Jones, 
Clinton, Johnson, Scott, Delaware, Buchanan, Cedar, Fay- 
ette, and Keokuk. 23 Most of these counties were not or- 
ganized for judicial purposes until some months later, 
under the authority of the legislature of the Territory of 


The people of Wisconsin soon found that both their area 
and their population were too large for one organization. 
The result was another division of the Territory. This 
was accomplished by an act of Congress approved on June 
12, 1838. 24 This law provided that the part of the Territory 
lying west of the Mississippi River, and west of a line 
drawn due north from the source of said river, should form 
a new Territory, to be known as the Territory of Iowa. 

The act further provided that the judicial power of the 
newly created Territory should be vested in a Supreme 
Court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices of the 
peace. The Supreme Court was to consist of a chief juste 
and two associate justices, 25 all of whom were to be appoint 
ed by the President of the United States. The tenure o: 
office for the judges was established at four years. It wa; 
further provided that the Territory should be divided int< 
three judicial districts, and that a district court or court; 
should be held in each of the three districts, by one of th 
judges of the Supreme Court, at such times and places a 

23 See map in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, ] 

24 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 235. 

25 Organic Act of the Territory of Iowa, Sec. 9, in Shambaugh's Documen 
ary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 108. 


should be provided by law. 26 The jurisdiction of the vari- 
ous courts was defined, and provision was made for the 
appointment of clerks. 

In order that the judiciary might not be delayed in its 
action, it was provided that temporarily, and until other- 
wise provided by law of the Legislative Assembly, the 
Governor of the Territory should define the judicial dis- 
tricts and assign the judges in accordance with his own 
discretion. He was also given power to appoint the times 
for holding courts in the several counties of each district. 
It was understood, however, that the legislature might at 
any time alter or modify the judicial districts, and change 
the location of the judges or the times of holding court, if 
such changes seemed expedient. 27 Another feature of the 
Organic Act was a clause which provided that in case of 
the death, removal, resignation, or necessary absence of the 
Governor from the Territory, the Secretary should act as 
the executive, during such vacancy or necessary absence. 28 
Soon after the passage of the law creating the Territory 
of Iowa, President Van Buren appointed Eobert Lucas of 
Ohio as Governor, and William B. Conway of Pennsylvania 
as Secretary. As Judges of the Supreme Court he appoint- 
ed Charles Mason of Burlington, Chief Justice, and Joseph 
Williams of Pennsylvania, and Thomas S. Wilson of 
Dubuque as his associates. At the time when the Organic 
Act went into effect— July 4, 1838— neither the Governor 
nor the Secretary had yet arrived in the Territory, hence 
the provisions relative to the establishment of the judicial 
districts could not be immediately carried into effect. In- 

26 Organic Act of the Territory of Iowa,, Sec. 9, in Shambaugh's Document- 
ary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 108. 

27 Organic Act of the Territory of Iowa, Sec. 20, in Shambaugh's Document- 
ary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 116. 

2 » Organic Act of the Territory of Iowa, Sec. 3, in Shambnugh 's Document- 
ary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 104. 


deed all governmental action was delayed until the arrival 
of Secretary Conway on July 20th. Three days later he 
was sworn into office by Judge Irvin, 29 and immediately 
thereafter entered upon his official duties. 

Mr. Conway was a young man, inexperienced and am- 
bitious. He was, therefore, very glad to comply with the 
provisions of the Organic Act, in assuming the duties and 
the dignity of Acting Governor, until the arrival of Gov- 
ernor Lucas. One of his first acts after assuming this 
office was to issue a proclamation, on July 25th, dividing 
the Territory into three judicial districts, assigning a judge 
to each district and designating the time at which the court 
in each county should be held. Prior to this time Cook 
County had been disestablished and a new county, Slaugh- 
ter, had been created. 30 Moreover, six of the fourteen 
counties, created from the original county of Dubuque, had 
been provided with local government. Thirteen of the 
twenty-one counties now existing were to be assigned 
judges ; and it was with reference to the districting of these 
thirteen counties that Secretary Conway issued his pro- 

The apportionment according to Mr. Conway's plan was 
as follows: 

1. The counties of Clayton, DuBuque, Jackson and Cedar, shall 
form and constitute the first Judicial District, which is hereby 
assigned to the Hon. Thomas S. Wilson. 

2. The counties of Scott, Musquitine, Louisa, Slaughter and 
Johnson, shall form and constitute the second Judicial District, 
which is hereby assigned to the Hon. Joseph Williams. 

3. The counties of Lee, Van Buren, Henry and Des Moines, shall 
form and constitute the third Judicial District, which is hereby 

29 Parish's Bobert Lucas, pp. 170, 171. 

3<>Garver's History of the Establishment of Counties in Iowa in The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, p. 390. 


assigned to the Hon. Charles Mason, Chief Justice of the Terri- 
tory of Iowa. sl 

The time which was designated in the Secretary's pro- 
clamation for the holding of the courts in the several 
counties was as follows : 

1st. District 

In Clayton county, on the 2d Monday in September next. 
Du Buque, 1st Thursday after said second Monday. 
Jackson, 4th Monday in September, and Cedar, 1st Monday in 

2nd. District 

In Scott county, 1st Thursday after the first Monday in October 

Musquitine, 2nd Monday in October. 

Louisa, 3rd Monday in October. 

Slaughter, 4th Monday in October. 

Johnson, 1st Thursday, after the 4th Monday in October. 

3rd. District. 
In Lee county, 1st Monday in November next. 
Van Buren, 2nd Monday in November. 
Henry, 3rd Monday in November. 
Des Moines, 4th Monday in November. 32 

The plan as completed by Mr. Conway formed the basis 
upon which to work in the development of the early courts, 
but it was not destined to remain long in force. The first 
Legislative Assembly met at Burlington on November 12, 
1838 ; 33 and on January 21, 1839, an act was passed which 
altered the several districts, and changed the times of hold- 
ing courts. 

31 Shambaugh's Executive Journal of Iowa, 1838-1841, p. 5. 

32 Shambaugh 's Executive Journal of Iowa, 1838-1841, pp. 5, 6. 

33 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1838-1839, p. 3. 

The provisions of this act include the following sections : 

Sec. 2. The terms of the district courts, in each of the or- 
ganized counties of this Territory, shall commence as follows, in 
each year: 

In Henry county, on the first Mondays of April and August. 
In Van Buren county, on the second Mondays of April and 

In Lee county, on the fourth Mondays of April and August. 
In Des Moines county, on the first Mondays of May and Sept- 

In Johnson county, on the second Mondays of May and Sept- 

In Cedar county, on the third Mondays in May and September. 
In Scott county, on the fourth Mondays in May and September. 
In Muscatine county, on the first Mondays in June and October, 
In Louisa county, on the second Mondays in June and October. 
In Slaughter county, on the third Mondays in June and October. 
In Clayton county, on the first Mondays of April and September. 
In Jackson county, on the second Mondays of April and Sept- 

In Du Buque county, on the third Mondays of April and Sept- 

Sec. 3. The counties of Henry, Van Buren, Lee, and Des 
Moines, shall compose the first judicial district, and Charles Mason 
is assigned to the same as district judge thereof. 

The counties of Louisa, Muscatine, Cedar, Johnson, and Slaugh- 
ter, shall compose the second judicial district, and Joseph Wil- 
liams is assigned to the same as district judge thereof. 

The counties of Jackson, Du Buque, Scott, and Clayton, shall 
compose the third judicial district, and Thomas S. "Wilson is as- 
signed to the same as district judge thereof. 

Sec. 4. For judicial purposes, the county of Linn is hereby 
attached to the county of Johnson, the county of Jones to the 

county of Cedar, and the county of Clinton to the county of 

It is interesting to note in what particular and to what 
extent this legislative act altered the plan as outlined by 
Mr. Conway. An examination of the two plans of appor- 
tionment will show that the counties Henry, Van Buren 
Lee and Des Moines which Mr. Conway designated as the 
third judicial district were made the first judicial district 
by the legislature ; that the counties Jackson, Dnbuque, and 
Clayton, which had been in the first district, and Scott 

The time which was designated in the Secretary's pro 
to make up the third district; and further that Cedar 
County was transferred from the first to the second judi- 
cial district. It will also be noted that the counties of Linn 
Jones, and Clinton, which Mr. Conway had not mentioned' 
*ere provided with courts. This change increased, from 
Jurteen to sixteen, the number of counties of the Territory 
laving a regularly organized judiciarv. 



Not only did the legislature provide plans for the district 
ourts, and extend the judiciary into the newly reorganized 
ounties, but throughout the Territorial period, it continued 
o pass laws placing the various courts upon a more 
fficient basis. The first law relative to the judiciary was 
ne which provided that the Supreme Court should hold 
_s first session in the city of Burlington on November 28, 
M«. This bill passed the House of Eepresentatives on 
ovember 24th,- and was approved by the Council on the 
>tn. It did not receive the Governor's signature and be- 

■"Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 128, 129. 

35 Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 1838-1839, p. 44. 

36 Jom ™l of the Council, 1838-1839, p. 53. 


come a law, however, until the 28th"-the very day upon 
wMch, under its provision, the court should have convened. 
This date is sometimes given as the time of the convening 
of the first session of the court. It would seem, however, 
that this is an error, since no cases are reported as havmg 
come before the court at that tune. 

On January 21, 1839, another act was passed the terms 
of which were that there should he two terms .of the 
Supreme Court held annually at the seat of government 
of the Territory, commencing on the first Mondays in July 
and December- This law remained in force for about a 
year, and resulted in two terms of the Supreme Court dur- 

inff the year 1839. „ _ 

At the session of the legislature in 1839-1840 the law was 
again changed, by providing for an annual session of the 
court, to convene on the "first Monday m July m each 
vear" 39 During the next two years this law remained m 
force/and accordingly in 1840 and again in 1841 there was 
but a single session of the court, convening each year m 

J Early in January, 1842, still another change was made 
by the passage of an act providing that the term of the 
Supreme Court should be held at Iowa City, beginning on 
January 10, 1842, and that in following years the annual 
term should be held at the seat of government, on the first 
Monday in January in each year." This law was not finally 
approved until January 10th, the day upon which it pro- 
vided for the meeting of the court. As a result of this 
delay it was impossible for the court to convene upon the 
day appointed, hence this clause of the law was without 

37 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 108. 

ss Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 128-130. 

33 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, pp. 166, 167. 

4 o devised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, Ch. 43. 


effect, and there was no session of the Supreme Court held 
during that year. The clause of the law which provided 
for the meeting of the court in following years remained 
in force, however, and throughout the remainder of the 
Territorial period the court convened at Iowa City in Jan- 
uary of each year. 

At the beginning of the Territorial period the jurisdic- 
tion of the Supreme Court followed that of the correspond- 
ing court of the Territory of Wisconsin as provided for in 
the legislative act of 1836. Accordingly, although it was 
primarily an appellate court, dealing with cases appealed 
from the several courts, it had original jurisdiction in such 
matters as habeas corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, and 
other processes not especially provided for by statute. 41 
The legislation upon this point during the Territorial 
period was not such as to change materially the power of 
the court. By an act passed in 1843 the legislature declared 
that the Supreme Court should have the final decision in 
all matter of appeal, writs of error, or complaints arising 
from decrees of the lower courts. It provided, moreover, 
that the Supreme Court should have a general supervision 
of all inferior courts. 42 

With reference to the lower courts a number of laws 
were passed, some of which should be mentioned in this 
connection. On January 23, 1839, an act was passed rela- 
tive to the proceedings in chancery. 43 This law provided 
that the several district courts should have exclusive or- 
iginal jurisdiction of all matters in chancery, in which a 
plain, adequate, and complete remedy could not be had at 
law. Special chancery terms were provided for, and the 

« 1 Morris 36. ' 

« Bevised Statutes of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, Ch. 46. 
*3 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 130. 


judges were authorized to establish such rules of procedure 
as seemed necessary and expedient. 

Another act that added efficiency to the judicial system 
wall establishing probate courts." By the terms of this 
act it was provided that there should be established, m each 
i f he Territory, a court of record to be known as 
he Probate Court. The jurisdiction of this court was co- 
extensive with the limits of the county and . extended to a 
matters relative to estates, testate or intestate The court 
was to convene in the respective counties, on the first Mon- 
day of each month, and at such other times as extra- 
ordinary circumstances might require. Some suitable per- 
son within the county was to be appointed judge for a 

term of three years. 

Justice of the peace courts were also provided for by 
legislative enactments. 45 The law upon this point was to 
the effect that there should be appointed in each organized 
county of the Territory as many justices of the peace as, 
in the opinion of the Governor, the public good might re- 
quire. The jurisdiction of the justice of the peace was 
coextensive with the limits of the county, and extended to 
actions of debt, covenant and assumpsit, action on con- 
tract, trespass, and other civil cases, where the amount 
involved or the damage claimed did not exceed fifty dollars. 

Aside from the laws passed organizing and establishing 
the several courts there were other acts passed which were 
of primary importance in the development of the judiciary. 
One of the most important of these laws was entitled "An 
Act defining Crimes and Punishments."" This law con- 
stituted the Criminal Code of the Territory. It defined m 
detail each of the crimes punishable under the law, desig- 

44 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 126, 127. 

45 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 282-285. 

46 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 142-172. 


nating the nature and extent of punishment applicable to 
each case. This code contains one hundred and nine sections 
and covers some thirty pages of printed matter. 

Another legislative enactment relevant to a considera- 
tion of the judiciary was "An Act regulating Practice in 
the district courts of the Territory of Iowa". The first 
section of this law provided that "all writs issued by any 
court in this Territory shall run in the name of the United 
States of America, and bear test in the name of the pre- 
siding judge and shall be sealed with the seal of said court, 
signed by the clerk thereof, and made returnable to the first 
day of the next term, after the date of such writs." 47 The 
act then prescribed the manner in which service should be 
had and indicated the method of procedure before the 

In reviewing the laws passed with reference to the courts, 
one is impressed with the advance made during the Ter- 
ritorial period and especially during the first session of the 
legislature. This progress seems to have been due to the 
conditions of the courts when the legislature first convened, 
and to the zeal and efficiency of the men entrusted with the 
duty of formulating the laws. From the very beginning 
of the legislative session a keen interest was shown in 
matters pertaining to the judiciary. On November 14th, 
the third day of the session, the President of the Council 
appointed ten committees, one of which was the Committee 
on the Judiciary. The members of this committee were 
Stephen Hempstead, Jonathan W. Parker, and E. A. 
Swazy. On the following day, November 15th, a committee 
similar to this, but consisting of five members, was appoint- 
ed in the House of Eepresentatives. The members of this 
committee were James W. Grimes, S. C. Hastings, Hardin 

47 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 370. 

VOL. XX — 16 


Nowlin, James Hall, and Laurel Summers. 48 Upon these 
men, together with the Judges of the Supreme Court, de- 
volved the duty of formulating the laws relative to the 

The manner in which the Judges of the Supreme Court 
were involved in the formulating of the laws, and thus 
given a legislative function, is shown by the legislative 
journals. On November 14th, the day upon which the first 
legislative committees were appointed, James W. Grimes 
introduced a resolution requesting the Judges to submit to 
the House of Eepresentatives such bills as they thought 
would increase the efficiency of the judiciary. 49 There seems 
to have been no further action upon this resolution. But 
on November 21st, on motion of S. C. Hastings, the House 
adopted the following resolution: 

Resolved, by the Council and House of Representatives of the 
Territory of Iowa, That the judges of the supreme court be re- 
quested to furnish this Legislative Assembly, during its present 
session, with such bills as will in their opinion form a proper code 
of jurisprudence for Iowa, and regulate the practice of the courts 
thereof. 50 

This action was immediately approved by the Council 
and the law became effective. 51 

The assistance of the Judges in formulating proper laws 
is shown in the communication of Judge Mason to the 
House of Eepresentatives on November 16, 1838, some days 
before the first resolution relative to compensation had 
been introduced. In this message the Judge said: 

48 Journal of the Bouse of Representatives, 1838-1839, p. 20; Journal of 
the Council, 1838-1839, p. 23. 

49 Journal of the House of Representatives, 1838-1839, p. 20. 

50 Journal of the Bouse of Representatives, 1838-1839, p. 33. 

51 Journal of the Council, 1838-1839, p. 41. 


In compliance with the resolution passed in the House of Rep- 
resentatives on the 14th inst., I herewith present a bill for regulat- 
ing Criminal procedure in Courts of Justice. Having been re- 
quested by one of the members of that body to draft such a bill, 
I had been engaged some time in preparing it and had nearly 
completed it when the resolution was adopted. As it is not con- 
venient at present to consult with the other judges in relation to 
this matter, and I am informed it is desirable to have the bill in 
readiness for legislative action as soon as practicable, I have been 
induced to present it at once for the disposal of the House. 52 

Following this communication numerous other recom- 
mendations were made by the Supreme Judges. Among 
the less important laws suggested by them were acts rela- 
tive to informations in the nature of quo warranto, writs 
of attachments, trespass, bonds, replevin, and other civil 
actions. Of the more important pieces of legislation in 
which judicial assistance was had, the Judges introduced 
the bill which established the probate courts, 53 and the act 
which provided that the district courts be given jurisdiction 
in matters in chancery. 54 

Of the eight men appointed to the committees on judi- 
ciary, it appears from an examination of the legislative 
record that Messrs. Grimes, Nowlin, and Hempstead were 
perhaps the most active in securing desirable legislation 
for the courts. 


Of the men who have contributed to the development of 
the judiciary in Iowa none stand out more prominently 
than the Judges of the Supreme Court during the Terri- 
torial period. Indeed, it is not too much to say that the 

5 2 Journal of the Souse of Representatives, 1838-1839, p. 31. 

53 Journal of the Bouse of Representatives, 1838-1839, pp. 126, 127. 
5 * Journal of the Bouse of Representatives, 1838-1839, p. 197. 



success and efficiency of our early courts was determined 
by the attitude of these men. It may, therefore, be of in- 
terest in this connection to consider, somewhat in detail, 
the character, qualifications, and experiences of each of 
these three men prior to the date of their appointment to 
the bench. 

Judge Mason sprang from an ancestry of considerable 
note. He was a descendant of Captain J ohn Mason, a dar- 
ing English naval commander, who, after receiving many 
honors from the sovereigns of England, died about 1635 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Charles Mason 
was born on October 24, 1804, in the town of Pompey, 
Onondaga County, New York. After receiving such educa- 
tion as the schools of his native place could afford, in 1825, 
in his twenty-first year he entered the National Military 
Academy at West Point, where he was graduated in 1829 
with the' honor of the first rank in his class. This fact be- 
comes significant when it is remembered that the distin- 
guished Eobert E. Lee was graduated in the same class. 
Upon receiving his commission in the army, after his grad- 
uation, Mason's first assignment to duty was as instructor 
at West Point. After two years spent there he resigned 
from the army, and began the study of law in New York 
Citv, where he was admitted to the bar and began the 
practice of his profession. 

In 1832, soon after his admission to the bar, he removed 
to Newburg, New York, where he formed a partnership 
with Judge Hasbruck. After remaining there for two 
years he returned to New York City, and while there he 
became a frequent contributor to the Evening Post, then 
edited by the distinguished poet, William Cullen Bryant. 
During the editor's absence on a tour of Europe, Mason 
was for a time editor of the Post. Thus as student, lawyer, 
and editor he was employed until 1836. In the summer of 


that year lie made his first visit to the West. He soon re- 
turned to New York, but came back again and spent the 
winter of 1836-1837 at Belmont, the temporary capital of 
the Territory of Wisconsin. In the spring of 1837 he first 
came to Burlington, which was at that time a mere hamlet, 
but had recently become the capital of Wisconsin Territory. 
This was Mason's first visit to what is now Iowa. It is 
believed that the trip from Belmont to Burlington was 
made on horseback. 

He again visited the East during the summer of 1837, 
and on August 1st of that year, was married to Miss Ange- 
line Gear, of Berkshire, Massachusetts. In the following 
November he returned with his wife and located at Bur- 
lington. He came this time as United States Attorney, 
having been appointed to that office to assist Governor 
Henry Dodge in the administration of the government of 
the Territory of Wisconsin. 55 His term of office as United 
States Attorney was, however, very brief for as already in- 
dicated, the Territory of Iowa was created in June of the 
following year (1838) and he was immediately appointed 
to the office of Chief Justice, a position which he was 
eminently fitted to occupy. 56 

55 The facts contained in this sketch are for the most part taken from the 
Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. IX, pp. 529-540. 

^6 Judge Mason's service to Iowa did not end with the Territorial days; 
his name continued to be prominent in State affairs for many years. When 
the controversy arose between Iowa and Missouri relative to the boundary, he 
was appointed by Governor Hempstead to represent IoWa in the Supreme 
Court of the United States, where he succeeded in obtaining a decree in favor 
of Iowa. He was one of the commissioners to revise and codify the laws of 
Iowa, which resulted in the Code of 1851. In 1853 he was appointed Com- 
missioner of Patents and removed to Washington. In 1857 he resigned and 
returned to Iowa and in the following year was elected a member of the first 
State Board of Education. In 1861 he was nominated for Governor by the 
Democratic State convention but declined the nomination. He was again 
nominated for Governor in 1867 but was defeated by Samuel Merrill, the 
Republican candidate. In 1868 and again in 1872 he was elected delegate to 


A consideration of the early life of Judge Williams pre- 
sents a picture quite different from that of Judge Mason, 
although no less unique and interesting. His strong per- 
sonality and pleasing manner never failed to attract atten- 
tion Instances illustrating his peculiar traits, his versa- 
tile talents, his varied accomplishments, his keen sense of 
humor, and amusing anecdotes are found wherever the 
name of Judge Williams is mentioned. He was born m 
Huntington, Pennsylvania, on December 8, 1801," and was 
a brother of the distinguished William Williams, who m 
1857 led the Belief Expedition after the Spirit Lake 

Little is known of Judge Williams's early education, ex- 
cept that it was sufficient to give him a correct and com- 
manding knowledge of the English language. As a young 
man he entered upon the study of law in the office of 
Chauncy Forward, one of the most celebrated lawyers m 
Pennsylvania. After his admission to the bar he settled 
at Somerset, where he continued to practice law for a num- 
ber of years. Eeports of cases in which he acted as counsel 
reveal the fact that he possessed extremely shrewd methods 
of cross examination, and indicate that he was a prac- 
titioner of more than usual ability in conducting cases. He 
was not an incessant student of the law and intellectually 
he was far from the equal of Judge Mason, but for innate 
ability, shrewdness, and witticism he had few if any equals 
among his associates. Judge Mason said that he was "one 
of the most companionable and entertaining men I have 

the National Democratic conventions. The last few years of his life were 
spent in retirement on his farm near Burlington, where he died on February 
25, 1882, at the age of seventy-seven years.— Iowa Historical Becord, Vol. IX, 
pp. 529-535. 

57 G ue's History of Iowa, Vol. IV, .p. 287; Stiles 's ^collections and 
Sketches of Notable Lawyers and Tnblic Men of Early Iowa, pp. 38-44. 


ever known, and although perhaps not what would be 
termed a very close student, was a man of exceedingly 
quick parts and arrived at just conclusions as if by in- 
tuition. ' ,5S 

When as a young man he entered the law office of 
Chauncy Forward, he met a fellow student, Jeremiah S. 
Black, with whom he became closely associated. After their 
admission to the bar these two men were fellow-practition- 
ers at the Somerset bar. Black later became Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and a member of 
President Buchanan's cabinet. When Iowa became a Ter- 
ritory he urged the appointment of his friend, Joseph Wil- 
liams, to the supreme bench of the new Territory and it, 
was perhaps through his influence more than that of any 
other man that the appointment was made. 

At the time of the appointment Judge Williams was 
thirty-seven years of age, and several years the senior of 
either of his associates. Although he was considered a 
brilliant and successful lawyer, he had not acquired a 
reputation extending beyond the limits of his native State. 
Moreover, it was the opinion of many of his friends that 
he would never make a successful judge. They believed 
that his jovial nature and social aptitude were such as to 
disqualify him for the bench. But notwithstanding his 
marked social characteristics, he was able to maintain a 
high degree of dignity, and to attain a place of high stand- 
ing among the members of the supreme bench. 59 

™ Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. VII, p. 169. 

T ^wmv SGrViCe ° f m ° re than Gight yearS 0n the Su P reme C ™rt bench 
Judge Williams resumed the practice of law. His retirement from the bench 

was, however, brief. In December, 1848, by a joint ballot of the Legislative 
Assembly he was called to the position of Chief Justice of the State. This 
position he held for a period of six years, retiring in 1855. In 1S57 he was 
appointed one of the Federal judges for the Territory of Kansas and re- 
moved to Fort Scott. During Lincoln's administration he was appointed 


The third member of the Supreme Court, Judge Thomas 
S. Wilson, was born at Steubenville, Ohio, on the 13th day 
of October, 1813. He was descended from a long line of 
honorable ancestors upon both sides. His great-great- 
grandfather landed at the present site of Philadelphia with 
William Penn. His grandfather was in the Revolutionary 
War, and held a commission signed by George Washington. 
His father was an attorney in Philadelphia for a time, but 
later removed to Steubenville, where he married Miss 
Frances Stokeley. Judge Wilson was the third child of this 
marriage. He was educated in the schools of his home 
town until fitted for college, when he entered J erf erson Col- 
lege, at Havensbury, Pennsylvania. Here he was graduat- 
ed in the class of 1833 when only nineteen years of age. 
After graduating he obtained a clerkship in the land office 
at Steubenville, and at once entered upon the study of law. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1835, and began the practice 
of law at the Steubenville bar. 60 

On the 20th day of September, 1836, he was married to 
Miss Anna Hoge, the daughter of Colonel David Hoge, a 
prominent citizen of his native town. The next day the 
newly married couple took a boat down the Ohio and up 
the Mississippi, to make their future home in the frontier 
region. In October, 1836, he came to Dubuque. The future 
Iowa was at this time a part of the Territory of Wisconsin, 
and Dubuque was one of the leading towns of the frontier. 
A number of years later Judge Wilson gave the following 
account of his settlement in the West : 

When I came to Wisconsin I landed with my wife at Prairie 

United States District Judge for Tennessee. He died at Fort Scott, Kansas, 
in March, 1871.— Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. VII, pp. 161-171; 
Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 287. 

eo Pioneer Law-Makers' Association of Iowa, 1894, pp. 142, 143. 


du Chien, as my brother, George Wilson, who was a lieutenant in 
General Taylor's regiment, was living there. George advised me 
to settle either at Mineral Point or Dubuque. I visited the former 
place, but did not like its appearance. On my way back to Prairie 
du Chien, feeling homesick and melancholy and much perplexed 
as to which of the two places would be the most desirable, I 
alighted from my horse at one of the Piatt mounds and tossed up 
a dollar, saying to myself, "if heads turn up, I will go to 
Dubuque; if tails, to Mineral Point." It turned up heads and I 
started on a canter for Prairie du Chien. The steamer which made 
semi-annual visits to the town, had made its fall visit and we were 
obliged to put our baggage into a canoe, and by this means of 
conveyance we made our way to Dubuque. We reached Cassville 
the first evening, and Dubuque on the second, eating our mid-day 
lunches on the island. 61 

Upon arriving at Dubuque young Wilson immediately 
opened an office and began the practice of law. The follow- 
ing year, 1837, he was appointed by Governor Henry Dodge, 
as Prosecuting Attorney for Dubuque County. He soon 
resigned this office, however, for he said he "disliked the 
business of prosecuting." 62 In 1838 when the Territory of 
Iowa was organized he was nominated as a delegate to 
Congress, but declined the nomination to accept the office 
of Judge of the Supreme Court. When he received this 
appointment he was scarcely twenty-five years of age, and 
several years younger than his associates. It is evident 
that the appointment of one so young, to such a high and 
responsible office, shows that he must have been regarded 
as a young man of superior legal attainments. 63 

61 Annals of Iowa (Third Series, Vol. X, p. 439. 

62 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. X, p. 440. 

63 Judge Wilson remained prominent in politics for many years after the 
close of the Territorial period. The first legislature having failed to elect 
Supreme Judges, he was one of the three men appointed to fill the vacancy. 



Having sketched the careers of the members of the Court, 
some attention should be given to the conditions under j 
which they were appointed. In this connection it appears 
first of all that all of the appointees were Democrats. This 
fact was no doubt considered in making the appointments. 
But it is too much to assume that all of the appointments 
were made because of the political influence brought to bear 
by the individual appointees. Indeed, there is evidence 
tending to show that two of the appointments, that of 
Judge Mason and of Judge Wilson, were made without the 
appointee's knowledge. In writing upon this subject some 
years later Judge Mason said: "The first information I 
had on the subject was that the bill organizing the new 
territory had passed and that I had been appointed by 
President Van Buren, Chief Justice, with Joseph Williams 
of Pennsylvania and Thomas S. Wilson of Dubuque as my 
associates." 64 

Judge Wilson writing upon the same subject said: 

As soon as the bill organizing Iowa was passed, the northern 
counties held mass meetings for nomination of a delegate to Con- 
gress, and I was nominated. . . . After my nomination, at the sug- 
gestion of friends, I prepared to canvass the lower counties of the 

Soon he retired from the bench and entered into the practice of law. One of 
the cases in which he acted as counsel was that of Chouteau v. Molony, 
which involved the title to the land where the city of Dubuque now stands. 
The case finally went to the Supreme Court of the United States, where Mr. 
Wilson obtained a favorable decision. This he says was the most important 
case with which he was ever connected either as judge or counsel. In 1848 
he was candidate for United States Senator, but was defeated by George 
Wallace Jones. In 1852 he was elected District Judge and served until 1863. 
In 1866 and again in 1868 he was a member of the State legislature. During 
the later years of his life he lived in comparative retirement, although he 
maintained a law office in the city of Dubuque, where he died on the 16th 
of May, 1894, at the age of eighty years. — Pioneer Law-Makers' Association 
of Iowa, 1894, pp. 142, 143; Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. IV, pp. 290. 291. 

64 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. VII, p. 166. 


Territory. When I arrived at the steamer to take my passage to 
Burlington, I was informed by the clerk that I had been appointed 
one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Iowa. When I ex- 
pressed my doubts about it he took me into the office and showed 
me a copy of the Missouri Republican which contained a notice of 
it. I then returned home to consider whether I should accept. 
After a few days' consideration I concluded to do so, and declined 
the nomination for Congress. 65 

As has been suggested in another connection the appoint- 
ment of Judge Williams was made largely through the in- 
fluence of Jeremiah S. Black of Pennsylvania. The in- 
fluences involved were not, however, such as to render the 
appointee subject to political control. In fact, in all the 
appointments there is reason to believe that the President 
had clearly in mind the desirability of appointing good and 
efficient men regardless of political party and partisan 


The courts having been provided for by the Organic Act 
and by legislative enactments, and the appointment of 
judges having been made, some attention should be given 
to a consideration of the early cases arising in the several 
courts. The first sessions of the district courts in the vari- 
ous counties were characterized by a small amount of 
business, improvised methods of conducting court, and an 
abundance of zeal and enthusiasm on the part of the attor- 
neys, who for the most part were young and anxious to 
establish a reputation. A few cases will suffice to illustrate 
this point. The first court held in Johnson County was 
convened on May 13, 1839, at Gilbert's trading house, some 
distance south of the present site of Iowa City. T. S. Par- 
es Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. X, p. 440. 



vin, Prosecuting Attorney and one of the first lawyers ad- 
mitted to the bar in the Territory of Iowa, gives an ex- 
tended report of this case. The officers of the court he says 
were : Judge— lion. Joseph Williams of Bloomington (now 
Muscatine); Clerk— Luke Douglass; Prosecuting Attorney 
— T. S. Parvin of Bloomington; United States Attorney- 
Charles Weston of Davenport; United States Marshal- 
Charles Hendrie of Dubuque; Sheriff— S. C. Trowbridge 
of Johnson County. 

The court held a three days session. ' 6 The grand jury 
met in a ravine on the prairie, near the trading house, the 
attorney using a log for a platform from which to harangue 
the jury." 66 The only business of importance transacted 
was the finding of a true bill of indictment against Andrew 
J. Gregg, on the charge of counterfeiting. Gregg was not 
well known in the community, but was believed to belong 
to a band of outlaws whose operations extended from 
Dubuque to the State of Missouri. There being no jail in 
which to imprison him, it was necessary to put a guard 
over him day and night. 

After being thus guarded for several weeks, and indeed 
it is said, until the expense incurred exceeded the whole 
revenue of the county for a year, he by some means secured 
a pistol, and bidding defiance to his guards, coolly walked 
off and disappeared. 67 Thus the result of the first session 
of the district court was only to incur expense, and to im- 
press upon the minds of the settlers the need of buildings 
and equipment for the enforcement and maintenance of 
order and justice. Some time later Gregg appeared at a 
social gathering in the neighborhood and attempted vio- 

ee Early Iowa— The Iowa City Republican Leaflet, No. 16, pp. 65, 66. 
67 Early Iowa — The Iowa City Republican Leaflet, No. 16, p. 62. 


lence, but being hotly pursued he disappeared and was not 

again seen in Johnson County. 68 

The experiences in the early courts of Johnson County 
are typical of those elsewhere in the Territory. An early 
case in Lee County was one arising from the sale of a 
"blanket title" to a portion of land in the Half-breed 
Tract. A settler of somewhat Questionable character sold 
a practically worthless claim to the Clerk of the District 
Court, for eight hundred dollars, and took his note for the 
amount, due in six months. When the time for payment 
arrived the purchaser refused payment, on the ground that 
the claim was valueless and that the note had been obtained 
by fraud. The case came to trial before Judge Mason in 
the District Court at Fort Madison. Philip Viele was at- 
torney for the plaintiff, and D. F. Miller and W. H. Gil- 
braith for the defendant. The evidence of the witnesses be- 
ing conflicting, the trial was severely contested, and gave 
ample opportunity for the young attorneys to exercise their 
wits in an attempt to overcome the opposition. 

When the evidence was all in and the case ready for the 
argument of the attorneys, Miller whispered to his partner 
that the case was lost unless the plaintiff's attorney, Viele, 
nade some error in presenting his argument. Gilbraith 
;ook the hint and in his argument dealt in a severe criticism 
)f the opposing attorney, and said very little about the case 
it bar. As a result Viele became excited and let his argu- 
nent fall far below his usual standard. This, together 
vith the fact that he based his closing argument upon an 
mtruth, resulted in a verdict for the defendant. As a final 
>lea for the plaintiff, Viele took his client by the hand and 
epresented to the court that he was an honest, hardwork- 
ng man and that he had a wife and large family of chil- 
es Early Iowa—The Iowa City BepubUoam Leaflet, No. 16, p. 62. 


dren depending upon his daily toil. The plea delivered in 
a sympathetic tone, and with graceful gesticulations, was 
greeted with a general buzz of approbation from the 

audience. . , 

When the jury retired to consider their verdict it stood, 
on its first vote, eleven for the plaintiff and one for the de- 
fendant The eleven demanded an explanation of the one 
supporting the defendant. He answered that he had in- 
tended to support the plaintiff too, until he heard Judge 
Viele's sympathetic appeal for the "wife and children . 
"For" he said, "I know the plaintiff well, and he has no 
wife nor children, and keeps 'bach' in a log cabin; and as 
that statement of his lawyer was erroneous I believe the 
whole claim is a fraud." 69 It is needless to say that the 
opinion of the eleven men was changed and a verdict given 
in favor of the defendant. 

Similar cases arose in various other counties of the Ter- 
ritory and were adjudicated in the same sort of improvised 
court, and under similar methods of procedure. While it 
is true that many of the cases thus contested were not of 
primary importance it would be a mistake to suppose that 
no important cases arose in these courts. 

The first and perhaps the most important case to come 
before the Supreme Court of the Territory of Iowa was 
one arising in the District Court of Dubuque County. Th< 
case was one involving the question of slavery and is in 
teresting in the light of the Dred Scott decision, renders 
by the United States Supreme Court some years later 
Montgomery, a citizen of the State of Missouri, owned i 
slave named Ealph, with whom he entered into a writtei 
agreement by which the latter was permitted to secure hi 
freedom upon the payment of $550. Ealph removed t 

wAnmls of Iowa (First Series), Vol. IX, pp. 614-616. 


Iowa and succeeded in finding work at the Dubuque mines, 
but earned little more than was needed for his own sup- 
port, hence he made no payment on the contract. Mont- 
gomery would, probably, never have claimed Ealph again 
had it not been for two kidnappers from Virginia, who 
offered to secure the negro and return him to his former 
master for a consideration of $100. This offer was accept- 
ed. The ruffians then made an affidavit that Ealph was a 
fugitive slave and procured an order from a magistrate to 
the sheriff to seize Ealph and deliver him to them to be 
taken to his master. 

Ealph was working on a mineral lot a little west of 
Dubuque. He was seized by the sheriff and delivered to 
the kidnappers, who placed him in a wagon and took him 
to Bellevue, intending to take him to St. Louis on the first 
steamer. They avoided Dubuque, lest a writ of habeas 
corpus should be issued requiring the prisoner's release. 
Alex. Butterworth, a farmer, working in the field near 
Dubuque, went at once to the residence of Judge Wilson 
and demanded a writ of habeas corpus. The writ was 
granted and issued to the sheriff who started in pursuit of 
the party. He overtook them at Bellevue and Ealph was 
returned to Dubuque. 70 

When this case came before Judge Wilson in the district 
court, he recognized the importance of the question in- 
volved, and suggested that the suit be transferred to the 
Supreme Court of the Territory. In the higher court it 
was unanimously decided that Montgomery in granting 
Ralph the privilege of entering a free Territory, thereby 
gave him his freedom, and could not again take him into 
a slave State. In the opinion of the court slavery did not 
and could not exist in Iowa. Judge Mason, in delivering 

to The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, pp. 88-95. 


the opinion, held that where a slave with his master's con- 
sent became a resident of a free State or Territory he 
conld not be regarded thereafter as a fugitive slave, nor 
could the master under such circumstances exercise any 
right of ownership over him; and that when the master 
applied to the courts for the purpose of controlling as 
property that which the laws declared should not be prop- 
erty, it was incumbent upon them to refuse their co- 
operation. 71 

This case came before the Supreme Court of the Terri- 
tory in July, 1839, and was the only case adjudicated dur- 
ing that term. The decision is in direct conflict with that 
of the Dred Scott case, but is in accord with the spirit of 
the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitu- 
tion which deals with the question of citizenship. It is a 
fact worthy of notice that the first case in the Supreme 
Court was one involving a question of national importance, 
and was decided in accordance with the principle of human 

It will be remembered that the first Legislative Assembly 
provided that the Supreme Court should convene twice 
each year, on the first Mondays in July and December. 72 
Under this provision the second term of court was con- 
vened in December, 1839. During this session ten cases 
were adjudicated, eight of which had to do with methods 
of court procedure, and the rules to be followed in the 
settlement of cases. In the case of Gordon and Washburn 
v. Higley the court held that the District Court might direct 
such a change in the verdict of a jury as to make their ver- 
dict correspond to the usual forms, wherever such change 
could not, by any possibility, alter the evident meaning of 

7il Morris 1; Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. 3C, p. 199. 
T2 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 128. 


their verdict. And furthermore that this change might be 
ordered after the members of the jury had separated. 73 

The case of Edward Powell v. The United States laid 
down the rule that it was not necessary that a defendant 
plead, the presumption being that he plead not guilty, but 
that the omission of an arraignment would be sufficient 
ground for reversing judgment. 74 

The case of Harrell v. Stringfield decided that technical 
phraseology in the verdict was not material and that an 
error which could work no harm would not be sufficient to 
warrant a reversal of the judgment. 75 

From these cases it will be observed that the judiciary 
was not in a dormant state, but rather that it was in the 
process of evolution, of growth and activity, each case 
adding something to what had gone before and thus con- 
tributing its part to the development of the present judicial 
system. A further evidence of the growing importance of 
the work of the Supreme Court is shown in the fact that 
at the J uly term of court in the following year, 1840, there 
was a docket of twenty-two cases, as against the one case 
adjudicated in July, 1839. 

According to the original law establishing the time of 
holding court, the next session would have convened in 
December, 1840, but prior to this time, on January 17, 
1840, the Legislative Assembly approved the law providing 
for an annual session of the Supreme Court, to convene on 
the < < first Monday in July in each year". Accordingly there 
was no December session in that year, and the next session 
was convened in July, 1841. During this term twenty cases 
were adjudicated. These cases dealt with a variety of sub- 

"1 Morris 13. 

74 1 Morris 17. 

75 1 Morris 18. 

VOL. XX — 17 


jects such as negotiable instruments, forcible entry and de- 
tainer, debt, partnership, fraud, and questions of court 
procedure. None of these cases, however, were of primary 
importance as establishing fundamental principles of law. 


It will be remembered that there was no session of the 
Supreme Court during the year 1842. From this fact one 
might expect to find a lack of interest in judicial affairs. 
An investigation of conditions, however, shows that quite 
the reverse was true. In accordance with the provisions 
of the Organic Act the Judges were appointed in 1838, and 
their commissions were to expire on July 4, 1842. Prior to 
this time the presidential election of 1840, and the death i 
of President William Henry Harrison had resulted in a 
new President, John Tyler. It was the opinion of many 
that he would appoint members of his own party to super- 
sede the Judges of the Territory of Iowa. 

For more than a month after the expiration of the 
Judges' term of office, no appointment was made, and the 
Territory was without a judiciary. In the meanwhile the 
people of Iowa could only express their opinions as to 
what action would be taken. This they seem to have done 
very freely. On July 16th there appeared in one of the 
leading papers of the Territory the following comment : 

Not a word do we learn yet in regard to the appointment of 
Judges for our Territory. Mr. Tyler and his cabinet have for- 
gotten, probably, that there is such a place as Iowa or that the 
people in so remote a Territory stand in need of either Judges, or 
laws, for the preservation of order and the protection of property 
among them. 76 

The facts indicate, however, that there was a more sig- 

76 Iowa Capital Beporter (Iowa City), July 16, 1842. 


nificant reason than the one here assigned for the delay in 
making the reappointment. It was charged by the mem- 
bers of the Whig party that Judge Williams had from time 
to time participated in partisan politics and that in so do- 
ing he had become recognized rather as the "party's man 
than the People's magistrate." 77 In accordance with this 
feeling the Whigs addressed a petition to the President 
remonstrating against his reappointment. There was also 
a slight objection to the reappointment of Judge Mason. 
Daniel Webster, as Secretary of State, in June, 1842, sent 
to the President the names of Thomas S. Wilson for Chief 
Justice, and Stephen Whicher, and Isaac Leffler for Asso- 
ciate Justices, and suggested their appointment. President 
Tyler was not, however, prone to act hastily in the matter 
and chose to investigate the case before submitting these 
names to the Senate. After some deliberation the names 
of Whicher and Leffler were stricken out, and those of 
Mason and Brown substituted in their places. In this con- 
dition the nominations went to the Senate, where at the 
request of Augustus Caesar Dodge, at that time a delegate 
to Congress, they remained without consideration until 
Judge Williams could be heard from. 78 

In the meanwhile petitions favorable to the reappoint- 
ment of Judge Williams, and signed by many of the voters 
of the Second Judicial District were sent to the President. 
Upon the receipt of these petitions, it appears that Presi- 
dent Tyler became convinced that the only objection to the 
reappointment of Judge Williams was based upon purely 
partisan grounds, if indeed not upon fictitious and trumped- 
up charges. He, thereupon, withdrew the nominations from 
the Senate and again remodeled them, by placing Mason 

« Iowa City Standard, September 28, 1842. 
i*Iowa City Standard, September 28, 1842. 


as Chief Justice, and J udge Wilson and Judge Williams as 
Associate Justices. In this form the nominations were 
ratified by the Senate, and the old Judges thereby re- 
appointed for a term of four years. 

Interesting controversies arose between Whigs and Dem- 
ocrats relative to this delay and to the final outcome of this 
appointment. One of the leading newspapers of the Ter- 
ritory in attacking the President makes use of the follow- 
ing language: 

Now, we inquire, whose fault is it that we were left without 
Judges— who is culpable, in that the interests of the people were 
sacrificed and their safety in a measure jeoparded? Is not the 
President the man who should be held responsible ?— What right, 
in strict justice, had he to put the nominations in his pocket— and 
that, too, at a time when the commissions of the Judges were on 
the point of expiring— and spend weeks in making inquiries into 
the politics of the parties? 79 

Another of the Territorial papers in defending the atti- 
tude of the President said: 

The President could not have acted differently in the matter 
from what he did, and have acted justly and consistently. So soon 
as he was satisfied that the charges made were false, and that the 
purported proceedings of the Bloomington meeting were a forgery, 
he promptly, and with an independence creditable to him, re- 
appointed our Judges with the least possible delay compatible with 
justice, as well to the people of the Territory, as to the judges, 
who had for the four previous years discharged the duties of their 
stations to the almost entire satisfaction of those with whom they 
acted. 80 

While President Tyler was investigating the record of 

79 Iowa City Standard, September 28, 1842. 

so Iowa Capital Reporter (Iowa City), October 8, 1842. 


the various candidates for the appointment, Judge Wil- 
liams was himself busily engaged in promoting his own 
candidacy. For while Judge Mason had a farm to which 
he could retire, and J udge Wilson had a good law practice, 
Judge Williams had neither and was, therefore, anxious 
for a reappointment. He not only used his influence in 
securing a petition, urging the President to reappoint him, 
but he made a trip from his home at Muscatine to the 
national capitol, in furtherance of this cause. 

An interesting story is told of this journey. It was made 
overland and for the most part by stage. Upon reaching 
Wheeling, the J udge fell in company with a handsome lady. 
He, being a gallant man and quite at ease in the presence 
of ladies, found no difficulty in making himself agreeable. 
The two were traveling companions all the way to Balti- 
more. As they pursued their journey Mr. Williams related 
to the lady the nature of his business at Washington, but 
strangely enough he did not learn his companion's name or 
place of residence. When he got to Washington, and had 
sufficiently recovered from the journey, he presented him- 
self to the President. He was received very cordially. 
"What can I do for you, Judge Williams!" said the Presi- 
dent. The Judge suggested as gracefully as he could that 
he had come seeking the renewal of his commission. The 
President replied that the matter had already been fixed. 
Judge Williams was then ushered into the parlor where 
he met the lady who had been his traveling companion— 
the President's wife. She greeted him very cordially and 
said, "I spoke to my husband about you and he said you 
should have the appointment". 81 Judge Williams, feeling 
under obligation to the other members of the court, Judge 
Mason and Judge Wilson, spoke to the President about 

g i Iowa Historical Lectures, 1894, pp. 75, 76. 


their reappointment, and found that their commissions too 
would be renewed. Thus the long contest for the reappoint- 
ment of Judges was settled in a manner quite satisfactory | 
to the members of the court, and it appears in a manner 
quite generally acceptable to a majority of the people of 
the Territory. 

The editor of one of the leading Territorial papers com- 
menting upon the reappointment a few days later used the 
following language : 

We have at length the gratifying intelligence to communicate 
to our readers that Judges have been appointed for our Territory 
by the authorities at Washington and that the wheels of our judi- 
cial system, which have been at a standstill for some month or 
two past may be expected therefore to be set in motion again 
ere long .... 

But the mere appointments of the Judges is not the only pleas- 
ing information connected with this matter which we are enabled 
to convey to our readers. We have the further good news to tell 
them, that the old Judges are all reinstated in their places as they 
stood prior to the 4th, ultimo, towit : Judge Mason as Chief Justice 
of the Territory, and Judges Williams, and Wilson, as associates. 

This result will, we are sure, be highly gratifying to a very large 
majority of the people of the Territory, and should be so, we 
think, to every individual in it ; for surely none will deny that the 
duties of their stations have been discharged by those gentlemen 
with much ability, and with the most exemplary fidelity. . . . 

To President Tyler, however we may have differed hitherto, or 
may differ with him hereafter, upon other subjects, our thanks 
in common with those of the people of Iowa, are due for his action 
in this matter of the appointment of Judges. He might have 
given us those here at home who would have been greatly less 
acceptable ; or he might have sent those among us from abroad 
whose presence in the Territory would have been a pollution to 
it ; instead of doing either of which, he restored to us as Judges 


those whom we all know to be worthy, and by whom all must feel 
assured that justice will be dispensed between man and man, free 
from fear, favor, or affection. 82 


The Judges having been reappointed for the ensuing four 
years, the judiciary was ready to resume its duties. And 
since there was no session of the Supreme Court in 1842 
there was an unusually large amount of business awaiting 
the court when it convened in January, 1843. None of the 
suits were perhaps of primary importance, as involving 
great legal questions, but many of them are of much in- 
terest, because of the men connected with them, and as an 
indication of the methods of court procedure. A typical 
case is that of United States v. Cropper, 83 a suit arising in 
Johnson County and presenting the question as to the 
duties of the board of commissioners respecting the de- 
livery of lists of grand jurors to the Clerk of the District 

It was held that it is the duty of the commissioners to 
deliver to the Clerk of the Court attested copies of the lists 
of grand jurors, thirty days previous to the beginning of 
the term. The attorney for the plaintiff in this case was 
Ealph P . Lowe, a distinguished and successful lawyer oi 
the Territory, and afterwards Governor of the State. His 
competitor, the attorney for the defendant, was W. Gr. 
"Woodward, a very able lawyer, a son of the defendant in 
the celebrated case of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 
and later one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the 
State. Aside from the interest in the men involved in the 
case, this decision is worthy of notice because of its dis- 
senting opinion. The majority opinion was rendered by 

8 2 Iowa Capital Reporter (Iowa City), August 20, 1842. 

83 1 Morris 190. 


Judge Wilson, Judge Williams concurring, while a vigor- 
ous and somewhat extended dissenting opinion was de- 
livered by Judge Mason. 

It is a notable fact that there were during the Territorial 
period a number of cases in which a dissenting opinion was 
rendered. Indeed it is believed that the organization of 
the courts was such as to foster a disagreement among the 
Judges. This was due to the fact that one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court presided over each of the three dis- 
trict courts. It was necessary, therefore, in the higher 
court for a judge to pass upon his- own ruling in the lower 
court. This defect of organization was perhaps unavoid- 
able, yet it was a serious defect, for it is very difficult for 
any man, however thoroughly judicial and impartial he 
may be, to avoid, in the appeal of a case, a bias arising 
from his own ruling in the court below. There is no in- 
timation that the ruling in this case was a result of a biased 
opinion, indeed there is evidence to the contrary, for while 
the dissenting opinion was rendered by Judge Mason, the 
original hearing of the case was before Judge Williams. 
Yet one can not but recognize the defect in the organization 
of the court at this point. 

The term of court which convened in January, 1844, was 
not unlike that of the previous term. One of the most in- 
teresting cases was that of Waw-kon-chaw-neek-kaw v. The 
United States : a case in which an Indian was convicted of 
the murder of one Moses Tegarden. The case arose in the 
District Court of Dubuque. An appeal was taken on the 
ground that the record did not show that the jury were 
properly and lawfully sworn. The court held that such an 
objection could not be sustained after the case had gone 
to trial and a verdict had been rendered. .Chief Justice 
Mason in rendering the decision said: 


The proceedings below will be presumed to have been correct, 
unless the contrary is shown by the plaintiff in error. ... It 
would be subversive of justice to allow a party to remain silent in 
relation to matters of this nature, until after a final hearing, and 
then obtain a re-hearing of the case and put the public to the 
trouble and expense of a new trial, merely because a clerk of the 
District Court omitted a caption to his transcript. 8 * 

In J anuary, 1845, the seventh term of the Supreme Court 
convened with a docket of ninety-eight cases. 85 Many of 
these were, however, stricken from the docket, while others 
were continued until the next term of court, so that the en- 
tire list of cases adjudicated was reduced to forty. The first 

case reported during this session — Hughell v. Wilson 86 

was one involving the validity of a statute relative to pub- 
he lands. On J anuary 25, 1839, the legislature had passed 
an act providing that the claimant of public lands, who had 
marked out and designated his claim, but had not enclosed 
it with a fence, could maintain an action of trespass upon 
said claim. The court held that this statute was valid and 
that one cutting trees upon such a claim was subject to a 
fine. The amount of money involved in this case was very 
small, but the principle under consideration was one of 
vast importance to the people of the newly settled country. 

Another case, arising during this term of the court, and 
one presenting an important question was that of Eight 
and Hight v. The United States. 87 George W. Hight and 
George V. Hight had been indicted upon the charge of 
murder, and subsequently brought action on a writ of 
habeas corpus for the purpose of being admitted to bail. 

8*1 Morris 335. 

8 5 Iowa Capital Reporter (Iowa City) January 11, 1845. 

86 1 Morris 383. 

87 1 Morris 407. 


It was contended for them that the evidence against them 
before the grand jury was so slight that they were entitled 
to be discharged on bail. The court refused to bail the 
prisoners, whereupon the case was appealed to the Supreme 

Judge Mason in delivering the opinion said substantially 
that while an indictment furnishes no presumption of guilt 
against a prisoner when he is upon his trial, it furnishes 
the strongest presumption of his guilt in all proceedings 
between the indictment and the trial. Although it is with- 
in the power of the court to grant bail, the prisoner can 
not in capital offences demand bail as his natural right. 
The court is not required to investigate the evidence upon 
which the indictment is found. The finding of the grand 
jury is conclusive as against the prisoner, although it may 
have been found on slight evidence. 

The following term of court, in 1846, was of unusual im- 
portance because of the cases relative to the " Half -breed' ' 
settlements. The principal case in this connection was 
"Webster v. Eeid, 88 a case involving the title to extensive 
tracts of land in Lee County. This suit was full of interest 
not only to the immediate parties, but to the community 
as a whole, indeed some of the questions involved were 
many times before the courts, and were not finally settled 
until after Iowa had become a State. The case arose as a 
result of the intermingling of the whites with the Indians. 
In the early days the settlers were for the most part young 
men, having no families. Many of these settlers, in coming 
in contact with the Sac and Fox Indians, had married 
Indian women and had become the fathers of a generation 
of children commonly known as the "Half-breeds". In the 
treaty of 1824 by which the Indians ceded large tracts of 

88 1 Morris 467. 


land to the United States, a reservation was made for the 
benefit of these half-breeds. The stipulation in the treaty 
was as follows: 

It being understood that the small tract of land lying between 
the rivers Desmoines and the Mississippi, and the section of the 
above line between the Mississippi and Desmoines .... is intended 
for the use of the half breeds belonging to the Sac and Fox nations, 
they holding it, however, by the same title and in the same man- 
ner that other Indian titles are held. 89 

On the 30th of June, 1834, Congress passed an act re- 
linquishing all right of the United States in the Half-breed 
Tract and giving ' 'power to said half breeds to transfer 
their portions thereof by sale, devise or descent, according 
to the laws of the State of Missouri." 90 Neither the treaty 
nor the act of Congress designated the persons owning the 
land within the reserve. 

On the 16th of January, 1838, the Territorial legislature, 
to ascertain who were the real owners of the tract, and to 
bring about a partition of the lands among the real owners, 
passed an act providing for the appointment of three com- 
missioners, who should hold their sessions at the town of 
Montrose, receive and record the evidence of all claimants 
of any interest in the lands ; and who were to report to the 
District Court for Lee County the result of their investiga- 
tion and the evidence received by them. This act also pro- 
vided that the commissioners should receive $6.00 per day 
each, for their services, which was to be paid by a sale of 
such portions of the land as might be necessary to pay the 
same, said sale to be made on the order of the District 
Court. Under the provisions of this act commissioners 

*9 1 Morris 468. 
sol Morris 469. 


were appointed, two of whom, Edward Johnston and David || 
Brigham, actually served for nearly a year, indeed until 
January 25, 1839, at which time the Territorial legislature 
repealed the act by which they had been authorized to 
work. No sale of land had been made at that time to de- 
fray the expenses of said commissioners. To meet this 
contingency the act of January 25, 1839, provided that the 
commissioners should bring action in the District Court of 
Lee County against the owners of said half-breed lands. It 
is important to note in this connection that this act further 
provided that the trial of said suit or suits, should be be- 
fore the court and not before a jury, 91 and that "The words 
6 owners of the half breed lands lying in Lee county,' shall 
be a sufficient designation and specification of the defend- 
ants in said suits". 92 

Under this law actions were brought by the commission- 
ers, and as a result two judgments were executed, one in 
favor of Edward Johnston for $1290, the other in favor of 
David Brigham for $818. To satisfy these judgments the 
sheriff sold the land on January 1, 1842. Hugh T. Eeid 
bought the entire tract of 119,000 acres for $2884.66. 93 The 
question presented was whether Eeid secured a good title. 
The court held the title valid, notwithstanding the circum- 
stances under which it was obtained. Some years later, 
however, the same question arose in the Supreme Court of 
the State, in the case of Eeid v. Wright, and here Eeid's 
title was held to be invalid. The court based its decision 
in this case, in part, upon the fact that the Territorial 
legislature had provided that cases relative to the Half- 
si 1 Morris 469, 470. 
92 1 Morris 469, 470. 
»3l Morris 470. 


breed Tract should be decided by a court and not by a jury. 
The judge said : 

This is not according to the law of the land It infringes the 

clause of the ordinance of 1787, which guaranties judicial pro- 
ceedings, according to the course of the common law, and violates 
that clause of the ordinance which declares that no man shall be 
deprived of his liberty or property but by the judgment of his 
peers and the law of the land; and consequently it is utterly void. 94 

Again the Judge says : 

In the case before us, the want of jurisdiction over the parties 
appears upon the face of the proceedings. Suit is brought and 
judgments entered against "owners" of certain lands. 

Parties cannot be brought into court in this manner, and judg- 
ments cannot be so rendered. 95 

Other points involved in the case make it a long and 
complicated one. It will be sufficient to note in this con- 
nection that the case finally went to the Supreme Court of 
the United States, where the holding of the State court was 
affirmed, thus overruling the decision of the Territorial 


As early as 1839 the agitation for statehood had begun 
in the Territory of Iowa. The pioneers accustomed to self- 
rule in other States had brought with them the desire for 
self government in the land of their adoption. Like the 
people of other Territories they looked forward to the time 
when they could lay aside the Territorial government and 
enter into full statehood. The movement was not, however, 
one of rapid and unprecedented change, but rather one of 

94 2 G. Greene 29, 30. 

95 2 G. Greene 38. 


slow and steady growth. Indeed it was not until after 
five years of agitation, that, in August, 1844, delegates to 
the first constitutional convention were elected by the . 
people of the Territory. This convention met on Monday, 
October 7, 1844, in the Old Capitol Building at Iowa City, 
and there began the work of framing a constitution to be 
submitted to the people for their ratification or rejection. 
One of the questions with which the convention was con- 
fronted was with reference to the reorganization of the 

-judiciary. 96 , . . 

On the third day of the convention eleven standing com- 
mittees were appointed, one of which was the Committee 
on the Judiciary Department. The members of this com- 
mittee were Messrs. Jonathan C. Hall, James Grant, James 
Clarke, Stephen Hempstead, Stephen B. Shelleday, Jona- 
than E Fletcher, and Andrew W. Campbell. 8 ' Within a 
few days this committee gave its report, recommending 
that "the Judges of the Supreme Court and District Court 
shall be elected by the joint vote of the Senate and House 
of Representatives and hold their offices for six years . 
There was, however, a minority report which proposed thai 
all of the judges he elected by the people of the State. It 
is apparent from the debates of the convention that little 
consideration was given to the executive appointment oi 
judges. The question rather was: Shall the judges be 
elected by the people or shall they be chosen by the Genera 
Assembly ? Stephen Hempstead who was in favor of direc 
election said "that in a Bepublican or Democratic govern 
ment, the people were sovereign, and all power resided ii 
them." He contended, moreover, that when the legislature 

96Shambaugh's History of the Constitutions of Iowa, pp. 175, 176. 
9T Shambaugh's Fragments of the Debates of the Iowa Constitutional Cm 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, p. 9 ; Journal of the Convention of 1844, pp. s, 
s>8 Shambaugh's History of the Constitutions of Iowa, p. 208. 


or the Senate and Governor appointed officers, they acted 
as proxies of the people ; and that if the people were cap- 
able of electing these proxies, they were capable of electing 
the officers themselves." 

Gideon S. Bailey from Van Buren Comity, in reply to 
the argument of Mr. Hempstead, said he had no doubt of 
the capacity of the people to elect their judges; but he 
thought there was real danger of judges becoming corrupt 
through political influences. He argued that they were 
"liable to form partialities and prejudices in the canvass, 
that would operate on the bench." He admitted that the 
people were sovereign and had power to elect judges as 
weU as the Governor, but he was in favor of the legislative 
appointments. In further support of this plan he argued 
that the people were not acquainted with persons proper to 
fill the office of judge. 100 

After much discussion on the floor of the convention a 
compromise was reached, in which it was agreed that the 
judges of the Supreme Court should be named by the 
General Assembly; and the judges of the district court 
should be elected by the people. The provision as embodied 
in the constitution was in the following language: 

The District Court shall consist of a Judge, who shall reside in 
the distnet assigned him by law, be elected by the qualified voters 
thereof, and hold his office for the term of four years, until his 
successor is elected and qualified. ... 

The Judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by joint vote 
of the General Assembly, and shall hold their offices for the term 
of four years, and until their successors are elected and qualified « 

Constitution of Iowa, 1844, Art. VI, Sees. 4, 5. 


From these provisions it will be observed that there was 
not only a change in the manner of selecting judges, bill 
that there was a complete reorganization of the judicial 
system. The judges of the district court in the Territory 
were members of the Supreme Court, whereas the pro- 
posed constitution provided for separate judges for the 
various courts. This change was intended to obviate the 
difficulty of a judge on the supreme bench being biased by 
a decision which he had rendered in the same case in the 
lower court. 

On Friday morning, November the first, after a session ot 
twenty-sLx days the convention adjourned. The questions 
which had been discussed on the floor of the convention 
were now taken up by the press, public speakers, and the 
public as a whole. The subject of the election of judges 
and the reorganization of the judiciary received its share 
of attention. In commenting upon the proposed constitu- 
tion, The Iowa Capitol Reporter said: "the organization of 
the Courts meets our entire approbation." And conclud- 
ed— "we are determined to give it our decided support, 
and wish to see its unanimous adoption by the people." 102 
The Dubuque Transcript on the other hand made particu- 
lar objection to the election of judges by the people. It 
considered this provision alone sufficient to condemn the 

entire constitution. 103 

The Burlington Hawk-Eye in speaking of the constitution, 
said: "With many exceedingly good points, it has others 
so radically wrong both in principle and operation, that 
like the scorbutic taint in the human system, it infects and 
vitiates the whole scope of its provisions." It set its "face 

102 Shambaugh's Fragments of the Debates of the Iowa Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, pp. 210, 211. 

losshambaugh's Fragments of the Delates of the Iowa Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, p. 211. 


uncompromisingly against the whole construction of the 
Judiciary,' ' including the popular election of judges. 104 

From these and numerous other comments it is apparent 
that the constitution was severely criticized because it pro- 
vided for the election of judges of the inferior courts by 
the people. To the minds of many the office of judge was 
too sacred to be dragged into partisan politics. Judges, 
they thought, ought not to be directly responsible to the 
people. There were of course other objections to the pro- 
posed constitution, some of which were even more signifi- 
cant than that relative to the courts. The question of pro- 
posed boundaries, for instance, was of primary importance. 
Yet the question of the reorganization of the judiciary 
formed one of the interesting problems, and must be con- 
sidered as one of the objections which led to a defeat of 
the constitution. Suffice it to say that this constitution was 
twice submitted to the people— once in 1844 and again in 
1845— and was each time rejected. 

The rejection of this constitution did not, however, per- 
manently check the movement toward statehood. An act 
of the Territorial legislature approved on January 17, 
1846, provided for the election of delegates to another con- 
stitutional convention, to meet in Iowa City the following 
May. 105 The convention convened on the morning of May 
4th, and in the afternoon of the same day six standing 
committees— including the Committee on the Judicial De- 
partment—were appointed. 

The question of election of judges was soon again 
brought forward and discussed as in the former conven- 
tion. Mr. George W. Bowie from Des Moines County, in 
speaking upon this subject admitted that the people were 

^Shambaugh's Fragments of the Delates of the Iowa Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, pp. 212, 213. 

^Shambaugh's History of the Constitutions of Iowa, p. 289. 

VOL. XX — 18 


competent to choose judges but opposed the plan on the 
ground that men eminently fitted to become judges would 
shrink from the public scrutiny and thus the best men 
would be eliminated from the contest. 106 

Mr. Samuel A. Bissel from Cedar County, in supporting 
the opposite view, contended that public opinion was the 
only true test of the character of a public man, and that 
public opinion could be determined only at the ballot box. 107 
Thus the subject was argued pro and con as in the con- 
vention of 1844, and with essentially the same result. The 
lapse of two years had served to impress upon the minds 
of the legislators the merits of the proposed reorganization. 
The idea of an elective judiciary had come to stay. The 
new constitution, therefore, like that of 1844, embodied a 
clause providing for a separation of the Supreme and Dis- 
trict Judges, the former to be chosen "by joint vote of both 
branches of the General Assembly", the latter to be "elect- 
ed by the qualified voters of the district". 108 Thus the 
question so vigorously debated in 1844 was again presented 
to the people for their adoption or rejection. The debates 
and press comments were not unlike those of the previous 
contest, and the arguments presented were essentially the 

Wm. Penn Clarke in an address to the people, which ap- 
peared in one of the Territorial papers, said : 

I am opposed to the adoption of the constitution .... because 
it proposes an experiment with our judiciary system. An elective 
judiciary is one of the vagaries which has grown up out of the 
party strife of the country, and is calculated to disrobe our Courts 

ice Shambaugh's Fragments of the Debates of the Iowa Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, p. 322. 

107 Shambaugh's Fragments of the Delates of the Iowa Constitutional Con- 
ventions of 1844 and 1846, pp. 323-325. 

los Constitution of Iowa, 1846, Art. VI., Sees. 3, 4. 


of Justice of their sacred character and impair the confidence the 
people ought to, and do entertain in the integrity of our judges. 
It is an experiment which has been tried in but a single State of 
this Union, Mississippi; and it is a singular fact, as undeniable 
as it is singular, that in this State, life and property are less 
secure than in any other, and its public credit is lost beyond re- 
demption. 109 

Notwithstanding these and many other arguments, the 
proposed constitution was received favorably by a majority 
of the people. And by its adoption, the Commonwealth 
which for the past eight years had existed as a Territory 
now entered the fullness of statehood. And the judiciary, 
which had its beginning in the improvised and unorganized 
courts, came to assume the position of State courts, with 
the dignity, decorum and efficiency comparable to that 
maintained in other State governments. 

Jacob A. Swisher 

109 Address of Wm. Penn Clarke in Shambaugh >s Fragments of the Delates 
of the Iowa Constitutional Conventions of 1844 and 1846, p. 355. 



A History of Minnesota. Volume I. By William Watts Fol- 
well. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society. 1921. Pp. 553. 
Plates, maps. This first volume of a series of four comprising A 
History of Minnesota gives assurance of a solid and scholarly con- 
tribution to the body of printed material on the history of the 
States of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Mr. Folwell's initial 
volume treats of the events down to 1857— the end of the Terri- 
torial period. By reason of its geographical position Minnesota 
was less closely related to the early migration movement than its 
neighbors and did not develop until later than Wisconsin and Iowa. 
However, lying at the head of the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, 
it was the scene of extensive and interesting French exploration, 
and with this series of adventures the author begins his recital. 
The expeditions are adequately sketched and there is evidence of a 
wide examination of sources as well as secondary accounts. One is 
grateful for his restraint with regard to Kadisson, and hence more 
ready to grant something in the way of a kindly attitude toward 

The author falls into error, however, in his disposition of the 
party which accompanied La Salle on his last trip. On page 35 
he remarks that a small remnant of the adventurers, after the 
murder of La Salle, found their way, with incredible hardship, to 
Fort St. Louis on the Illinois, and he adds: " Most of them perished 
on the way by fever, by drowning, or by the attacks of serpents or 
alligators. " As a matter of fact, only seven of the thirteen who 
were left made any effort to reach Fort St. Louis. One of these 
was drowned, one stopped at Couture 's post at the mouth of the 
Arkansas, and the remaining five reached Fort St. Louis in safety. 
Of the six others, whose deeds did not make a return to civilization 
altogether safe, three were killed in quarrels and one, perhaps two, 
drifted down into the Spanish possessions and finally were taken to 



Following the story of the French in Minnesota, the author 
takes up the British domination, the acquisition and exploration 
of -Minnesota West" by the Americans, and the coming of white 
settlers. Considerable space is naturally given to the Indian tribes 
the negotiation of treaties, the operations of the traders and the 
work of the early Indian missions. He devotes a chapter to the 
early efforts in the direction of railroads, and traces the course of 
politics, under the influence of Brown, Sibley, Rice, and others 
down through the Territorial period to the point where the State 
was ready to enter the Union. 

The last chapter discusses the Fort Snelling Reservation An 
appendix of thirteen sections and an index close the volume Al 
together, the work is a credit to both the author and the Minnesota 
Historical Society, and the remaining volumes will be awaited with 

A History of California: The Spanish Period. By Charles E. 
Chapman. New York : Macmillan Co. 1921. Pp. 527. Plates' 
maps. No section of the United States has a more romantic and 
picturesque history than the State of California. Here Russia, 
England, Spain, Mexico, and the United States were rivals, and 
China and Japan touched remotely the life of the western con- 
tinent. Here, too, were systematic attempts to Christianize and 
civilize the Indians, with the missions as the centers of activities. 

This volume presents many phases of California history during 
the period of Spanish occupation ending in 1847 with the coming 
of the Americans. The treatment of the Indians by the civil 
authorities and the priests and friars, the organization of the gov- 
ernment under the Spanish and Mexican governors, and life in the 
missions, presidios, pueblos, and ranches are among the subjects 
described by the author, and a wonderfully interesting story it 
makes. A bibliography of California history is included as an 
appendix and an index is provided. 

A History of the United States, Volume V. By Edward Chai- 
ning. New York: Macmillan Co. 1921. Pp. 623. Maps. This 
volume covers the period in United States history from 1815 to 


1848 and thus chronicles the rise of the West to a place of import- I 
ance. Chapters on the labor movement, abolition, social readjust- j 
ments, religion, education, and literature present the Me of the 
people during this formative period. The westward — , 
western lands and settlements, and the annexation of Texas Cah- 
fornia, and Oregon tell of the extension of the United States to the 
Pacific coast and the advance of the pioneer, although m this re- 
cital the point of view is constantly that of one whose symp^nes 
lie east of the Alleghanies. Like the other volumes of this work, 
the book is interesting, and is provided with footnotes, a bibli- 
ography, and an index. 

Bow America Went to War, by Benedict CroweU and Robert 
Forrest Wilson, is the title of a series of six volumes published by 
the Yale University Press. The first volume in the series is The 
Giant Hand, giving an account of the part of the gover^ent n 
the production of war supplies. Two volumes entitled The Rood 
to France tell the story of the transportation of troops and mili- 
tary supplies for the American Expeditionary Forces, while two 
others bear the caption The Armies of Industry and present an 
account of the manufacture of munitions and military supplies in 
the United States. The sixth volume is entitled VemoUUzation 
and tells the story of the return of the American army, its de- 
mo bilization, and the disposal of supplies and real estate acquired 
for war purposes. The last chapter, "The Balance Sheet , gives 
a summary of the cost of the war in human lives and in money. 
Numerous plates and maps add to the interest of the volumes 
which are very readable in spite of the technical nature of much 
of the material. The location of specific information is facilitated 
by an index. 

The Westover Journal of John A. Selden, Esqr., 1858-1862, 
edited by John Spencer Bassett, is published in the Smith College 
Studies in History, July, 1921. 

The Jesuits, 1534-1921; A History of the Society of Jesus from 
Its Foundation to the Present Time is the work of Thomas J. 


The Scenery of North America, by James Bryce, is one of three 
articles m The National Geographic Magazine for April. 

The "Blond" Eskimos, by Diamond Jenness, and The Ceremo 
rnal Societies of the QuUeute Indians, by Leo J. Frachtenberg are 
two papers in the American Anthropologist for July-September, 
1921.. ' 

International Trade Under Depreciated Paper: The United 
States, 1862*9, by F. D. Graham, and Enforced Par Remittance 
Under the Federal Reserve System, by Colston E. Warne are two 
papers in The Quarterly Journal of Economics for February. 

Frank T. Stockton is the author of a monograph on The Inter- 
national Molders Union of North America which appears as a re- 
cent number of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science. 

Witchcraft in Massachusetts, by Winfleld S. Nevins, Thomas 
Chandler Haliburton-" Sam Slick"-The Father of the American 
School of Humor, by Effie May Ross, and The Fries Rebellion, by 
Frank M. Eastman, are three of the articles in the January num- 
ber of Americana. 

The March number of The Annals of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science contains three groups of articles and 
papers: Russia Today, The Determination of Wage Rates and 
The American Intervention in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 

The Thirty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology contains the report of the Bureau for the year ending 
on June 30, 1915, and an extended paper on The Osage Tribe; Rite 
of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men, by Francis La Flesche 
These Indians formerly lived in Missouri. 

The Place of Woodrow Wilson in American Politics—An Esti- 
mate, by Edward J. Woodhouse, Racial Feeling in Negro Poetry 
by Newman I. White, and Pro-Slavery Propaganda in American" 
,7* ° f the Fifties > h ? Jeannette Reid Tandy, are three articles 
ot historical interest in the January number of The South Atlantic 


Folk-Lore from. Aiken, S. C, by Elsie Clews Parsons, Riddles 
and Ring Games from Raleigh, N. C, by Susan Dix Spenney, and 
Games of Danville, Va., by Caddie S. Isham, are three articles m 
The Journal of American Folk-Lore for January-March, 1921. 

The American Political Science Review for February contains 
the following papers : The Development of Democracy on the Am- 
erican Continent, by L. S. Rowe; Montesquieu and De Tocqueville 
and Corporative Individualism, by Wm. Henry George ; Constitu- 
tional Law in 1920-21, by Edward S. Corwin; and American Gov- 
ernment and Politics, by Lindsay Rogers. Walter F. Dodd writes 
Legislative Notes and Reviews. 

The League's Disarmament Activities-and the Washington Con- 
ference, by Alden H. Abbott, is one of several articles in the Poli- 
tical Science Quarterly for March. As part two of State History 
Dixon Ryan Fox discusses the seven volumes in the Centennial 
History of Illinois. 

The League of Nations at Work, by Erik M. Eriksson is one of 
the papers in the January issue of The Historical Outlook. The 
March number contains The St. Louis Meeting of the American 
Historical Association, by Daniel C. Knowlton. 

What Can a Man Afford, two essays by Paul and Dorothy Doug- 
las and Carl S. Joslyn, are published in the supplement to The 
American Economic Review for December, 1921. These papers 
relate to community and individual budgets. Two of the papers 
in the March issue are : The State of Our National Finances, by 
Edwin R. A. Seligman, and The Revenue Act of 1921, by Roy G. 

The three articles in The American Historical Review for Janu- 
ary are the following : Europe, Spanish America, and the Monroe 
Doctrine, by Dexter Perkins ; Garibaldi's Sicilian Campaign as Re- 
ported by an American Diplomat, by H. Nelson Gay; and Web- 
ster's Seventh of March Speech and the Secession Movement, 1850, 
by Herbert D. Foster. Under the head of Documents there is a 


letter describing the city of Washington in 1834, written by Rob- 
ert C. Caldwell, and contributed by George M. Whicher. 

A Pioneer Trek from Ohio to Wisconsin, from a journal kept by 
Sarah Foote on a journey by ox-team from Wellington, Ohio, to 
Winnebago County, Wisconsin, in April and May, 1846, A Day 
in Washington's Country, by Joseph G. Butler, Jr., The Mayflower 
Spirit, by L. Bradford Prince, Colorado's First Schools, by Abner 
& Brown, and a fourth installment of A History of Banks and 
Banking and of Banks and Banking in the City of Neiv York, by 
W. Harrison Bayles and Frank Allaben, are articles in The Jour- 
nal of American History for January-March, 1921. In the issue 
for April- June are the following papers: General Enoch Poor, by 
Henry M. Baker; Our Indians, a poem by Mrs. N. MJ, Davol; a 
continuation of Abner R. Brown's Reminiscences of Colorado's 
First Schools; and a fifth installment of A History of Banks and 
Banking and of Banks and Banking in the City of New York, by 
W. Harrison Bayles and Frank Allaben. A History of Fort Saint 
Joseph, Michigan, by Daniel McCoy, The Life of Mary Ball, by 
Elizabeth Gadsby, a third installment of Reminiscences of Colo- 
rado's First Schools, by Abner R. Brown, and a continuation of 
A History of Banks and Banking and of Banks and Banking in 
the City of New York, by W. Harrison Bayles and Frank Allaben, 
are four papers in the number for July-September, 1921. 


My First Meeting With Joseph Smith, by U. W. Greene, is one 
of the papers in the April issue of Autumn Leaves. 

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion, a monograph by James 
C. Malin, has recently been published by the University of Kansas. 

English Government Finance, 1485-1558, a monograph by Fred- 
erick C. Dietz, has been published as a number of the University 
)f Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences for September, 1920. 

Volume twelve of the University of California Publications in 
history is a History of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance 
i 1851, by Mary Floyd Williams. 


The Washington Conference, by Chester H. Rowell, The Isola- 
tion Plan, by David Starr Jordan, and The Labor Controversy of j 
1921, by Stuart Daggett, are three papers on current topics in the 
University of California Chronicle for January. 

The Romance of Oklahoma is the title of an attractive volume 
recently issued by the Oklahoma Authors' Club. The book is divid- 
ed into seven chapters, each containing one or more sketches of 
life in Oklahoma. 

A History of the 90th Division, by George Wythe, division his- 
torian, is one of the contributions to World W r ar history. The men 
of this division came chiefly from Texas and Oklahoma. 

The Detroit Public Library began, in January, 1922, the publi- 
cation of a monthly pamphlet entitled Burton Historical Collection 
Leaflet. The first number contains an account of the life of Henry 
R. Schoolcraft. The February issue has similar biographical mat- 
erial relating to Colonel John Francis Hamtramck. In the March 
number is the story of Fort Lernoult. 

Recent Excavations at Hawikuh, by F. W. Hodge, is an article 
in El Palacio for January 1, 1922. In the next issue Lansing B. 
Bloom writes of The West Jemez Culture Area. In the number 
for March 1st, R. E. Twitchell has an extended paper on Pueblo 
Indian Land Tenures in New Mexico and Arizona. The Spirit of 
the Dead, by Warren E. Rollins and Beginnings of Representative 
Government in New Mexico, by Lansing B. Bloom are two papers 
in the number for March 15th. 

Walter B. Stevens on the Mormon War and After, a continua- 
tion of The High Council, by Roy L. Roberts, and a second in- 
stallment of James W. Gillen, by H. 0. Smith, are the three 
articles in the Journal of History for October, 1921. City Plan- 
ning, by Henry C. Smith, Reminiscences of an Octogenarian, by 
Solomon J. Salisbury, The Journal of Ethan Barrows— a story of 
the Mormon exodus, and a continuation of the report of the High 
Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, by 
Roy L. Roberts, are the four contributions to the issue for Janu- 



ary. In the number for April there is an autobiography by John 
J. Cornish, an article on The Puritan Movement as a Preparation 
for the Restoration of the Gospel, by H. S. Salisbury, and con- 
tinuations of The Journal of Ethan Barrows and the report of the 
High Council. 


The Iowa State Highway Commission Service Bulletin for Feb- 
ruary contains the Improvement Program Planned and Proposed 
for Iowa Primary Road System in 1922. 

Physicians who Located in Iowa in the Period between 1850 and 
I860, by D. S. Fairchild, is a paper of historical interest in the 
January and March issues of The Journal of the Iowa State Medi- 
cal Society. 

The Philological Quarterly is a new magazine begun by repre- 
sentatives of the departments of modern languages at the State 
University of Iowa. The first number appeared in January, 1922. 

The two papers in the January issue of the Iowa Law Bulletin 
are: Landowner's Duty to Strangers on His Premises — As De- 
veloped in the Iowa Decisions, by Herbert F. Goodrich, and Regu- 
lar Entries, Boohs of Account, and the Iowa Statutes, by Fred- 
eric M. Miller. 

The Fellows Family, a volume of genealogy and reminiscences 
by Mrs. Mary Fellows Cavanagh, has recently been published. Mrs. 
Cavanagh is a sister of the late Stephen H. Fellows and the vol- 
ume, though primarily a family narrative, gives much information 
concerning living conditions and education in early Iowa. 

How Twenty-one and Twenty-nine Have Been Made Halves of 
Fifty in Iowa, by William H. Fleming, A Farmers 9 Wives' Society 
in Pioneer Days, by Mary D. Taylor; Transportation in Iowa Be- 
fore the Railroads, by E. R. Harlan, Tilghman A. Howard, by 
William H. Fleming; Iowa East and West, by D. C. Mott, An 
Unusual Type of Grooved Stone Axe, by Charles Reuben Keyes, 
and Pash A Ba Ho, by Mrs. A. M. Mitchell, reprinted from Gregg's 


Dollar Monthly and Old Settlers' Memorial, are the papers and 
articles in the Annals of Iowa for July, 1921. 

Military Training at Iowa, by Morton C. Mumma, Recent De- 
velopments in the Engineering College, by Frederick G. Higbee, 
and Pebbles and History, by Chester K. Wentworth, are three 
articles in The Iowa Alumnus for December, 1921. The January 
number contains a brief biographical sketch of Oscar R. Coast, an 
Iowa artist, 9-Y-A, a story of radio telegraphy, by Arthur H. 
Ford, and A New Greenhouse, by Clifford H. Farr. The February 
issue is the Diamond Jubilee number and contains a large number 
of short papers relating to the history of the State University. 
Among these are the following: At the Beginning, by Ruth A. 
Gallaher ; Turning the First Quarter, by Milton Remley ; The Half- 
Century Mark, by Forest C. Ensign; At the Diamond Jubilee, by 
Cloyce K. Huston; Lyrics from i( In the Land of the Aiouwas", 
by Edwin Ford Piper; Spirit of Education in Pioneer Days, by 
Cyrenus Cole; Iowa's Presidents, by John C. Parish; An Experi- 
ment in Higher Education, by Clarence Ray Aurner; Portrait 
Sketches of Five Great Teachers, by Charles C. Nutting; Looking 
at Ourselves, by C. H. Weller; From the Old Files, by Grace P. 
Smith; Playing the Game, by Michael L. McKinley; and Fifty 
Years of Athletics, by Harold Chamberlin. In the March issue are 
a number of articles on the College of Medicine: A Decade of 
Progress, by William R. Boyd ; Medical Memories, by Charles S. 
Chase; and Wards of a Beneficent State, by Harold Chamberlin. 


Aldrich, Bess Streeter, 

Mother Gets Back on the Job (The American Magazine, Feb- 
ruary, 1922). 

Nell Cutter's White Elephants (The American Magazine, 
April, 1922). 

The Woman Nell Cutter Was Afraid of (The American Maga- 
zine, January, 1922). 

Aurner, Clarence Ray, 

An Experiment in Higher Education (The Iowa Alumnus 
February, 1922). 

Baldwin, W. W., 

Corporate History of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road Company and Affiliated Companies. Published by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. 1921 

Railroad Land Grants. Published by the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy Railroad Co. 

Benjamin, Gilbert G., (Joint author) 

Modem European Civilization. Philadelphia: J. B Lippin- 
cott Co. 1922. 

Blake, W. R., 

A Small Town Mayor in the Legislature (American Munici- 
palities, January, 1922). 

3oyd, William R., 

A Decade of Progress (The Iowa Alumnus, March, 1922). 
Brant, Irving, 

To John Keats (The Midland, February, 1922). 
Srown, Charles Reynolds, 

Lincoln the Greatest Man of the Nineteenth Century. New 
York: Macmillan Co. 1922. 

>uchanan, R. E., 

Graduate and Research Engineering (The Iowa Engineer, 
February, 1922). 

utterworth, Julian Edward, 

Problems in State High School Finance. New York : World 
Book Co. 1922. 

arr, D. E., 

The Municipal Budget (American Municipalities, January, 

Report of Committee on Paving (American Municipalities, 
March, 1922). 




Carver, George, 

TU Singer (The Midland, March, 1922). 
'Tfcree Soldiers" si. Beinew (The Midland, January, 1922). 

Carver, Thomas Nixon, 

ffce Librium W«*> (The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science, March, 1922). 

Castleman, R. A., Jr., (Joint author) ^ 
Magnetic Rotary Dispersion in Transparent Liquid (The Astro- 
physical Journal, July, 1921). 

Chamberlin, Harold, Q99 . 
Fifty rears of Athletics (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922) . 
Wards of a Beneficent State (The Iowa Alumnus, March, 

Ch TS^ from m Puente Formation of the Monterey 
Group (American Journal of Science, August, 1921). 

Chase, Charles S., . 
Medical Memories (The Iowa Alumnus, March, 1922). 

C °\ C plri™f Education in Pioneer Days (The Iowa Alumnus 
February, 1922) . 

Colegrove, Kenneth, V/v , T v 

Amencan Citon, and Their Government New York: Th 

Abingdon Press. 1921. 

Pnllnton Ceeile M., (Joint author) 

TU Constanc; of tU Stanford Binet I. Q. Test (Journal o 
Educational Psychology, January, 1922). 

C0Wl FinmcZg the City (American Municipalities, Februar; 

Crawford, Nelson Antrim, 

The Fragilities (poems) (Poetry, October, 1921). 
My Furrow (The Midland, December, 1921). 



Our Grocery -Newspaper System of Teaching Writing (The 
English Journal, December, 1921). 

Weavers with Words. Manhattan, Kansas: Kansas State 
Agricultural Press. 1922. 

Crowley, Lillian Hall, 

The Men-Folks Entertain (Social Progress, March, 1922). 
Crum, R. W., 

Using Iowa Gravel in Concrete (The Iowa Engineer, January 
1922). ' *' 

Davis, Bradley N., 

The Retail Store (Journal of Business, February, 1922). 
Devine, Edward T., 

The Hills of Habersham (The Survey, February 18, 1922). 

Joint Finance (The Survey, January, 1922). 

Downey, E. H., 

American Compensation Laws (The American Labor Legis- 
lation Review, March, 1922). 

Dunlap, John H., 

Re-organization of Engineers in Iowa (The Transit, January 

Eichinger, J. W., 

Grade and Drain Roads 1922 Program (The Iowa Engineer, 
February, 1922). 

Iowa Spends Huge Sum on Road Work (The Iowa Engineer, 
March, 1922). 

Eriksson, Erik McKinley, 

The League of Nations at Work (The Historical Outlook, Jan- 
uary, 1922). 

Evans, J. E., 

Psychology as Applied to Industry (The Iowa Engineer, Feb- 
ruary, 1922). 


Farr, Clifford H., 

Certain Modern Methods of Horticulture (Transactions of the 

Iowa Horticultural Society, Vol. LV, 1920). 
Dormancy and Winter-Killing of Peach Buds (Transactions 

of the Iowa Horticultural Society, Vol. LV, 1920). 
A New Greenhouse (The Iowa Alumnus, January, 1922). 

Ferson, Merton L., 

The Rule in Foakes v. Beer (Yale Law Journal, November, 


Ficke, Arthur Davison, . 

Rue Des Vents (The North American Review, March, 1922). 

Fleming, William H., 

How Twenty-one and Twenty-nine Have Been Made Halves* 

of Fifty in Iowa (Annals of Iowa, July, 1921). 
Tilghman A. Howard (Annals of Iowa, July, 1921). 

Ford, Arthur H., 

9-Y-A (The Iowa Alumnus, January, 1922). 

Frederick, John Towner, 

Associate Professor Quinby of the English Department (Smart 

Set, January, 1922). 
The Eternal Pantagruel (Smart Set, March, 1922). 

Fulton, Reid S., _ J 

Business Leadership (Journal of Business, February, 1922). 

Gallaher, Ruth Augusta, 

At the Beginning (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 

Gamber, M. P., , _ , , n 

The Reorganization of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Com 

pany (Journal of Business, February, 1922). 

Gibbs, S. E., , Al £ 

Repairing Leaky Carbureters (American Garage and Aut< 

Dealer, January, 1922). 

Glaspell, Susan, 

Inheritors. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. 


Goodrich, Herbert F., 

Landowner's Duty to Strangers on His Premises — As De- 
veloped in the Iowa Decisions (Iowa Law Bulletin January 

Grainer, A. J., 

Put the Fanner's Business on a Paying Basis and All Business 
Will Revive (The Northwestern Banker, February, 1922). 

Grass, Donald F., 

How the Modern University Trains Future Bankers and 
Business Men — Grinnell College (The Northwestern Bank- 
er, February, 1922). 

Griffith, Helen Sherman, 

No, Virginia! Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co. 1922. 

Haines, Ella Wister, 

Strictly Tailored (Household Journal, March, 1922). 
Where Practical Gardening May be Learned (House and Gar- 
den, March, 1922). 

Hanson, Leslie, 

Investment Market Aided by President's Disapproval of Bonus 
Bonds (The Northwestern Banker, March, 1922). 
1921 Was the Most Remarkable Year for Investment Ever 
Known (The Northwestern Banker, January, 1922). 

Harlan, Edgar, R, 

Transportation in Iowa Before the Railroads (Annals of Iowa, 
July, 1921). 

Higbee, Frederick G., 

Recent Developments in the Engineering College (The Iowa 
Alumnus, December, 1921). 

Hoover, Herbert C, 

The Value of Good Will and Cooperation in Industry (Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of 
New York, January, 1922). 

vol. xx — 19 


Hough, Emerson, 

The President's Forest (The Saturday Evening Post, January 

21, 1922). I 
Hulbert, E. 0., 

The Detecting Efficiency of the Resistance Capacity Coupled 
Electron Tube Amplifiers (Physical Review, September, 

1921),. y t .§. 

Magnetic Rotary Dispersion in Transparent Liquids (The 
Astrophysical Journal, July, 1921). 

Hunt, W. A., 

Town and City Ordinances (American Municipalities, Febru- 
ary, 1922). 

Huston, Cloyce K., 

At the Diamond Jubilee (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 


Jahnke, Lovell, 

Contracting Cost Data (The Transit, January, 1922). 

Jayne, Julia Breckenridge, 

The Beauty Spots of Iowa (Iowa Conservation, October- 
December, 1921). 

Kingsbury, Paul E., 

Country Bank Furnishes the Community with Wireless Mar- 
ket Reports (The Northwestern Banker, February, 1922). 

Knight, Frank H., 

Economics and Business (Journal of Business, February, 


Knoernschild, J. L., 

The Humble Cow is Helping Farmers and Bankers to Solve 
Their Problems (The Northwestern Banker, January, 1922) 

Knott, Thomas A., 

Chaucer's Anonymous Merchant (Philological Quarterly, Jan 

nary, 1922). 

Krappe, Edith Smith, 

The Casino, of Plautus and the Thrymskvitha (Scandinavian 
Studies and Notes, August, 1921). 

Kurtz, Edwin, 

Radiophone is Becoming Practical (The Iowa Engineer, March, 
1922). 9 

Lane, Will A., 

Bankers Must Work for Common Cause and Apply "Horse 
Sense Optimism" (The Northwestern Banker, February, 
1922) . 

Lawler, Lillian M., 

WMaptiol Campus (poem) (The Iowa Alumnus, December, 

Macbride, Thomas H., 

The North American Slime-moulds (Revised edition). New 
York: Macmillan Co. 1922. 

MacDonald, Gr. B., 

Reforestation in Iowa (Iowa Conservation, October-December 

McKinley, Michael L., 

Playing the Game (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 
Mahan, Bruce E., 

Moving the Winnebago (The Palimpsest, February, 1922). 
Marston, Anson. 

Iowa State Highway Commission and Its Work (American 
Municipalities, January, 1922). 

Meeker, Robert J., 

The Philosophy of Sandy McPike (Rock Island Magazine, 
February, 1922). 

filler, Claude M., 

Outline of Civics: Iowa and the United States. Iowa City: 
Published by the author. 1921. 


Miller, Frederic M., 

Regular Entries, Books of Account, and the Iowa Statutes 

(Iowa Law Bulletin, January, 1922). 
Mott, D. 0., 

Iowa East and West (Annals of Iowa, July, 1921). 

Mumma, Morton C, 

Military Training at Iowa (The Iowa Alumnus, December, 


Murray, Albert Leonard 

* The Divine Library of Nature (Iowa Conservation, October- 
December, 1921). 

Myers, Walter L., 

Summoned (The Midland, February, 1922). 

Nutting, Charles C, 

Portrait Sketches of Five Great Teachers (The Iowa Alumnus, 

February, 1922). 

Oliva, Frank R., 

Draining Lakes and Straightening Streams : A Farmers 
Point of View (Iowa Conservation, October-December, 


Parish, John Carl, 

Iowa's Presidents (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 
The Lake of the Taensa (The Palimpsest, March, 1922). 

Parker, Lockie, 

After the Murder (The Dial, November, 1921). 

Parkhurst, Clinton, 

Our First View of Vicksburg (The Palimpsest, March, 1922). 

Parrish, Randall, 

The Case and the Girl. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1922. 

Perkins, Frank B., /m . _ T , 

Early History Featured in Bank Publicity Plan (The Norm- 
western Banker, February, 1922). 


Phillips, Chester A., 

Theoretical Considerations Bearing on the Control of Bank 
Credit Under the Operation of the Federal Reserve System 
(The Annals of the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, January, 1922). 

Pierce, Bessie L., 

Survey of Methods Courses (The Historical Outlook, Decem- 
ber, 1921). 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

Calumet Song (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 

The Dance of the Maize (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922) 

In the Land of the Aiouwas (The Midland, February,' 1922).' 

Plum, Harry Grant, (Joint author) 

Modern European Civilization. Philadelphia : J. B Lippin- 
cott Co. 1922. 

Preston, Howard H., 

A Crisis in Deposit Guaranty in the State of Washington 
(Quarterly Journal of Economics, February, 1922). 
Price, Eichard, 

The Dyestuff Industry (Textile Worker, January, 1922). 
Pride, H. E., 

M. J. Riggs— Union Builder (The Iowa Engineer, January, 
1922) . 

Remley, Milton, 

Turning the First Quarter (The Iowa Alumnus, February 

Reynolds, George M., 

Rediscount Rates, Bank Rates and Business Activity (The 
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science, January, 1922). 

Sands, E. H., 

Iowa's Housing Law (The Campaign Against Tuberculosis in 
Iowa, January, 1922). 

Schlick, W. J., 

Relationship of Rainfall to Runoff (The Iowa Engineer, 
March, 1922). 

Schmidt, Louis Bernard, 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1860-1890 
(III) (The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, January, 
1922). : 

Sharp, Mildred J., 

The M. and M. Railroad (The Palimpsest, January, 1922). 

Shaw, Albert, 

Industrial Relations in Governmental Employment (Proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New 
York, January, 1922). 

Shaw, M. A., 

A Landlord of No School (The Midland, January, 1922). 

Smith, Grace Partridge, 

From the Old Files (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 

Smith, Henry C, 

City Planning (Journal of History, January, 1922). 

Sontag, R. J., 

Italy and Albanian Independence (The Historical Outlook, 
December, 1921). 

Sprague, Bessie Toulouse, 

Khaki Kdbin (Household Journal, March, 1922). 
The Man She Rented (People's Popular Monthly, January and 
February, 1922). 

Steiner, Edward Alfred, 

Old Trails and New Borders. New York : Fleming H. Revell 

Co. 1921. 

Stone, R. W., . 
The Function of Courses in Labor in the Commerce Curri- 
culum (Journal of Business, February, 1922). 
How the Modem University Trains Future Bankers and 


Business Men — The State University of Iowa (The North- 
western Banker, January, 1922). 
Suckow, Ruth, 

Just Him and Her (Smart Set, January, 1922). 
A Pilgrim and a Stranger (Smart Set, January, 1922). 
Taylor, Mary D., 

A Farmers' Wives 9 Society in Pioneer Days (Annals of Iowa 
July, 1921). 

Thompson, Elbert N. S., 

Between the i( Shepheards Calender" and "The Seasons" 
(Philological Quarterly, January, 1922). 
Thornburg, Mrs. Z. C, 

My Child's Teacher and My Child's Home (Primary Educa- 
tion, October, 1921). 

The Parent-Teachers Association and the Health Crusade 
(Primary Education, January, 1922). 

Treynor, Albert M., 

Force Inscrutable (Top-Notch Magazine, April, 1922). 
Ullman, Berthold L., 

The Vatican Manuscript of Caesar, Pliny, and Sallust and the 
Library of Corbie (Philological Quarterly, January, 1922). 
Wallace, Henry C, 

Public Shooting Grounds, Game Refuges and Migratory Birds 
(Iowa Conservation, October-December, 1921). 
Wardell, Ruth A., (Joint author) 

Economics of the Home. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co 

Watkins, Emma, 

How to Teach Silent Reading. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 
Co. 1922. 

Weller, Charles Heald, 

Looking at Ourselves (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1922). 


Wentworth, Chester K., 

Pebbles and History (The Iowa Alumnus, December, 1922). 
Russell Fork Fault of Southwest Virginia (Journal of Geol- j 

ogy, May- June, 1921). 
The Wedge-work of Pebbles (American Journal of Science, 

December, 1921). 

Williams, William, 

The Fungus Hunter (Iowa Conservation, October-December, 


Wilson, Harold J., 

Why Not Trade Armament and Taxes for an International 
Police System? (The Northwestern Banker, January, 1922). 


Experiences in Andersonville, by A. L. Spencer, in the Maquoketa 
Excelsior-Record, January 5, 1922. 

The school of the Amana Society, by Peter Stuck, in the Williams- 
burg Journal-Tribune, January 5, 1922. 

The legal difficulties of the changing Missouri, in the Fairfield 
Tribune, January 5, 1922. 

Some early history of Benton County, in the Vinton Eagle, Jan- 
uary 6, 13, 20, 27, February 3, 10, 17, 24, and March 3, 10, 
17, 24, 31, 1922. 

The name of "Iowa", in the Oelwein Register, January 7, 1922. 

Life and adventures of Captain Stephen B. Hanks, in the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, January 7, 14, 21, 28, February 
4, 11, 18, 25, and March 4, 11, 18, and 25, 1922. 

Recollections of the Mississippi River, by J. M. Turner, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, January 7, 14, 21, 28, 
February 4, 11, 18, 25, and March 4, 11, 18, and 25, 1922. 

Across the plains in 1864, by John S. Collins, in the Burlmgton 
Saturday Evening Post, January 7, 14, 21, and February 4, 


Trials of the pioneers in Iowa, in the Hampton Recorder January 

12, 1922. 

Some ancient history of Beaman and Grundy County, by H. H. 
Beaman, in the Grundy Center Republican, January 12, 1922. 

Fifty years as an engineer for the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. 
Paul Railroad, by George Greene, in the Monticello Express 
January 12, 1922. ' 

The blizzard of 1888, in the Rock Rapids Review, January 12, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of W. W. Merritt, in the Red Oak Sun, January 

13, 1922. 

Glaciers in Iowa, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, January 14 

Sketch of the career of Theodore Parvin, by Freeman R. Conaway, 
in the Cedar Rapids Republican, January 15, 1922. 

History of the Vindicator and Republican, by A. B. Funk, in the 
Estherville Vindicator and Republican, January 18, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Z. A. Church, in the Rockwell City Advocate, 
and the Rockwell City Republican, January 19, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Byron C. Ward, in the Des Moines News and 
the Des Moines Capital, January 19, 1922. 

Early days in Emmet County, in the Estherville Enterprise, Jan- 
uary 25, 1922. 

Benjamin Bowman, pioneer stage driver, in the Grundy Center 
Dispatch, January 26, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of H. C. Hemenway, in the Waterloo Courier 
and the Cedar Falls Record, January 27, 1922. 

Mississippi River boats which disappeared during the Civil War, 
by J. W. Darrah, in the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, 
January 28, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Walter I. Smith, in the Atlantic News and 
the Shenandoah World, January 28, 1922, and the Des Moines 
Capital, February 1, 1922. 


The first Baptist church of Keokuk, in the Keokuk Gate City, 

January 30, 1922. 
Early days in Leon, by Mrs. Belle Harvey, in the Leon Journal, 

February 2, 1922. 
When Newcastle changed its name to Webster City, in the Webster 

City Daily News, February 2, 1922. 
Iowa's senators, in the Atlantic News, February 3, 1922, and the 

Clarinda Journal, February 16, 1922. 

Old Fort Atkinson, in the Lansing Mirror, February 3, 1922, the 
Dubuque Herald, February 12, March 19, 1922, and the Fair- 
field Tribune, March 2, 1922. 

Railroad building in early days, in the Tipton Advertiser, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1922. 

First settlements in Tama County, in the Traer Star-Clipper, Feb- 
ruary 3, 24, 1922. 

Early events in Jefferson County, by Hiram Heaton, in the Fair- 
field Ledger-Journal, February 4, 9, and March 13, 1922. 

Elial Hoxsie, veteran conductor on the Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
St. Paul Railroad, in the Des Moines Register, February 5, 

Sketch of the life of J. A. Fitchpatrick, in the Nevada Represent- 
ative, February 7, 1922. 

Winter experiences of the pioneers, in the Mason City Gazette, 
February 8, 1922. 

The name "Iowa", by Cyrenus Cole, in the Fairfield Tribune, 
February 9, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of T. M. Stewart, in the Chariton Herald-Patriot, 
February 9, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Davis McCarn, Iowa's oldest lawyer, in the 
Anamosa Journal, February 9, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of John Steven Boyd, in the Clarksville Star, 
February 9, 1922. 


Old coins found near Griswold, in the Atlantic News-Telearavh 
February 10, 1922. *y™pn, 

Reminiscences of Council Bluffs, by Watson R. Cooper, in the 
Council Bluffs Nonpareil, February 10, 1922. 

A storm on the Mississippi River, by Fred A. Bill, in the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, February 11, 1922. 

Early days in Boone County, in the Madrid News, February 16, 
1922. ' 

P. J. Morehouse in Libby prison, in the Manchester Press Febru 
ary 16, 1922. 

Early band in Fort Madison, by Port A. Emmons, in the Fort 
Madison Democrat, February 16, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of William Cobb, in the Bedford Free Press 
February 16, 1922. 

Pioneering in Story County, by James F. Brown, in the Roland 
Record, February 16, 1922. 

The ^calico" road, by John Lett, in the Tipton Advertiser, Febru- 
ary 17, 1922. 

The Indians and the settlers, in the Traer Star-Clipper, February 
17, 1922. 

Mrs. Rebecca Bolden and the settlement of Waterloo, in the Water- 
loo Courier, February 18, 1922. 

The naming of Mount Hosmer, by Martha L. Hemenway, in the 
Dubuque Herald, February 19, 1922. 

The building of the Burlington, by W. W. Baldwin, in the Bur- 
lington Hawk-Eye, February 19, 1922. 

Early days in Keokuk, in the Keokuk Gate-City, February 21 

rhe first wiU in Greene County, in the Jefferson Bee, February 22, 

rhe Ottumwa Courier in 1857, in the Ottumwa Courier, February 
25, 1922. 


Fayette County, by Freeman R. Conaway, in the Oelwein Register, 

February 25, 1922. 
Indentures in Iowa, in the Dubuque Herald, February 26, 1922. 
Davenport in 1845, in the Davenport Democrat, February 27, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of Charles Lattimer Root, in the Clinton Herald, 

March 1, 1922. 

Home life of the Musquakies, in the Tama Herald, March 2, 1922. 
Reminders of John Brown's sojourn in Iowa, in the Oakland 

Acorn, March 2, 1922. 
Incidents in Burlington's history, in the Oakland Acorn, March 2, 


Engineers in early days, by J. E. Quackenbush, in the Cedar 
Rapids Times, March 2, 1922. 

The desk of Governor William Larrabee, in the Fort Dodge Mes- 
senger, and the Marshalltown Times Republican, March 6, 

Attempt of E. B. Stillman to found the Sioux City Journal, in the 

Sioux City Journal, March 3, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of W. W. M'Farlane, in the Waterloo Courier, 

March 4, 1922. 

The war record of the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Infantry, m 

the Des Moines Capital, March 5, 1922, and the Pomeroy 

Herald, March 9, 1922. 
Early days in Sioux City, in the Alton Democrat, March 4, 1922 
Thomas Owen, survivor of Indian massacre at Julesburg, Colorado 

in the Des Moines Register, March 7, 1922. 
Fort Defiance at Estherville, in the Estherville Republican, Marcl 

8, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of J. G. Protextor, in the Rock Rapids Revieu 
March 9, 1922. 


Pioneer life in Howard Township, Story County, by N. Tjernasel 
in the Roland Record, March 9, 1922. ' 

W. G Malin, survivor of Andersonville prison, in the Toledo 
Chronicle, March 9, 1922. 

The settlement of Lansing, in the Lansing Mirror, March 10, 1922 

The old Charles Gregoire mansion, in the Dubuque Herald, March 
11, 1922. 

Sketch of the lives of Curtis, James A., and George Shedd, of Den- 
mark, in the Fort Madison Democrat, March 13, 1922.' 

The Iowa City square and the State University, in the Iowa City 
Republican, March 21, 1922. 

The Rock Island railroad in Iowa, in the Cedar Rapids Times 
March 21, 1922. 

Log cabin in Ottumwa, in the Ottumwa Courier, March 21, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of T. F. Baldwin, in the Keokuk Gate City 
March 22, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of William J. Campbell, in the Wapello Tribune, 
March 23, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of George E. Hubbell, in the Davenport Demo- 
crat, March 23, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Asa B. Dowell, said to be Iowa's oldest resi- 
dent, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, March 15, 1922. 
Indian relics at Dubuque, in the Dubuque Journal, March 16, 1922. 

Early legislative activities, in the Washington Journal, March 18 

Locating the city of GrinneU, in the Des Moines Capital, March 
18, 1922. 

ttie grave of a Revolutionary soldier in Iowa, by Hiram Heaton, 
in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, March 19, 1922, the Marshall- 
town Ti?nes Republican, March 23, 1922, and the Manchester 
Press, March 30, 1922. 

vol. xx— 20 


Sketch of the life of J. L. McCreery, pioneer journalist, who wrote 
"There Is No Death", in the Waterloo Times, March 19, 1922, 
and the Marshalltown Times Republican, March 23, 1922. 

First issue of the Osceola Courier, in the Osceola Sentinel, March 
23, 1922. 

First survey for railroad across Iowa, in the Iowa Falls Sentinel, 
March 23, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. William S. Ivins, in the Keokuk Gate 

City, March 27, 1922. 
Agreement of the Milford Emigration and Colonization Society 

owned by E. C. Herrick, in the Cherokee Times, March 29, 


Sketch of the life of Benjamin F. Parks, in the Cedar Rapids 

Gazette, March 29, 1922. 
The Oliver Clark homestead at Mount Vernon, in the Mount Ver- 

non Record, March 29, 1922. 
Early days at Grinnell, in the Oakland Acorn, March 30, 1922. 



Historical Markers in Indiana is the title of Bulletin No. 14, 
published by the Indiana Historical Commission. 

The Spanish Missions of California, an address by Juan Riano, 
the Spanish ambassador to the United States, is one of the con- 
tributions in The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record 
for April. 

A fourth volume of The Papers of Thomas Ruffin, collected and 
edited by J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, has been published as a vol- 
ume in the Publications of the North Carolina Historical Com- 

The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society for December, 
1921, contains John Boit's Log of the Columbia, edited by F. w! 
Howay and T. C. Elliott. There is also a Remnant of Official Log 
of the Columbia, annotated by T. C. Elliott. 

The number of The Quarterly Publication of the Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio for October-December, 1921, contains 
the annual report of the Society for the year 1921. 

The annual reports of the Western Reserve Historical Society 
for 1920 and 1921 have been issued as Publication No. 103 of the 

Mary Floyd Williams is the editor of a third installment of the 
Papers of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1851, 
which has recently appeared as volume four of the Publications of 
the Academy of Pacific Coast History. 

The Science of Columbus, by Elizabeth Miller (Mrs. Oren S. 
Hack), has been published as a recent number in the Indiana His- 
torical Society Publications. 



Fort Pitt, an article by Charles W. Dahlinger, is the chief con- 
tribution to the Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine for 
January. William Penn, the Founder of Pennsylvania, by Albert 
Sidney Bolles, and The Framing of the United States Constitution, 
by Edwin Z. Smith, are other articles in this number. 

Two recent publications of the California Historical Survey Com- 
mission are the Guide to the County Archives of California, by 
Owen C Coy and The Architectural, History of Mission San Car- 
los Borromeo, by Frances Rand Smith. The former is a biblio- 
graphy of county records arranged alphabetically by the counties. 

The Control of Manufacturing by the Confederate Government, 
by Charles W. Ramsdell, and George Rogers Clark's Service of 
Supply, by James Q. Randall, are the two papers in The Mississippi 
Valley Historical Review for December, 1921. Under the headings 
Notes and Documents is a letter relating to the Illinois country 
in 1792 written by N. Mitchell to Alexander Hamilton. 

Archaeological Research in the Northeastern San Juan Basin of 
Colorado During the Summer of 1921, by Jean Allard Jeancon is 
a report issued by the State Historical and Natural History Society 
of Colorado and the University of Denver. It is edited by Frank 
H. H. Roberts. 

Revolutionary Camps of the Hudson Highlands, by W. S. Thom- 
as The Calvinist Mind in America, by Dixon R. Fox, The Town 
of Dover on Staten Island, by George W. Turtle, and The Hugue- 
nots — The First Settlers in the Province of New York, by Ralph 
Le Fevre, are the four articles in The Quarterly Journal of the 
New York State Historical Association for July, 1921. 

The Indiana Magazine of History for December, 1921, contains 
the following papers: Vincennes in Its Relation to French Colonial 
Policy, by Paul C. Phillips; A Journal of Travel from New York 
to Vincennes and Return in 1S27, by Samuel Bernard Judah; and 
Shabonee's Account of the Battle of Tippecanoe, by J. Wesley 

The January number of The Southwestern Historical Quarterly 



contains the following articles and papers : The Last Treaty of the 
Republic of Texas, by W. P. Webb; Founding of Nuestra Senora 
Del Refugio, by William E. Dunn; a concluding installment of the 
Journal of Lewis Birdsall Harris, 1836-1842; and a continuation 
of The Bryan-Hayes Correspondence, edited by E. W. Winkler. 

Volume nineteen of the Collections of the Connecticut Historical 
Society contains a large number of documents under the title The 
Pitkin Papers; Correspondence and Documents during William 
Pitkin's Governorship of the Colony of Connecticut, 1766-1769. 

A History of the Coal Industry in Kentucky, by Willard Rouse 
Jillson, A Glimpse of Paris in 1809, by Mrs. W. H. Whitley 
William Thompson Price, and Clark County, Kentucky, in the 
Census of 1810, copied and edited by A. C. Quisenberry, are 
among the contributions found in The Register of the Kentucky 
State Historical Society for January. 

Washington in Essex County, by Robert S. Rantoul, The Essex 
Guards, by Lawrence Waters Jenkins, and a continuation of Salem 
Vessels and Their Voyages, by George Granville Putnam, are three 
articles which appear in the January issue of the Historical Col- 
lections of the Essex Institute. 

The Washington Historical Quarterly for January contains the 
following papers and documents: The Cowlitz Convention: Incep- 
tion of Washington Territory, by Edmond S. Meany; Advertising 
and the Klondike, by Jeannette Paddock Nichols; The Wreck of 
the^ ''St. Nicholas", by C. L. Andrews; a continuation of the 
Origin of Washington Geographic Names, by Edmond S. Meany ; 
and an instaUment of The Nisqually Journal, edited by Victor J.' 

Evolution of Jurisprudence, by Beverly D. Evans, The Ante- 
bellum Academy Movement in Georgia, by E. Merton Coulter, and 
some Howell Cobb Papers, edited by R. P. Brooks, are the three 

contributions to The Georgia Historical Quarterly for December, 

The Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society for July, 


1920, contains the following papers and articles: Side Lights on 
Illinois Suffrage History, by Grace Wilbur Trout; Lewis and 
Clark at the Mouth of Wood River, by Charles Gxlmer Gray; The 
Visit to Springfield of Richard M. Johnson, May 18-20, 1843, re- 
printed from the Illinois State Register; Greene County: Born 100 
Tears Ago, by Charles Bradshaw; Park College and Its Illinois 
Founder, by Pauline Aston Hawley; Recollections of Lincoln and 
Douglas in Hillsboro, Illinois, by John M. Whitehead; and The 
Northern Boundary Line of Illinois Surveyed by Hiram Rountree. 

Some of the Teachings of History, an address by Calvin Coolidge, 
Yermonters in Congress, compiled by Henry W. Taylor, Diary of 
a Journey through Massachusetts, Vermont and Eastern New York 
in the Summer of 1800, probably by John Russell Davis, Reminis- 
cences of Jonathan Elkins, Ezra Butler, an address by C. C. Park- 
er and an address by John H. Watson, In Re Vermont Constitu- 
tion of 1777, as Regards its Adoption, and its Declaration For- 
bidding Slavery; and the Subsequent Existence of Slavery mthm 
the Territory of the Sovereign State, are papers and addresses 
published in the Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, 

Volume ten of the South Dakota Historical Collections contains 
a number of articles and papers relating to the history of South 
Dakota. Among these are two accounts of the expedition under 
Joseph N. Nicollet and John C. Fremont, which visited this region 
in 1838 and 1839, written by Fremont and Nicollet. Other papers 
are the following: Dakota in the Fifties, a reminiscence of a 
soldier musician with the soldiers on guard on the frontier, by 
Augustus Meyers; The Astorians in South Dakota, an unsigned 
article; South Dakota's Contribution to Library War Service, by 
William H. Powers; War Savings Stamp Campaign in South 
Dakota for Year 1918, by Roger L. Dennis; South Dakota Fuel 
Administration, by W. G. Bickelhaupt; The State Exemption 
Board, by William W. Soule ; The Federal Food Administration 
in South Dakota During the World War, by Charles N. Herreid; 
A Steam Wagon Invented by an Early Resident of South Dakota; 


Rtv. Mary Clementine Collins; The Census of 1860; The Mennon- 
ites in South Dakota, by Gertrude S. Young; and Historical 
Sketches of Union Comity, South Dakota, by M. B. Kent and Alice 
A. Tollefson. 

The Michigan History Magazine for January contains the Ninth 
Annual Report of the Michigan Historical Commission, 1921, and 
the following papers and articles: The Trial and Execution of the 
Lincoln Conspirators, by R, A. Watts; Women and History, by 
Mrs. Franc L. Adams ; Some Marriages in Old Detroit, by William 
Renwick Riddell ; Michigan as a Field for the Novelist, by Arnold 
Mulder; Chief Okemos, by F. N. Turner; A Record of the De- 
velopment of the Grand Rapids Americanization Society's Plan 
of Citizenship Training through the Ballot, by Frank L. Dykema ; 
William Austin Burt: Inventor, by Horace Eldon Burt; and The 
| Chicago Indian Treaty of 1821, by Sue I. Silliman. 

J Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days appears in maga- 
• /me form beginning with the January-March issue for 1921. 
Among the papers and articles in this number are : Old Books on 
Western History; The Lillie Corn Husker, by Samuel C. Bassett; 
First Hat Factory in Nebraska; Wyuka Cemetery ~ Origin of the 
Name; and James Murie and the Skidi Pawnee. In the following 
I lssue > for April- June, 1921, are a number of short papers, among 
I which are : The Major Day Military Papers; Further Notes on 
\ Walker's Ranch, by P. Ii. Carrico; Dripping Fork Cave of the 
\ Platte; Some Recollections of Judge Grimison; and Diary of Wil- 
! Ham Dunn, Freighter. There is also a bibliography of the pub- 
| lications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, and a plea for 
the establishment of a State park at the site of Fort Atkinson. 

The Louisiana Historical Quarterly for October, 1920, contains 
the following contributions: Louisiana Completa, a story of the 
treaty with Spain in 1818-1821, by Edward Alexander Parsons, 
An Historical Sketch on the Construction of the Custom House of 
the City of New Orleans, by Charles A. Favrot, Judah Philip Ben- 
jamin or Jewish Prophecy Fulfilled, by Joseph Mitchell Pilcher, 
dward Livingston, by Merrill Moores, My Recollections of the 


Battle of the Fourteenth of September, 1874, in New Orleans, La., 
by Frank L. Richardson, The Constitutions of Louisiana with Some 
Observations on the Constitutional Convention of 1921, by W. 0. 
Hart; Bonded Debt of New Orleans 1822 to 1920 Inclusive, by 
Horace P. Phillips, and a continuation of Cabildo Archives, edited 
by Henry P. Dart. 

The Missouri Historical Review for October, 1921, contains the 
following papers and documents: How Missouri Commemorated, 
by Walter B. Stevens; Pioneer Life in Southwest Missouri, by 
Wiley Britton ; Missourians Abroad - Glenn Frank, by George F. 
Thomson; The Missouri and Mississippi Railroad Debt, by E. M. 
Violette • The Followers of Huden, by William G. Bek; and Shel- 
by's Expedition to Mexico, by John N. Edwards; Constitutions and 
Constitutional Conventions in Missouri, by Isidor Loeb, The Con- 
stitution of 1820, by F. W. Lehmann, Missourians Abroad — Flor- 
ence T>. White, by W. A. Kelsoe, Traditions Concerning the Mis- 
souri Question, by Floyd C. Shoemaker, Pioneer Life in Southwest 
Missouri, by Wiley Britton, and a seventh installment of The fol- 
lowers of Duden, by William G. Bek are the articles which appear 
in the issue for January. 

The Annual Publications of the Historical Society of Southern 
California for 1919 contains a number of papers and letters, 
among which are the following: Los Angeles County War History 
Committee, by Mrs. Frances M, Charlton-Harmon ; Senator Thomas 
R Bard and the Arizona New Mexico Statehood Controversy, by 
Waldemar Westergaard; The Conquest of Los Angeles, by Mrs. 
Corinne King Wright; and California Pioneer Journalists, by 
Mabel R. Thayer. The Henry E. Huntington Library, by George 
Watson Cole, Thomas R. Bard and Ventura County's Sheep In- 
dustry, 1870-1884, by Waldemar Westergaard, and The Committees 
of Vigilance of California, by Rockwell D. Hunt, are some of the 
contributions in the volume for 1920. 


At the invitation of the State Historical Society of Iowa and the 
History Department of the State University of Iowa, the fifteenth 



annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association 
will be held at Iowa City, Iowa, on May 11 and 12, 1922. The 
program is in charge of a committee of which George N. Fuller, 
Secretary of the Michigan Historical Commission, is chairman. In 
addition to the regular program of papers and discussions, James 
Harvey Robinson, Hamlin Garland, and George F. Parker will be 
among the speakers. Following the dinner on Thursday evening 
William E. Connelley, Secretary of the Kansas State Historical 
Society, will deliver the presidential address. Benj. F. Shambaugh, 
Superintendent of the State Historical Society of Iowa is chair- 
man of the local arrangements committee. This is the second 
meeting at Iowa City, the Association which was organized in 1907 
having met here in 1910. 


The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. W. J. Bailey, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. Wright 
Clark, Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. Leroy E. Corlett, Oskaloosa, Iowa; 
Hps. Loyd Davis, Centerville, Iowa; Mr. J. J. Feroe, Ames, Iowa; 
Mr. E. S. Holton, Anita, Iowa ; Mr. D. W. McCracken, Storm Lake, 
Iowa; Mr. F. I. McGraw, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. H. C. Nixon, 
Ames, Iowa; Mr. Millard Peck, Ames, Iowa; Mr. Ralph Pringle, 
Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. C. S. Relyea, Atlantic, Iowa; Mr. Fred B. 
Blair, Manchester, Iowa; Mr. Burton V. Bridenstine, Iowa City, 
Iowa; Mr. Fred D. Cram, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mrs. Vivian Dean, 
Tipton, Iowa ; Mr. Geo. R. Dennis, Allison, Iowa ; Mr. L. D. Den- 
nis, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Lowell L. Forbes, Mason City, Iowa; 
Mr. A. C. Fuller, Jr., Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mr. Frank A. Harris, 
New Hampton, Iowa; Mr. W. M. Hetherington, Dubuque, Iowa; 
Mrs. F. G. Holcomb, Greenfield, Iowa; Dr. C. T. Houser, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa ; Mr. Henry L. Huber, Tipton, Iowa ; Miss Genevieve 
Isherwood, Davenport, Iowa; Miss Mabel Jessen, Cedar Falls, 
Iowa; Dr. L. J. Leech, West Branch, Iowa; Dr. Charles N. Mc- 
Bryde, Ames, Iowa; Mr. W. S. Maxson, West Branch, Iowa; Mr. 
E. A. Milligan, Jefferson, Iowa; Mr. H. E. Moffett, Eldora, Iowa; 
Mr. J. W. Morse, Estherville, Iowa; Mr. Harry G. Northey, Water- 


loo, Iowa ; Mr. Albert B. Rathbun, Clinton, Iowa ; Mr. Alfred G. 
Remley, Anamosa, Iowa; Mr. Geo. J. Scholz, Alta Vista, Iowa; 
Miss Imelda Shanklin, Kansas City, Missouri; Mr. M. L. Soeth, j 
Wallingford, Iowa; Mrs. Belle Hughes Steckel, Bloomfield, Iowa; 
Mr. Harry B. Swan, Atlantic, Iowa; Mr. J. A. Treganza, Britt, 
Iowa; Mr. E. M. Vernon, Corning, Iowa; Mr. F. W. Vorhies, 
Guthrie Center, Iowa; Mr. F. A. Welch, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
F. M. Wilson, Mechanicsville, Iowa ; Mrs. Elmer Wood, Moulton, 
Iowa; Mr. Lore Alford, Waterloo, Iowa; Rev. W. Waldemar W. 
Argow, Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; Mr. Sid J. Backus, Algona, Iowa ; Mr. 
F. E. Blackstone, Garner, Iowa; Mr. Malcolm V. Bolton, Cedar 
Rapids, • Iowa ; Mr. T. L. Brown, Shenandoah, Iowa; Mr. C. C. 
Buck, Iowa Falls, Iowa; Mr. E. L. Butler, Oskaloosa, Iowa; Mr. 
M. H. Calderwood, Eldridge, Iowa ; Dr. Leslie L. Carr, Clermont, I 
Iowa ; Mr. William Carson, Burlington, Iowa ; Mr. F. C. Chambers, 
Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. James D. Cooney, West Union, Iowa; Mr. 
J. M. Coons, Macedonia, Iowa; Mrs. Varick C. Crosley, Webster 
City, Iowa; Mr. B. J. Denman, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. Louis E. 
Dickinson, Keokuk, Iowa; Mr. Volney Diltz, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Mr. D. M. Evans, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. J. L. Farrington, Iowa 
Falls, Iowa ; Mr. W. R. Finlayson, Grundy Center, Iowa ; Mr. W. 
J. Goodwin, Des Moines, Iowa ; Dr. John Hamilton, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa; Miss Ilda Hammer, Knoxville, Iowa; Mr. W. T. Harper, 
Ottumwa, Iowa; Mr. E. R. Harrison, Clarinda, Iowa; Dr. J. W. 
Harrison, Guthrie Center, Iowa; Mr. W. M. Henderson, Traer, 
Iowa; Mr. John M. Henry, Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. T. T. Hitch, 
Fort Madison, Iowa ; Mr. Walter Hooker, Blanchard, Iowa ; Mr. E. 
M. Howes, Clinton, Iowa ; Mr. Fred C. Huebner, Albia, Iowa ; Mr. 
H. B. Hunting, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Louis G. Hurd, Dubuque, 
Iowa; Mr. C. Huttenlocher, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Henry M. 
Immerzeel, Rippey, Iowa; Mr. R. N. Johnson, Fort Madison, Iowa; 
Dr. Oliver P. Judkins, Indianola, Iowa; Mrs. J. M. Junkin, Red 
Oak, Iowa ; Mr. Ed. Kauf mann, Davenport, Iowa ; Mr. Charles R. 
Keyes, Mt. Vernon, Iowa ; Miss Hallie Kinney, Newell, Iowa ; Mrs. 
D. S. Kirkhart, Centerville, Iowa; Dr. L. H. Kornder, Davenport, 
Iowa; Mrs. Alice Krepps, Maquoketa, Iowa; Mr. Emil Lage, Hoi- 



stein, Iowa; Miss Ha G. Langdon, Grundy Center, Iowa; Mr. A. 
J. Lilly, Britt, Iowa; Mr. Malcolm D. Lomas, Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. 
John W. Lovellette, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. E. M. Lundien, Day- 
ton, Iowa; Mr. Geo. A. Lyon, Estherville, Iowa; Mr. Joe McCor- 
mick, Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; Mr. Andrew McMillen, Council Bluffs, 
Iowa; Mr. Donald Macrae, Jr., Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. Carl h! 
Mather, Tipton, Iowa; Mr. R. J. Matthews, Clarinda, Iowa; Mr. 
A. Ray Maxwell, Creston, Iowa; Miss Emma F. Merrell, De Witt, 
Iowa ; Mr. H. 0. Miller, Algona, Iowa ; Mr. R. D. Morris, Red Oak! 
Iowa ; Mr. Frank L. Mott, Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. Thomas C. Mur- 
phy, Red Oak, Iowa ; Miss Hannah Nelson, Stratford, Iowa ; Mr. 
N. H. Nelson, Clermont, Iowa ; Mr. Claude E. Nichols, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. F. E. Northup, Marshalltown, Iowa; Mr. Ray Nye- 
master, Davenport, Iowa ; Mr. S. J. Osgood, Iowa Falls, Iowa ; Mr. 
John H. Peck, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Ole Peterson, Britt, Iowa; 
Mrs. W. J. Phillips, Centerville, Iowa; Mr. H. A. Phoenix, Daven- 
port, Iowa; Mr. A. M. Piper, Des Moines, Iowa; Mrs. Estella E. 
Plopper, Iowa Falls, Iowa ; Mr. Dwight A. Pomeroy, Ames, Iowa ; 
Mrs. Cora N. Porter, Delhi, Iowa; Mr. Fred J. Poyneer, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa; Mr. H. E. Pratt, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. S. D. 
Quarton, Algona, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Ramsay, Garner, Iowa; Mr. 
W. G. Ray, Grinnell, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Ray, Tipton, Iowa \ Mr. 
Herbert B. Rugh, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Abram J. Schmoker; 
Winfield, Iowa; Mr. Norman E. Smith, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. 
0. E. Smith, Indianola, Iowa; Mr. H. H. Spiegel, Odebolt, Iowa; 
Mr. J. E. Spotts, Battle Creek, Iowa ; Mr. Edw. C. Starrett, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mr. Almor Stern, Logan, Iowa; Mrs. Emily W. 
Stewart, Fort Madison, Iowa; Rev. John C. Stuart, Waukon, Iowa; 
Mr. John E. Taylor, Knoxville, Iowa ; Mr. Paul F. Thomas, Guthrie 
Center, Iowa; Dr. Mathew A. Tinley, Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. 
Charles S. Todd, Edgewood, Iowa; Mr. S. W. Towle, Clinton 
Iowa; Mr. Frank B. Ulish, Goose Lake, Iowa; Mr. H. M. Van 
Auken, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Vanderploeg, Pella, Iowa- 
Miss Marie Ethel Van Nest, Sioux City, Iowa; Mr. J. L. Welden, 
Iowa Falls, Iowa; Mr. G. T. Wellman, Sheldon, Iowa; Mrs. Blanch 
Williams, Madrid, Iowa; Mr. William H. Winsor, Cedar Rapids, 


Iowa ; Mr. Carl C. Wohlenberg, Holstein, Iowa ; Mrs. Mary Clarke- 
Woolley, Le Mars, Iowa; Mr. Geo. S. Wright, Council Bluffs, Iowa; 
and Mr. Joseph Albert Young, Bellevue, Iowa. 


The annual national encampment of the Grand Army of the 
Eepublic will be held at Des Moines during the week beginning 
September 24, 1922. A hundred thousand visitors are expected. 

A portrait of Judge Joshua Tracy was presented to the Des 
Moines County Bar Association on March 8, 1922, by George S. 
Tracy representing the Tracy family. The painting, the work of 
Katherine Scott, will hang in the district court room at Burlington. 

Company F of the Fifty-first Iowa Volunteers held a three day 
reunion at Oskaloosa on February 15-17, 1922. This was a part 
of the Iowa regiment which saw service in the Philippine Islands. 

Records of the services of members of the Iowa Daughters of 
the American Revolution and their relatives have been compiled 
by Mrs. F. B. Thrall of Ottumwa. One copy of this compilation 
will be preserved in the archives of the State Historical Depart- 
ment at Des Moines, and a second copy will be filed in the Memor- 
ial Continental Hall in Washington, D. C. 

The Chicago, Rock Island, and St. Paul Railroad is preparing a 
history of that road as a feature of the celebration of the seven- 
tieth anniversary of the operation of the first train west from 
Chicago on October 10, 1852. This road reached the Mississippi 
River at Rock Island and later was extended westward across Iowa 
is the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad. 

A biU introduced by Senator Albert B. Cummins provides that 
;he Secretary of War shaU furnish to each State the record cards 
)f aU soldiers sent by the State to the World War. These cards 
ire to give brief but complete records of the individual soldiers, 
ncluding the place of death of those who died in service. Various 
>ther data as to organizations and units are likewise to be fur- 
ushed. The bill carries an appropriation of $350,000. 




Jacob Aemsteong Swishek, Born in Illinois in 1884. Re- 
ceived the B. A. degree from the State University of Iowa in 
1917 and the M. A. degree in 1918. Author of The Executive 
Veto in Iowa. 


» * 


J A 

Iowf Jou 

I jSPI- of : . SIP 
H i storv and Pol it ics 

JULY 1922 


Iowa. City Iowa i+bL \>^[%, 

26 1902 at Iowa City Cow «. 

Associate Editor JOHN 0. PARISH 

Vol XX 

JULY 1922 

No 3 


Sioux City and the Black Hills Gold Kush 1874-1877 

Erik McKinlby Ehikssost 

A Typical Iowa Pioneer Community George F. Packer 

Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaigns . 

The Narrative of Henry J* Wieneke . 

The Manuscripts of Amos Cherry . . 

Letter of Josiah F. Hill . 
Some Publications 

Western Americana 

Historical Societies 
Notes and Comment 






CopyriBM mt op The State Bistorical Society of Iowa 



t» *9 no Single Numbbb: 50 Cents 

Subscription Price: $a.ou ° 1 ^ 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 



VOL. XX— 21 



Situated between the Belle Fourche Kiver and the South 
Fork of the Cheyenne Kiver are the Black Hills, famous 
not only for their scenery but also for their rich min- 
eral resources. The Hills which cover an area of approx- 
imately 3500 square miles are, for the most part, em- 
braced within the present counties of Custer, Lawrence, 
Meade, Pennington, and Fall Kiver, in the State of South 
Dakota. 1 The region constitutes a geological system per- 
fect and complete in itself, consisting of "a nucleus of 
upturned metamorphic rocks, mica-schists, slates, and 
quartzites of Archaean time, surrounded by encircling 
belts of the subsequent geological formations, extending 
continuously around the Hills, arranged in the order of 
their deposition, with a general dip from the center toward 
the level plains." 2 The country is rich in minerals, for 
besides gold and silver there are vast gypsum beds, mica, 
petroleum, natural gas, sandstones, limestones, granite, 
and marble. 3 

Until the year 1874, the Black Hills region was one of 
mystery. Though the district had been touched by Astor's 
fur parties as early as 1811, and afterwards had been 
skirted by various military expeditions, the interior had 

1 Steuart's Mines and Quarries, 1902, p. 308 (Special Reports of the 
Census Office). 

2 Jenney's Beport on the Mineral Wealth, Climate, and Bain ■Fall, and 
Natural Besources of the Black Hills of Dakota, p. 5, in Senate Executive 
Documents, 44th Congress, 1st Session, Doc. No. 51. 

3 Steuart's Mines and Quarries, 1902, p. 308 (Special Reports of the 
Census Office). 



never been explored by white men. Indian hostility alone 
had been sufficient to keep white men out of the Hills prior 
to 1868. In that year the United States government made 
a treaty with the Sioux Indians, in which it agreed to 
prevent the whites from entering the region. The fear of 
the Indians combined with the government restriction was 
effective in keeping the Hills closed until 1874, in spite 
of the fact that interest in exploring the forbidden terri- 
tory was rapidly developing. 4 

One influence in arousing interest in the Black Hills 
was the belief that gold was to be found there. This belief 
was strengthened by the fact that the Indians were known 
to possess fine specimens of the precious metal. When 
asked where they obtained the gold, they would point m 
the direction of the Black Hills, but would never consent to 
show white people where they had found it. 5 

To Charles Collins, editor of the Sioux City Times, must 
be given much of the credit for arousing interest in the 
Black Hills. Originally his plans for the invasion of the 
Dakotas had nothing to do with the desire for gold. He 
was an ardent Fenian, and in 1869 conceived a grand 
scheme for the establishment of an Irish-American empire 
on the upper Missouri Eiver. His idea was that the colo- 
nists could await a favorable opportunity and then invade 
Canada and wipe out the English there. His plan was 
submitted to a Fenian convention at St. Louis in 1869 and 
met with an enthusiastic reception. However, after a com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose had visited the proposed 

4 Sioux City Weekly Journal, March 18, 1875; Robinson's A History of the 
Dakota or Sioux Indians, pp. 382-387, 408, in the South Dakota Historical 
Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2; Tallent's The Black Hills, pp. 1-16. 

Mrs Annie D. Tallent, the author of this history, was the first white 
woman to enter the Black Hills, going with the first expedition from Sioux 
City in 1874. 

5 Tallent's The Black Hills, p. 17. 


area of settlement, it returned an unfavorable report and 
the project came to nothing. 1 d 

Collins was not discouraged, but turned his efforts to 
a scheme for the settlement of the Black Hills. During the 
spring and summer of 1872 he published in his naner 
the Sioux City Times, a series of sensational artie's 
picting the wonders and resources of the Hills He 
pecially stressed the possibility of finding gold, though he 
had no knowledge that it existed there, other than the 
Indian tradition. Through the efforts of Collins there 
was organized, on February 27, 1872, the -Black Hills 
Mining and Exploring Association of Sioux City" Among 
those actively interested in this company were Thomas H 
EusseU an experienced frontiersman who had been at- 
tracted to Sioux City by Collins 's editorials, and Dan Scott 
editor of the > Sioux City Journal. This plan also collated' 
when the mditary authorities issued orders to disperse any 
expedition headed for the Black Hills and arrest the 
leaders. 6 

The chief influence, however, in arousing popular inter- 
est m the Black Hills was the Custer expedition of 1874 
Acting under orders from General Philip H. Sheridan, 
treneral George A. Custer, on July 2, 1874, left Fort 
Abraham Lincoln, in Dakota Territory, with a force of 
1200 men. The force moved in a southwesterly direction 
and on July 20th crossed the Belle Fourche Eiver and 
entered the Black Hills region. After exploring the ter- 
ritory the troops returned to the fort on August 22, 1874, 
without experiencing any difficulty with the Indians.' As' 

• Sioux City Weekly Times, March 6, 1875; Tallent's The Blade Bill), 

Pp. D-o. 

7 Robinson's A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, pp. 408, 413 in 
historical Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2; Harper's Weekly, 
Vol. XVIII (September 12, 1874), p. 753. 


a consequence of this exploration, which definitely ascer- 
tained that there was gold in the Hills, there occurred the 
great sold rush of 1874-1877. 

General Sheridan in his annual report to the Secretary 
of War sought to minimize the importance of the gold dis- 
covery, and stressed rather the military value of Custer s 
expedition. He said in part: 

The country of the Black Hills examined by Colonel Custer is, 
I am led to believe, of great value for its timber, and it contains 
]Z gold and silver, bnt the tests in the Custer -connate 
are not sufficient to establish their existence in large quantities 
I again recommend the establishment of a large military port 
Lre for the reasons given in my last report, viz, better control 
of the Indians. 8 

But the people were not interested in the military as- 
pects of the question. It was what Custer said m regard 
to the resources of the Hills, and especially m regard to 
the finding of gold, that attracted popular attention and 
produced the gold fever. On August 2, 1874 Custer dis- 
patched a long telegram to the headquarters of the Depart- 
ment of Dakota at St. Paul. He depicted the wonderful 
scenery of the Hills, the abundance of grass for g» 
the streams of clear running water, the timher, the rich 
soil, and the fruits growing wild. Then came the most 
nte'resting part of the report to the effect that gold had 
been found at several places and that it was he belief o 
the scientists accompanying the expedition that it would be 
found in paying quantities. This point was not discussed 
at length for General Custer continued: 

As we have never remained longer at our camp than one ^ day, 
it will be readily understood that there is no opportunity 

s Jteport of ike Secretary of War, pp. 24, 25, in House »<><*■ 
ments, 43rd Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. I, Pt. 2, Doc. Ho. 1. 


make a satisfactory examination in regard t« ^™ •* * , 
mineraL, Veins of lead and ^Sl^ ^ 
of silver have been found Until -fwi^ • . exi stenee 

This report was given to the press on August 12 1874 
and was soon reprinted in newspapers throughout the' 
country Nowhere did it arouse keener interest than in 

, T; 22 ' 18?4 ' the N ° rthern indicator, pun- 

ished at Estherville, reproduced part of the report under 

J l\ ^ ^ EId0rad0 "- The Iowa State Register 
Published at Des Moines, printed the report on August 
24th under the heading "Discovery of a New Paradise" 
But the remarks of these papers were mild compared to 
those of the Sioux City Times. It said: -The great north- 
western mystery, which has been the waking dream of 
miners and adventurers for the past twenty years, is at 
last unveiled. The Black Hills Country has been invaded 
and explored. Custer and his command have traveled up 
their rugged ranges on the north, climbed their highest 
peak, sauntered on their sunny southern slopes, and is now 
on his return to Fort Lincoln. At last we have reliable 
information from the hills, which shows a reality exceeding 
the brightest pictures ever painted by our imagination." 
This paper called attention to the fact that the chief gold 
discoveries of the Custer expedition were in the placers 
in the eastern part of the Hills. The effect of this, said 
the Times, would be to give to Sioux City "and the routes 
radiating from here, a decided preference with the army 

mUfOZfT m SeCmarP ° f War ' P p - 5 ' 6 ' in Senate Executive Docu- 
ments, 43rd Congress, 2nd Session, Doc. No. 32. 


of pioneers that will in the near future immigrate to this 
latest and apparently greatest El Dorado." 10 

In anticipation of the rush to the Black Hills which it 
was expected would follow the publication of the Custer 
report, both the Sioux City Journal and the Times made 
haste to advertise the desirability of outfitting at Sioux 
City and starting the journey to the Hills from that city. 
"The great natural route to the Northwest", said the 
Journal, ' 4s by way of Sioux City .... We are the 
nearest base of supplies to the Black Hills. We have the 
only all good country intervening." 11 

The Times was much more profuse in urging the gold 
seekers to go to the Hills by way of Sioux City. It showed 
that a considerable amount could be saved travellers from 
the East if they went to the gold district by way of Sioux 
City and Yankton, rather than by way of Bismarck or 
Cheyenne, 12 because of the shorter distance by the first 
named route. It also urged the advantages of Sioux City 
as an outfitting point and stressed the fact that the route 
from Sioux City to the Black Hills was more feasible than 
any other route. "On this route, all the way, there is 
abundance of timber, water and grazing, while, to ap- 
proach the Hills from any other direction, either from 
Laramie on the South, or Bismarck on the North, the 
traveler must pass over the timberless and waterless 
plains of Wyoming, or over the dreaded mauvaise terres 
or bad lands of Dakota." 13 

10 Bobinson's A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, p. 414, in the 
South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2; Sioux City Weekly 
Times, August 15, 1874. 

n Sioux City Weekly Journal, August 20, 1874. 

12 Bismarck and Cheyenne, as well as Sioux City, played important parts 
in the Black Hills gold rush, but it is primarily the purpose of this article 
to develop the part taken by the last named city. 

is Sioux City Weekly Times, August 22, 1874. 



The first civilian expedition to leave for the Black Hills, 
after the Custer exploration, was organized at Sioux City. 
As early as May, 1874, before the departure of Custer's 
expedition, Charles Collins and T. H. Russell had under- 
taken a new project for the invasion of the forbidden land. 
In three months, according to the Times, communications 
had been received from three hundred men who desired 
to go to the Hills. While Custer was still in the region, 
they had gone to Chicago, where, by the 13th of August, 
1874, they had enrolled 11,000 men, who were anxious to 
go to the 6 6 new Eldorado". 14 

The extensive publicity given the project soon attracted 
the attention of the military authorities. As a result there 
was issued from the headquarters of the Military Division 
of the Missouri at Chicago, on August 27, 1874, an order 
to General Alfred H. Terry at St. Paul not to permit 
expeditions to enter the Black Hills. In commenting on 
this order, which it published in the same issue, the Sioux 
City Journal expressed doubt as to whether it would be 
strictly enforced and was of the opinion that gold seekers 
would disregard it. It continued: 

We do not apprehend the adventuresome spirits who have been 
woke np by General Custer's glowing stories will yield without 
an effort. If General Custer had kept ont of the Black Hills 
there would have been no other movement, at present at least, 
in that direction. If the military expedition was not intended 
as an opening wedge to that country, then it was an inexcusably 
wicked thing on the part of [the] Government. Therefore the 
sincerity of the instructions to General Terry will be doubted. 
Therefore at any rate, the irresistible forward march on the 
Black Hills was commenced. 15 

After the issuance of this order, Collins and Russell os- 

i* Sioux City Weekly Times, March 6, 1875. 

is Sioux City Weekly Journal, September 3, 1874. 


tensibly gave up their plan, publicly announcing that the 
expedition had been abandoned, and after his return to 
Sioux City, the Journal published the result of an inter- 
view with Collins. He asserted that within a week he 
could concentrate 6000 men at Sioux City, but under the 
circumstances he felt disinclined to violate such plain or- 
ders of the military himself or to ask others to disregard 
them. The report continued: 

So far as the present expedition is concerned, Mr. Collins 
asserts that he will "take a back seat". He desires to go to 
the Black Hills, but will only do so by the consent and counte- 
nance of the Government. His effort in organizing an expedition, 
he says, has demonstrated the fact that the people are wide 
awake to such rare enterprises, and he feels confident that, 
should Congress take such action upon the Black Hills question 
by another spring as he has reasons to believe will be taken— 
a person will have no trouble in raising an army of 10,000 pio- 
neers, who will be ready to march forth upon the first sound of 
the trumpet. 16 

But Collins and his associates had no real intention of 
abandoning their plan for the invasion of the Black Hills. 
Such public announcements were mere camouflage for the 
preparations which were already under way. A meeting 
of those interested was held in the rooms of the Irish 
Literary Society in the Times building, as a result of 
which about fifty men signed the roll of the Black Hills 
expedition. 17 A few days later the Times stated that 
several hundred letters were being received at its office 
from men who were eager to go to the Hills. 6 6 At Sioux 
City", it said, 6 'the excitement is intense. Not less than 
one hundred frontiersmen, men who have seen service in 
the mountains and on the plains, are anxiously awaiting 

is Sioux City Weekly Journal, September 10, 1874. 
it Sioux City Weekly Times, August 29, 1874. 



the departure of the expedition.' ' It stated that, on Sep- 
tember 3rd, two tents of fifty capacity each had been 
pitched on Prospect Hill to house the gold seekers, while 
many others were being accommodated at the hotels. The 
paper again called attention to the advantages of Sioux 
City as an outfitting point. For about $100, it stated, a 
man could secure all the necessary articles which included 
a rifle, revolver, flour, salt, ammunition, blankets, cooking 
utensils, a pick, shovel, and gold pan. For $569.85 full 
equipment for a party of five could be secured, including a 
wagon, horses, provisions, and tools. The Times expressed 
the opinion that the government would not interfere in 
spite of its warning. It urged that none should start until 
they received orders from Collins and Eussell. 18 

After the announcement in the Journal on September 
10th that the expedition had been abandoned, preparations 
were carried on more secretly to avoid attracting the 
attention of the military. The party which had finally 
agreed to make the journey assembled three miles west of 
the Missouri Eiver, from which point they started for the 
Hills on October 16, 1874. They had placarded their 
wagons with the words "O'Neil Colony", to give the im- 
pression that they were destined for a settlement that was 
being established in the Elkhorn Valley and thus avoid 
suspicion. 19 

The movements of this expedition were kept out of the 
papers at the time and it was not until several weeks later 
that mention of its departure was made. In reply to an 
article in the Journal which intimated that the expedition 
would probably camp for the winter on the Niobrara 
Kiver, the Times stated emphatically that there was no 

is Sioux City Weekly Times, September 5, 1874. 
is Sioux City Weeldy Times, March 6, 1875. 


intention to stop before reaching the Hills, in spite of 
Indians or other obstacles. It said further: 6 'The men 
who are the controlling spirits, and those who largely 
compose the Expedition, fully realized the task they had 
undertaken, both before they started and at the present 
time, and letters just received at this office, of the latest 
dates, speak in the most encouraging way of the sanguine 
and hopeful feeling that pervades the members of the 
Expedition as to their early entry of the Black Hills. We 
predict that ere this paper reaches its readers, the Expedi- 
tion will be safe in the Black Hills.' ' 20 

No further news concerning the expedition was pub- 
lished until the following February. Then the Times pub- 
lished the following statement: ' 'The Times Black Hills 
expedition has been heard from. The party successfully 
made the entry into the Hills, and are safely and com- 
fortably quartered in the very centre of what is believed 
to be the richest mineral section of the Hills. They have 
plenty of provisions, abundance of game, have had no 
serious mishaps, and all are in good spirits. As to their 
success, this being a purely private expedition, gotten up 
mainly to solve, practically test, and reliably learn just 
what the Hills contained, it is deemed essential, to the in- 
terest of those most vitally interested, to withhold from the 
public for the present, just what our expedition has thus 
far discovered and accomplished." 21 

About two weeks later, two members of the expedition, 
Eph Witcher and John Gordon, returned to Sioux City 
from the Hills which they had left on February 2, 1875. 
Their arrival occasioned considerable excitement in the 
city. The Times devoted almost two full pages to their 

20 Sioux City Weekly Times, November 1, 1874. 

21 Sioux City Weekly Times, February 20, 1875. 


account of the expedition, and to the letters which thev 
brought from various members who had remained in the 
Hills, including Mrs. Annie D. Tallent, D. G. Tallent E R 
Whitney, Capt. T. H. Russell, and J. Newton Warren 
This account was the first detailed information that was 
given the public concerning the Collins-Russell expedition 
by which name it is best known. There were twenty-eight 
persons in the party which left Sioux City, including one 
woman, Mrs. Annie D. Tallent and one boy, her son 
Collins did not accompany the party, but Russell did. John 
Gordon, who was familiar with the country, acted as the 
guide. Except for the desertion of one member and the 
death of another there was no serious mishap enroute 
Neither government troops nor hostile Indians were en- 
countered. The party reached their destination on Decem- 
ber 28, 1874, and immediately proceeded to construct a 
stockade on French Creek for the purpose of protection. 
Seven log cabins were built within the stockade to house 
the members of the party. After this work was accom- 
plished, enough prospecting was done to find some gold 
to send back to Sioux City with Witcher and Gordon. 22 

Meanwhile, the government troops were seeking the 
party with a view to removing them from the Hills. Early 
in December, a detachment under Captain Tolman was 
sent out from Fort Sully but because of insufficient pro- 
visions was forced to give up the chase after fifteen days. 
On December 26, 1874, a cavalry detachment under Colonel 
Henry left the Red Cloud Agency on a similar mission, 
but this force also returned unsuccessful, because of the 
extreme cold. Commenting on these incidents, the Times 
said : 

» Sioux City Weekly Times, March 6, 1875. A full account, of the 
Collins-Russell expedition is found in Tallent 's The Black Hills, pp. 18-102. 


The government may as well make up their minds that the 
Sioux City Times Expedition, now in the Black Hills, are in- 
vincible and impregnable. We say it in all candor, and not m 
a spirit of braggadocio, that the government is fooling away both 
its time and money, when they undertake to move our boys out 
of the Hills with any ordinary body of troops. The men who 

compose the Sioux City Times Black Hills Expedition . 

believe they have a right to mine and develop the resources of 
that country, and they will do it, unless the military send in an 
army large enough to capture twenty-seven as brave and deter- 
mined frontiersmen as ever drew a bead on a buffalo, or scalped 
an Indian. We predict that our friends, when they come out of 
the Black Hills, will come out of their own accord, and not till 
then. 23 

But this prediction by the Times was not realized. Early 
in April, 1875, the party was located by a detachment of 
cavalry commanded by Captain Mix, and ordered to de- 
part. No resistance was made to the carrying out of the 
order. Taking only the most essential articles, and aban- 
doning the rest of their possessions, the gold seekers, on 
April 7, began the trip to Fort Laramie, Wyoming, under 
military escort. After a short detention they were paroled, 
and accompanied by Collins, who had gone to Fort Lar- 
amie as soon as he had received news of their arrest, re- 
turned to Sioux City on April 30, 1875, by way of the 
Sioux City and Pacific Eailroad. 24 

Elaborate preparations were made for the reception of 
the party in Sioux City. According to the Journal, at 
least a thousand men were gathered at the depot ' 6 to wel- 
come the original Black Hillers back to Sioux City". As 
the train rolled in, the band of the Light Guard played 
"a lively air", a six-pounder "woke the echoes", while 

23 Sioux City Weekly Times, January 16, 1875. 

2* Sioux City Weekly Times, May 1, 1875; TaUent's The Black Bills, 
pp. 84-100. 



the crowd "struggled with each other for a first sight of 
| the heroes". As soon as possible a hollow square was 
formed by the uniformed fire department, in which the 
Black Hillers, "with trusty rifles in hand", took position 
Fire Chief E. E. Kirk, the master of ceremonies, then 
introduced Mayor Warner, who expressed "the formal 
welcome of Sioux City". The mayor "spoke of Sherman's 
march to the sea, of Fremont's expedition, of Custer's ex- 
plorations in the land from whence they were just re- 
turned, and assured the men that they had done a more 
heroic thing and a braver thing. He said they had pre- 
pared the way for the opening up to settlement of the 
country, and done much toward settling the vexed Indian 
question." 25 

Certain capitalists of Sioux City were quick to perceive 
the opportunity to reap a harvest of gold by transporting 
freight and passengers to the Black Hills. The first trans- 
portation company to be organized was the Sioux City 
and Black Hills Transportation Company. At a meeting 
on March 10, 1875, James A. Sawyers was chosen presi- 
dent of the company, Ed. Henn was made secretary, D. T. 
Gilman treasurer, and Fred T. Evans superintendent. The 
directors elected were A. W. Hubbard, H. D. Booge, J. L. 
Follett, C. E. Hedges, J. A. Sawyers, George Weare, 

H - Carles, H. L. Warner, and H. A. Hamilton. Ten 
thousand dollars was pledged for the purpose of securing 
the necessary equipment. 2 ' 

During the next few weeks the company exhibited great 
activity in preparing for the first expedition which it was 
proposed to start for the Hills on April 1, 1875. John 
Gordon, who had successfully led the Collins-Russell ex- 
pedition to the Black Hills, was selected as the leader. The 

2 ' Sioux City Weekly Journal, May 6, 1875. 
2 « Sioux City Weekly Journal, March 11, 1875. 


expedition was advertised in the Sioux City Journal and 
other papers, and soon strangers were coming to the city 

to ioin it. 27 ,. 

The Sioux City and Black Hills Transportation Com- 
pany was bitterly denounced by Collins in the Times He 
said that the company was a fraud, and asserted that the 
open advertisement of its intentions in defiance of govern- 
ment orders to keep out of the Indian country had caused 
the route from Sioux City to the Black Hills to be singled 
out for a government embargo. "This", said the Tl mes 
"will drive the tide of the Black Hills immigration that 
for vears we have been working to bring by way of Sioux 
City to other points that are not placed under Government 
surveillance. This has all been brought about by the 
Gordon swindlers." 28 Evidently Collins was angered by 
the fact that he had not been taken into the new company, 
and that others seemed about to reap where he had sown. 

Newspapers outside of Sioux City were also denunci- 
ator in their attitude towards the transportation com- 
pany. In an editorial entitled "The Black Hills Humbug , 
the Northern Vindicator of Estherville referred to the 
sensational stories which were being circulated concerning 
the Black Hills, and said: 

Sionx City leads in this matter, and it is amusing to note, 
that, instead of forming a mining company to develop the rich- 
ncss of the mines, the enterprising capitalists of that Oty confine 
themselves to the organization of a transportation company 
charging from one to two hundred dollars per head passage 
money. 29 

The Iowa State Register of Des Moines also discounted 
the stories emanating from Sioux City. It reprinted from 

27 Sioux City Weekly Journal, March 11, 18, 1875. 

2s Sioux City Weekly Times, April 17, 1875. 

29 Northern Vindicator (Weekly, Estherville), March 27, 1875. 


the Sioux City Journal Gordon's statement concerning the 
Collins-Eussell expedition and the Black Hills, and com 
mented as follows: 

It is well enough for everybody, before they get excited over 
the above news, to remember that Sioux City has once or twice 
before got up a Black Hills excitement, that it is at that point 
that this so-called expedition was formed; and that it has a good 
deal to gain, as a fitting out point, for expeditions which mav be 
organized hereafter. These highly-colored dispatches must be 
taken with caution. Let all who want gold, and are willing to 
go even to the Black Hills to get it, remember the many hoaxes 
and humbugs in the past, and the very slight foundation on 
which the Sioux City dispatches are building up this new bonanza 
now. 30 

In spite of the fact that General Sherman, on March 17, 
1875, from the headquarters of the army at St. Louis, had 
issued orders to expel all intruders on Indian land, 3 ' 1 the 
preparations for the departure of the Gordon expedition 
were openly carried on. The train was not ready to start 
on April 1st as originally announced, and it was not until 
April 25th that the party was ferried across the Missouri 
River, so as to be ready to start the overland journey on the 
following day. 32 All went well with the expedition, which 
consisted of about one hundred and fifty men, forty-seven 
wagons, and between seventy and eighty teams, until May 
13, 1875. On that day the expedition was intercepted by 
troops and part of the members made prisoners. When 
the news of this reached Sioux City, the Transportation 
Company, on May 21, 1875, sent a telegram to Secretary 
of War William W. Belknap asking the release and return 

so Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), March 12, 1875. 

31 Sioux City Weekly Journal, March 25, 1875. 

32 Tallent's The Black Hills, pp. 120-123. 

VOL. XX— 22 


of the prisoners. 33 The remainder of the expedition pro- 
ceeded on their journey, thinking that they would not he 
molested further. But on the morning of May 21, 1875, 
their camp was surrounded by two companies of cavalry 
commanded by Captain Fergus Walker. According to the 
reports sent to the Sioux City papers, the soldiers were 
allowed to pillage the camp, and then fire was set to the 
remaining property, including fourteen of the wagons. It 
was claimed that $25,000 worth of property of 6 6 law abid- 
ing citizens" was destroyed. The whole party, consisting 
of eighty men and one woman, was taken to Fort Eandall, 
where the thirty-eight persons previously captured had 
been taken. The affair aroused the greatest resentment in 
Sioux City, and was described by the newspapers of that 
city as an "outrage". It was claimed that the expedition 
was not in Indian territory at the time of their capture, 
so that the troops had no justification for their action. 34 
That there was some basis for this claim was shown by 
later court action. While other members of the expedition 
were paroled John Gordon, the leader, was kept a prisoner 
by the military. A writ of habeas corpus was applied for 
on July 22nd and granted by Judge Elmer S. Dundy in 
the court at Falls City, Nebraska, on August 24, 1875. In 
granting the writ, which ordered General George Crook 
to deliver Gordon for civil trial, the judge declared that 
the destruction of the property of the expedition had been 
unauthorized by law. 35 On Gordon's being delivered for 
trial, Judge Dundy ordered him to be released, and the 
incident was closed. 36 

33 Sioux City Weekly Journal, May 27, 1875. 

3* Sioux City Weekly Times, May 29, 1875; Sioux City Weekly Journal, 
May 27, June 10, 17, 1875; Tallent's The Black Bills, pp. 120-123. 

35 Sioux City Weekly Journal, September 9, 1875. 

36 Tallent's The Black Bills, p. 122. 


The fate of the Gordon expedition had the effect of dis- 
couraging any further attempts to send large expeditions 
from Sioux City to the Hills in 1875. Not only was the 
Sioux City and Black Hills Transportation Company 
forced to suspend operations, but the Witcher Company, 
established by N. L. Witcher, also found it necessary to 
give up its plans. Witcher sold his equipment, saying it 
was impossible to get wagon trains into the Black Hills. 37 

Both the Sioux City Times and the Journal expressed 
the general dissatisfaction with the government restriction. 
Both suggested that individuals or small parties could 
dash into the Hills, while larger parties would be inter- 
cepted. Thus, the Times said: 

It ought to be generally understood that because the govern- 
ment has issued orders to stop the Sioux City Transportation 
Company party from going to the Black Hills, is not any reason 
that private expeditions .... or parties starting from Sioux 
City will be interfered with — neither do they take any greater 
risks of being captured by troops than expeditions that have 
already started, or are in process of organization at other points. 
The government already realizes that 50,000 men intend to cele- 
brate the Fourth of July in the Black Hills, and that to put a 
cordon of troops around the belt of States and Territories from 
which the Black Hills can be reached, would require an army 
only equaled by that called out in the late civil war. Private 
expeditions are being organized at Sioux City for the Hills, and 
those desiring to join any of them would do well to be here on 
or before the first of May. Merchants and others in anticipation 
of the coming rush have laid in immense stocks of goods especially 
adapted for miners use, which they are now offering at less fig- 
ures than the same goods can be duplicated at retail in any other 
city in the union. This we can demonstrate to the satisfaction 

|f -all. 38 , : • . 

37 Sioux City Weekly Journal, July 22, 1875. 
Sioux City Weekly Times, April 17, 1875. 


That the suggestion of these papers was acted on is 
shown by the fact that by the summer of 1875 there were 
hundreds of miners in the Black Hills. Of these many 
were Iowans who had gone to the gold district by way of 
Sioux City. According to the Iowa State Register, there 
was scarcely a town of any size in the State that did not 
contribute at least ' ' one pilgrim for the apparently foolish 
journey". 39 Though these miners succeeded in evading 
the troops and entering the Hills, the government was not 
content to let them remain there. Instead of attempting 
to drive them out by force, General George Crook person- 
ally visited the gold region. After conversing with the 
miners to secure their views, Crook issued a proclamation 
requesting the miners to leave the Hills voluntarily, and 
suggesting that they hold a meeting on August 10, 1875, 
to discuss the matter. The meeting was held, as sched- 
uled, at Custer City, and the miners decided to comply 
peaceably with the proclamation. They left immediately, 
leaving only a few of their number to care for the prop- 
erty left behind. Lieutenant Colonel Eichard I. Dodge, 
who was present, described the scene as follows: "On the 
evening of August 10th, the beautiful valley of French 
Creek, near Custer City, was picturesque with miners \ 
camps. At sunrise on the morning of the 11th, not a man 
or animal was to be seen. The valley, so lately bustling 
with life, was still and solitary. Thin wreaths of smoke, 
arising from expiring camp-fires, were all that remained 
to tell of the swarm of people which crowded the valley 
the day before." Dodge estimated that six hundred miners 
left the Hills at this time. 40 

This wholesale removal had little effect on the situation, 

39 Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 2, 1875. 

40 Dodge's The Black Hills, pp. 112-114. 


for miners continued to evade the troops and enter the 
H.lls. Some of these were captured and removed from the 
region After being detained as prisoners at some for 
for a time they would be brought before a United States 
commissioner who invariably released them. The miners 
m many instances, would then reenter the Black Hills bv 
some circuitous route and hide in the gulches where they 
could prospect for gold without molestation « 

While the government was assiduously endeavoring to 
keep miners out of the Black Hills, it was also engaged 
m definitely ascertaining the resources of the region On 
March 27 1875 Walter P. Jenney, a noted geologist; was 
instructed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to visit 
the Black Hills and report on their mineral wealth, 
climate, and natural resources. On May 24, 1875 the ex 
nedition left Fort Laramie, Wyoming, with an e'scort of 
tour hundred troops under command of Lieutenant Colonel 
Bichard I. Dodge. The party remained in the region until 
October 24, 1875, and after its return Jenney submitted an 
exhaustive report of his findings. It was conclusively 
shown that gold was to be found in the Hills in paying 
quantities." This report aroused wide interest for it cor- 
roborated the claims that the Hills were rich in gold and 
it put to rest the charges that Sioux City and other inter- 
ested points were promoting a "humbug". 

At no place did the Jenney expedition arouse more in- 
terest than at Sioux City. Eeferring to a statement by 

« Sioux City Weekly Journal, September 23, 1875; Tallent's The Black 
. UMs, p. 135. 

j « Bobinson's History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, p. 416, in the 
Muth Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2; Jenney 's Report on the 
; Mineral Wealth, Climate, and Bain-Fall, and Natural Resources of the 
, lack Hills of Dakota, pp. 1-56, in Senate Executive Documents, 44th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Doc. No. 51. 

Jenney to the effect that gold existed in paying quantities, 
the Sioux City Journal said: 

His language as to be expected, is guarded but it is clear that 

luck there, and another season, if not this, we may p 
thousands flocking thither-treaty or no treaty. 

In mentioning the "treaty", the Journal was referring 
to the attempt of the government to negotiate a new treajr 
with the Indians either to permit miners to enter the ffifls 
or else to purchase the Indian title to the district C m- 
missioners for the purpose were appointed by the Score 
Try of the Interior on June 18, 1875. The • commission 
consisted of William B. Allison of Iowa, chairman Alfred 
H Terry, A. Comingo, Samuel D. Hmman, G. P. ^Beaubias, 
A. G. Lawrence, and William H. Ashby. The par* 
reached the Bed Cloud Agency on September 4, 1875, but 
" was not until September 20th that the first conned 
the commission with Indians representmg twelve tribe 
was held. Negotiations continued without success until 
September 29th when the council broke up. The younger 
Sbans were unwilling to part with the Hills at any price 
while those who were wiUing to sell set a price , wh d M£ 
commissioners considered exorbitant. One of the spokes 
meTof the Indians demanded $70,000,000 for ^ region 

The failure of these negotiations was followed by the 
withdrawal of all military opposition to the occupancy oi 
the Black Hills. Immediately there began a great rusfl 
of gold seekers who had been eagerly awaiting the removal 

43 Sioux City Weekly Journal, October 21, 1875. 
« Robinson's Eistory of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, pp. 416-421, m 
South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2. 



of the government restriction to enter the region Al 
«iough government opposition to the invasion of the Black 
Hills was now Withdrawn, a greater danger confronted 
the adventurer. The Indians, fearing thaf their Tunt^ 
grounds won d be taken from them by force, went on the 
war path early in 1876. There followed a bloody warfare 
winch lasted about a year and a half. The outstanding 

? of ,™ TOS the Custer massacre, on 

June 25, 1876. Though hostilities did not cease until May 
£187,, a treaty providing for the cession of the Black 
Hills was negotiated with the Indians, September 93 fo 
October 27, 1876. By the terms of this treatyThe lJ2 
were to receive $4,500,000 for the Black Hills region, which 
tow to be opened for legal settlement on February 28, 

Indian hostilities did not stop the migration to the gold 
regmn but did have a retarding effect. According to the 
Sioux City Tribune,- the Indians were "making it de- 
cidedly lively for those who are passing in or out of the 
Hills, and seem to be lying in wait for unprotected miners 
all about the settlements. It is probable that mining 
operations will soon be suspended until next season "« 
Travellers returning to Sioux City from the Hills reported 
that considerable numbers were leaving the region because 
ot the fear of Indian raids. 48 

But while a few were leaving the Hills, many more were 
entering m spite of the dangers confronting them. Mrs. 

« Bobinson's History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, pp. 422-445, in the 
Z u f" 1 Bistoriml Collections, Vol. II, Pt. 2; Iowa State Agister 
(Weekly, Des Moines), July 14, September 15, 29, 1876. 

* Early in 1876 Charles Collins sold the Sioux City Times which was 
thereafter published as the Sioux City Tribune. 

« Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), September 8, 1876. 

« Sioux City Weekly Journal, September 7, 1876. 


Tallent, in describing the rush to the Black Hills which 
took place between the fall of 1875 and the summer of I 
1877 said: "Kepresentatives of every trade and profession 
under the snn came rnshing along, figuratively, tumbling 
over each other in their headlong haste to be the first to 
reach the New Eldorado, each individual sanguine of 
realizing fabulous wealth on reaching the end I of : his j> ur- 
nev " They went in companies or as individuals, m 
wagons, on horseback, or on foot. As a result of this great 
inrush of gold seekers in one short year "the whole aspect 
of the Black Hills was transformed from a wilderness into 
a scene of busy life, furnishing to those who had seen them 
in all their primitiveness a striking contrast indeed. 

Many of these adventurers fell victims to the Indians- 
how many will never be known. As Mrs. Tallent said: 

The numerous new-made graves, seen along the various high- 
Jy^TZ Hills, marking the scenes of the d£ : tnjj*- 
r„Sed nearby, revealed in mute but eloquent language, the sad 
enacted *™™*> f h victims , whose mutilated 

SiefwTe o a f Sme?Cdand hLly buried by other pilgrims 
Swing in their wake-graves with only a small piece of pm 
SS to serve as a monument to ^ark ** -d ^ 
other epitaph than the simple word- Unknown , 
thereon. 49 

Sioux City reaped its share of ^euefi^sultmg 
from the great migration to the Black Hills. Alive to the 
poslmty of doing a thriving business, -pr— v 
Liuess men of the city held a meeting early in ,^M* 
the county auditor's office, "to devise means for ^making 
the advantages of Sioux City as a starting ^ d ,,°^ g 
noint for the Black Hills more generally known. Charles 
CoUms was selected to go East "and present the claim 
anl advantages of Sioux City and the Upper Missouri 

49 Tallent 'a The Black Bills, pp. 115-117. 


river routes as against the great American desert route 
via Sidney and Cheyenne." A committee, consisting of 
Judge *A. W. Hubbard, E. W. Skinner, J. L. Follett, Fred 
T. Evans, and Charles Collins, was selected "to raise 
funds and make such other arrangements as to them 
seemed best to carry out the object and spirit of the meet- 
ing." 50 

Not only did the Sioux City merchants take steps to reap 
a harvest from those bound for the Black Hills, but the 
transportation companies also prepared to do a thriving 
business. A meeting of the directors of the Sioux City 
and Black Hills Transportation Company, which had been 
forced by the government restriction to suspend opera- 
tions in 1875, was held on March 3, 1876, at the First 
National Bank. It was decided to resume business imme- 
diately, and plans were made to send out the first train 
about March 15th. 51 As a part of its preparations, the 
company constructed a large warehouse for storing freight 
and several stables for the accommodation of stock, at 
Covington, Nebraska. 52 On April 13, 1876, an expedition 
consisting of twenty-five wagons and about one hundred 
and fifty men, outfitted at Sioux City, left Covington for 
the Black Hills. Six of the wagons belonged to the Sioux 
City and Black Hills Transportation Company, while the 
rest belonged to private individuals who had congregated 
from all quarters. John Gordon accompanied the party 
as guide. 53 

From this modest beginning grew one of the largest 
transportation companies operating between the Black 

so Sioux City Weekly Times, February 19, 1876. 
si Sioux City Weekly Journal, March 4, 1876. 
52 Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), March 31, 1876. 
" Sioux City Weekly Journal, April 13, 1876. 


Hills and outside points. Its business was promoted by 
the fact that gold seekers found it a protection against 
hostile Indians to travel with the company's large parties 
which were sent out every few days in the spring of 1876. 
As the Sioux City Tribune said: 

Parties intending to go to the Hills hereafter will find it great- 
ly to their convenience and protection against the Indians to go 
by the company's trains; for the reason that as the grass becomes 
abundant on the prairies, Indian raids will become numerous. The 
reds are already beginning to put on the war paint, we learn 
from late advices, and intend to urge a vigorous, bloody and re- 
lentless war upon Black Hills pilgrims. Parties going to the Hills 
should bear this in mind, and take care to go in large bodies and 
well armed. This can be done by joining the transportation com- 
pany's trains, better than in any other way. 54 

Until the late summer of 1876, this company continued 
to send wagon trains directly to the Hills from Sioux City. 
In August, 1876, the company was reorganized with Fred 
T. Evans and John Hornick as the chief members of the 
firm. Instead of hauling freight and passengers by wagon 
from Sioux City, these were first transported up the 
Missouri Eiver to Fort Pierre, thence overland to the 
Hills. 55 On February 7, 1877, Evans, Hornick and Com- 
pany entered into an agreement with the Dakota Southern 
Kailroad, which extended from Sioux City to Yankton. 
By this agreement the railroad was to transport passen- 
gers and freight from Sioux City to Yankton. There a 
transfer was to be made to the boats of the Missouri Eiver 
Transportation Company which would carry the passen- 
gers and freight to Fort Pierre. Thence they were to be 
carried overland to the Black Hills by Evans and Hor- 
nick's Freight Line. At the same time a definite schedule 

54 Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), April 28, 1876. 

55 Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), August 18, 1876. 


of rates for passengers and freight was agreed on. The 
first class passenger rate from Sioux City to Yankton was 
$3.00, from Yankton to Fort Pierre $10.00, and from 
Fort Pierre to either Deadwood, Custer, or Crook City, in 
the Black Hills, $10.00. The rate for one hundred pounds 
of freight from Sioux City to Yankton was to be $.25, from 
Yankton to Fort Pierre $.75, and from Fort Pierre to 
Deadwood $3.00. It was also announced that the sixty-one 
mile trip by rail from Sioux City to Yankton would con- 
sume four hours, the boat ride from Yankton to Fort 
Pierre, a distance of two hundred and ninety miles would 
take sixty hours, while the overland journey, from Fort 
Pierre to Crook City, a distance of one hundred and 
twenty-five miles, would take from four to six days. Trains 
were to run daily, boats tri-weekly and wagon trains week- 
ly, or oftener, if necessary. 56 

This firm of Evans and Hornick continued to carry on 
a lucrative business with the Black Hills until 1888, when 
together with other transportation companies, it was 
forced out of business by the competition of the railroads 
which had entered the region. In 1878, the shipping point 
of the company was changed from Sioux City to Chamber- 
lain, Dakota, to connect with the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul Eailroad. The extent of this company's operations 
may be realized from the fact that it employed from one 
thousand to fifteen hundred men and wagons, from two 
thousand to three thousand oxen, and from one thousand 
to fifteen hundred mules. 57 

Another transportation line connecting Sioux City with 
the Black Hills was the Witcher Company. Compared 
to the firm of Evans and Hornick it was a small concern. 

56 Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), February 9, 1877. 

57 Tallent's The BlacJc Hills, pp. 189, 190. 


This line had also begun operations in 1875 but had been 
forced to suspend its activities because of the government 
restrictions. Up to February, 1877, N. L. Witcher, who, 
with his sons, composed the firm, had completed fourteen 
trips to the Black Hills. Because he used oxen exclusively 
to pull his wagons and because of his speed in transport- 
ing freight, he was familiarly known in the Hills as "the 
lightning bull freighter". Witcher hauled his freight and 
supplies to the Black Hills by way of Yankton and Fort 

Pierre. 55 , / : _ 

Tom Philips was another Sioux City individual who 
engaged to some extent in transportation between that city 
and the Black Hills. On April 14, 1876, he arrived at 
Custer City, in the Black Hills, with a party of one hun- 
dred and sixty-four men. 59 No definite record of the ex- 
tent of his activities is available. But he was still engaged 
in the transportation business in 1877, as the following 
statement in the Sioux City Journal shows: 

Persons bound for the Hills are arriving in Sioux City by 
nearly every train from the east, and already quite a company 
have assembled here. Tom Philips was engaged yesterday in 
putting his light train in moving order, though he will probably 
not get away before Monday next. 60 

Sioux City capitalists were also interested in a project 
to build a railroad from Sioux City to the Black Hills, by 
way of the Niobrara Valley of Nebraska. Their idea was 
not only to secure the trade of the Black Hills for Sioux 
City but incidentally to tap a rich farming territory. The 
company, which was known as the Covington, Columbus 
and Black Hills Eailroad, was running trains between 

58 Sioux City Weekly Journal, June 15, 1876, February 1, 1877; Sioux 
City Tribune (Weekly), January 26, 1877; Tallent's The Black Hills, p. 190. 

59 Sioux City Weekly Journal, April 27, 1876. 

eo Sioux City Weekly Journal, February 22, 1877. 


Covington and Ponca, Nebraska, by the fall of 1876 Pass 
engers were ferried across the Missouri River to and from 
Sioux City. Among the citizens of Sioux City prominentlv 
interested m this railroad were A. W. Hubbard, Eli Robin 
son, Wm. Adams, and D. E. Davenport. The company had 
constructed only twenty-six miles of railroad by 1880 when 

f °f t™" ™ sus P ende <*- M It was not until 
1885 that the Black Hdls were reached by a railroad By 
the end of that year the Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri 
Valley Railroad reached Buffalo Gap, and the next year 
was extended to Rapid City." The budding of this rail- 
road, however, was not a Sioux City enterprise 

The peak of the Black Hills gold rush was reached in 
the spring of 1877. Commenting on the large numbers 
who were going to the Hills, the Sioux City Tribune said: 

The number of Black Hills teams passing through at this early 
date, is remarkable. Covered wagons are going through town 
at every hour of the day. The number of men to a wagon will 
average about three. Besides these, a greater number are going 
up on boats and by rail to Yankton, who will depend on securing 
transportation at Port Pierre. With the present rush to that 
region there is little danger of trouble with Indians. There will 
be an army of men extending from the Missouri river to the Hills 
for the next four months. 83 

But this great rush did not continue as long as the 
Tribune predicted, and soon the influx of gold seekers to 
the Black Hills practically ceased. All the available claims 

WeeWy TimeS ' Januar y *> 1876 ■> Si0 ™ C »y Tribune 
(Weekly) November 10, 1876, June 15, 1877; Shuman's Statistical Report 
or the Bmlroads in the United States, pp. 370, 371, 412, in the Tenth Census 
oj the United States, 1880, Vol. IV. 

« Resources of Dakota (Published by the Dakota Commissioner of Im- 
migration, 1887), pp. 9, 12, 244. 

63 Skmx C% Tribune (Weekly), April 13, 1877. 


had been taken by this time, and nothing was left for 
newcomers. Writing from the Hills under date of Jnne 4, 
1877 W H Wright, a special correspondent of the bioux 
City Journal said, "Immigration has about ceased into 
the Hills. Those coming in with freight trams say there 
are none on the road."" Thereafter Sioux City had little 
direct interest in the Black Hills except to furnish supplies 
for those who were already in that region. 

As has been true in the history of every gold field, he 
fortunes of the Black Hills gold seekers varied greatly. 
Some quickly gained the dreamed of wealth, but many 
Lre returned from the Hills poorer than when they went 
disappointed and embittered by their experiences The 
Northern Vindicator spoke truthfully when it said, m 
1876, that -undoubtedly the first ones m the diggings will 
go away rich but the majority of those who go had better 
stav at home and mind their knitting." 65 

As a rule the Sioux City papers published only stories 
telling of rich gold discoveries, with the purpose of pro- 
moting migration to the Hills. Among the successful 
^ers from Sioux City was Thomas E. Phillips who re 
turned to that city after five months in the regiom He 
had "struck it rich" in the Deadwood district, and had a 
pound and a half of "shot gold" to exhibit as evidenc 
. of his good fortune- His story was typical of many that 
appeared in the Sioux City papers. 

But on one occasion a story of quite a different char- 
acter was published in the Tribune, with the , foUowmg 
comment: "In these days when every report reaching us 
from the Black Hills is freighted with glowing reports ot 

1 €4 Sioux City Weekly Journal, June 21, 1877. 
e 5 Northern Viator (Weekly, Estherville) , February 5, 1876. 
ee Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), August 4, 1876. 


the richness of the country and the opportunities for 
money making, it is refreshing to hear the wail of a thor 
oughly homesick man, who went out with a gunny sack 
expecting to fill it with the precious metal and get hack 
home a mdlionaire in a month." It then published a letter 
written from Custer City, January 20, 1876, by a Denver 
man to a friend which read as follows: 

This is the devil's own country. If you have a grain of 
chanty m your soul, send me $25. Don't say you haven't it If 
you can t get it otherwise, go to church and steal it out of the 
contribution-box, and then you wouldn't have half the sin on 
your soul that you will should you leave me here. Bad luck to 
this country. 67 

These stories show that there were two sides to the 
Black Hills gold rush. It was only natural in view of the 
great influx of gold seekers, many of whom had no exper- 
ience in mining or in facing the hardships of out-door life 
that comparatively few should gain wealth while the 
greater part should fad. Those who failed, on their return 
from the Hills, sought to create the impression that the 
whole excitement was a hoax and a humbug. They were 
not justified in this, for statistics show that a considerable 
amount of gold was being produced in the Hills at the 
time the gold fever was at its height. In 1877, it was 
estimated that the gold secured from quartz amounted to 
£1,500,000 and that from placers $1,000,000. 68 

, „ Erik McKinley Eriksson 

he State University of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

" Sioux City Tribune (Weekly), March 24, 1876. 
«» Appletons' Animal Cyclopaedia, 1877, pp. 245, 246. 


We have come together on the scene where two genera- 
tions of men have worked, struggled, and won, to pay 
tribute to them, to render, in some small measure, due 
homage. Although this period is short, it is an epitome 
of that history which mankind has been writing for 
untold thousands of years. It marks the presence of 
settled industry, intellectual and religious effort, and co- 
operation in maintaining civilization and the agencies 
which make it and men what they are. 

But we do more than recall the men and the work of 
the past. We look confidently to the welfare, happiness, 
and progress, in both the present and the future, of 
those now here and those who are to succeed our fore- 
bears and ourselves upon these scenes. 

The dedication, to public purposes, of a liberal portion 
of the rich soil of this township and county is, after all, 
only the continuance and extension of the policy inaugu- 
rated here from that day in 1843 when the first sturdy, 
high-spirited Vermont settler made his way far into the 
region and used his strength and enterprise to collect 
and furnish the materials for the rude building at the 
confluence of two rivers to be known as Fort Des Momes, 
on a spot destined soon to become the capital and later, 
the metropolis of a great State. 

i An address delivered at the dedication oi the Public Park at Carlisle, 
Warren County, Iowa, May 13, 1922, by George P. Parker. 



Hi 1 

It was only ten years earlier that the white man had 
gained the right to cross the Mississippi. Nor can we 
forget, as we are sometimes prone to do, that our people 
were the beneficiaries of that settled policy of defense 
started when the great charter of this West of ours be- 
came effective upon the passage, under the insistence of 
George Washington, of the Ordinance of 1787 which 
dedicated to settlement and to freedom the then existing, 
but unknown, unsurveyed, boundaries of the Northwest 
Territory, a policy which was extended to the possessions 
enlarged by the later purchase of Louisiana. From that 
time forward, the policy of neglect was abandoned and 
the helping hand of a new and great government was 
given to its people wherever, within the new boundaries, 
their men and women, impelled by adventure, desire to 
extend their country, or whatever other motive, were led 
or followed one another. Hitherto, in the process of our 
making, the settler had gone, upon his own motion, into 
a chosen part of the colonial wilderness, taking his own 
risks as to life, property, and association. Fort Des 
Moines was then only an earnest that, discounting 
these perils during which military government was so 
long feared by the Anglo-Saxon, the central government 
was ready to protect and defend those who were ex- 
tending its conquests and its blessings. 

Years before Carlisle was thought of, John D. Parmelee 
had gone up and down our small streams, had planned 
grist mills, picked sites and timber for sawmills, laid 
out rude roads, made fords, and was ready to draw by 
ox-team, over what was known as the Dragoon Trail, 
the materials which entered into the construction of the 
rude fortress which came to be known as Fort Des 

vol. xx — 23 


Moines. It is fitting, too, that the land npon which this 
park stands, should, like its twin neighbor over the 
county line, hear, in its township, the name of Allen, 
the first captain under whose protecting aid these neigh- 
borhoods started on their way through the world. 


This changed policy had a deeper significance than 
indicated at first sight, as an element in the development 
of the Union and the creation and diffusion of patriotic 
sentiment. In the peopling of the colonies, nothing was 
assured from the government whether 'of the mother 
country or the dependent colonies. Men did the best 
they could to defend each other, but the machine was 
local, feeble, and ill-balanced. The absence of fixed 
land laws; of established, recognized forms of defence; 
of relations, commercial or otherwise, with neighboring 
communities; and of facilities for travel or transport- 
all combined to make titles doubtful and common help- 
fulness next to impossible. But when the Federal gov- 
ernment became a real, paramount power, ready and 
pledged to act for its citizens, when it preceded the settler 
to assure his claims to the soil upon which he chose to 
sit down; and when the man moving from one settlement, 
State, or county, to another carried with him the same 
ideas and institutions that he had hitherto enjoyed, the 
relations of men to government and government to men 
became at once more stable and the growth of attachment 
for surroundings and neighbors was more natural and 
clear When, in addition, there was a completed tort 
in front so that they were not compelled to begin mr 
themselves the building of frail, insecure stockades upon 


wholly unfamiliar scenes, the relation of one district 
to another was changed. 

The foundations of human attachments were at once 
so broadened and strengthened as to make it inevitable 
in due time, that the larger patriotism should swallow 
up the smaller. Almost unconsciously, when the crisis 
came, the new confidence created in the rude settlements 
an understanding and a sentiment in favor of a united 
country. Men were likely to think long and earnestly 
before imperiling these new safeguards, mile these 
developments long preceded the doctrines so well in- 
culcated by Lincoln and Douglas who, in their turn, had 
followed Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay, it was' soon 
clear that the Union was the one thing that must be 
perfected and maintained, whatever else might happen. 
One of these days, when we shall get away from skillfully 
made fictions, our people will realize that the Civil War 
was fought with this fundamental idea rather than as 
the outcome of some emotional movement, however phil- 
anthropic, for the abolition of slavery. It will then be 
seen that the latter was the incident, not the object. 
The sooner our generation and its successors find out 
these things the better will our history be understood. 

As our neighborhood lay in a state of nature, it was 
not of much use until man came along to help in its 
completion. No adequate idea can be given by descrip- 
tion of the magnificence of the scene presented by the 
physical characteristics, not only of the immediate neigh- 
borhood which only those privileged to view it could 
realize but in the whole of this wonderful valley of 
the Mississippi when first seen by the eye of civilized 
man, whose rudest, least sentimental settler could see from 
the beginning, not only what it then was in the rough, 
but could imagine what it would be when human effort had 


been concentrated upon it. In some respects, it has 
performed much of its early promise, though it has still 
far to go before in obedience to the command, it is really 
subdued. Its geography, its geology, its fauna and flora 
have indeed been examined, though imperfectly, by the 
eye of science; but the spectacle of so great a wilderness, 
and that of its successor, the prairie, with its dimen- 
sions and possibilities, with so many qualities useful to 
man as well as beautiful in view of both reality and 
imagination, are not wholly appreciated. These lie 
as fairly within the scope of the student as does the 
story of human endeavor which has had the duty and I 
the task of so changing the outward characteristics of 
this immense area as to make it almost unrecognizable. 
The recollections and stories of hardship, warfare, jeal- 
ousy, and constant movement have been so much before 
us as to lead to the belief that they were something 
new in the history of mankind whereas they are only 
the incident to human restlessness. 


The origin and descent of the land on which your 
new park is situated is simple. Nicholas Beezley came 
here from Illinois late in 1847; and in February, 1848, 
he moved upon his new claim, where he built a hewed 
log house about 30 rods east and 15 rods south of the 
Stumbo homestead. On the 30th of October, when the 
land office opened, he formally entered the northwest 
quarter of Section 2, Township 77, Range 23—152 acres. 
Upon his death in 1851, it was inherited by his son, 
Jesse, then about nine years old. At the latter's death 
in December, 1861, it was bought by my father, Thomas 
W. Parker, who consolidated his farms, held both until 


1866, and then sold the whole to William Stumbo, who 
had settled across both the North and Des Moines rivers 
about three or four miles away, near the town of Dudley' 
My personal relation to it came soon after we moved 
into the neighborhood in 1854. We settled first on an 
SO-acre farm just under a mile from the school house 
But my father had a gift, not uncommon among pioneers-' 
a positive genius for finding the choicest land for farms 
and, being at the same time intelligent and ambitious' 
he exercised these qualities with an enterprise then un- 
usual. You know the quality of the site here; if you 
will recall that larger, improved Fort Des Moines a 
few miles to the westward, you will see another farm 
m which he used this high power of selection. That 
was the largest of his four Iowa farms, as the one you 
see here was the first. I have, therefore, the pride of a 
i son in knowing that these gifts of his were so conspicuous 
; that his successors, looking about for attractive places 
! fo y P ublic monuments, approved his judgment. These 
; things please me the more because, in a boyish way, I 
was privileged to have some part in the hard and exact- 
ing work that helped to make each of these actual homes 
what it was, and to realize that, more than any man I 
have known among almost uncounted thousands, my 
father knew, from early experience and by instinct, how 
to bring out the qualities inherent in a prairie soil. His 
interest in everything of a public nature enabled him 
to do a conspicuous work in the neighborhoods in which 
he lived. 

MC-;' : ■ v 

The log house was probably succeeded by a frame one 
as early as 1856 or 1857. Just before this time mv father 


had built his own log house further down the road, so 
that I began to pass the Beezley home on my way to 
school in the village. By this time Jesse, although he 
had grown to be a big boy of thirteen or fourteen would, 
with the friendliness incident to the country, wait for 
me and we, the great big awkward lad and the short- 
legged, sturdy child of eight, would trudge along to- 
gether. At first, he was far ahead of me m studies; 
but, as often happened in our country schools, we finally 
came into the same classes in reading, spelling, and those 
other branches in which strict classification was next 

t °ihS S s 1 ome years before the Civil War, which was to 
prove fatal to so many of our growing and most prom- 
ising young fellows, we had become such close friends 
that! many a time, Jesse would intervene to protect his 
young friend from the stronger, more active boys who, 
Sen as now, often had a gift for making life a burden 
to the small, weak, or timid. Under such a plan many 
a smaller boy would find early admission into the various 
games of old cat, or rounders, the predecessors of base- 
ball, or into bull pen, or Antony Over, even, on occasions 
into marbles, while the running games then the resort 
of all ages, were always so open that little opportunity 
and no desire remained for exclusion. There was then 
as is always the case in a small neighborhood, a group 
of these dominating larger lads but, as in the long run 
hoys always are inclined to be, they were generous m 
their welcome to smaller mates when they could fairly 
do their part. It was only natural that these big boys 
should at once volunteer for the war and, among them, 
if I remember aright, the earliest was my big fnena 
and chum, Jesse Beezley. Certainly he was our firs 
sacrifice to that always insatiable lust of war, for ne 


died in camp in December after our company had marched 
away from here. In reality, your park is, in the best 
sense, a monument to your soldiers in the Civil War 
period. If in time to come you shall erect a plain tablet 
bearing their names, that of the early owner of this 
land will lead all the rest. 


How well I, grown then to the mature age of thirteen 
remember that marching away of our boys, on the 19th 
of August, 1861— a day always since marked in my cal- 
endar of red letter days. All the patriotic feelings as 
well as much of the hysteria of a nation had become 
aroused. Our immediate contingent of Company B, Tenth 
Iowa Infantry, numbered from forty to fifty men Its 
Captain was Martin C. Eandleman who had done good 
service in the Mexican War, ended fourteen years before, 
while the second lieutenant, Owen Adkins, had had a 
like experience. When they started from Carlisle, led 
by our newly improvised fife and drum corps, with its 
music strange to our ears, they had to march about three 
mdes down to the Des Moines Eiver at Dudley, which as 
the first of Uncle Jerry Church's Iowa town sites, had 
been drowned out, abandoned, and its few remaining 
houses removed to the safety of the Carlisle hills which 
m those days were far more formidable than the Seven 
Hills surrounding Eome became when, in due time, we 
learned something of the adventures of Romulus and 
Remus with the friendly, nourishing she-wolf. 

If I should live a hundred or a thousand years, I could 
not see or take part in a more solemn and impressive 
ceremony. Here was assembled everybody from our part 
of the county, and many from across North River, young 


and old, fathers and mothers, boys and girls. For the 
first time in their lives all were taking part m a military 
pageant, nnder the command of their own neighbors as 
officers. Slowly and sadly, the procession made its way 
to the ferry where the hoys were to cross and march 
onward to the railroad, perhaps still a hnndred miles 
distant, thence to their training-camp somewhere on the 
Mississippi, fifty miles further. When all were assembled, 
led by the ministers of each denomination, the class- 
leader, the elders, the Sunday-school superintendents and 
teachers, and followed by the pupils in every kind of 
school, each and all knelt by the stream-side to listen to 
public prayers. As by one impulse, these were succeeded 
bv private devotions from each person, young and old. 
Few demonstrations could be more genuine or more 
solemn than this and probably none who took part in it 
ever forgot either its supreme dignity or its significance 
This ceremony, natural as it was, united the people o 
the neighborhood in closer bonds than any law or formal 
covenant could have done. Nor was it merely an out- 
burst of sentiment. From that time for four years every 
man and woman and child in the village and its sur- 
roundings carried into life the feelings there generated 

and expressed. 

This interest in our little contingent of soldiers grew 
year by year. From the point of view of money, our 
people were poor but, like the hired hand who believed 
that he could care for his employer's daughter, because 
he was "chock full of day's works," so this universal 
oift was used to plough, sow and plant; to cultivate and 
garner the crops on the absent soldier's farm; to repair 
houses, provide wood and cut it ready for use; to do 
what they could for the wives-always known as war 
wid ows-and the children, lest any should suffer by tne 


absence of the father or son, the dependence of the help- 
less or the young in this work of making a new com- 
munity. No more useful or positive demonstration of real 
charity was ever taught to these people who, struggling 
in the days of beginnings, by a common impulse, thus 
made themselves practical Christians. So, out of war 
and misfortune, there came to those humble men and 
women, pioneers who had separated themselves from 
the rest of the world, practical lessons in service that 
went far to neutralize or compensate for the hardship, 
violence, hatred, and wrong by which they were sur- 
rounded in the most terrific civil war known to history. 

The sympathy aroused when casualty lists told of the 
killed or wounded was only premonitory of the joy that 
welcomed the end of the conflict and the return as in- 
dividuals or in companies, of soldiers to their families 
and their civil duties. All these passions and emotions 
were shown here on the surroundings which to-day are 
filled with joy because of duty done by the successors 
of these men and women in the dedication here of a 
memorial intended to exemplify the public spirit , de- 
veloped among these pioneers and their successors on 
the farms and houses scattered all about them. 

If >: Vn ' 

In truth, we do more than celebrate the past: we are 
trying to anticipate the future in providing for the 
instruction and entertainment of the men, women, and 
children upon whom we must rely for thought and 
effort in the coming generations. I hope that, in doin^ 
this, we shall not fail, both by example and precept, to 
impress upon these people, as they come along, the idea 
that, as they have inherited great and good things, they 


must maintain them; that it is not enough to lay out \ 
this choice piece of land as a playground for young and 
old, for resident and stranger, but it must be maintained 

and improved. 

I should like to look forward to a public spirit like 
that, which under the working of time, memory, and 
effort, has brought forth this venture. It should insure 
the adoption of permanent, systematic movements for its 
maintenance and improvement. If each girl and woman, 
each boy and man— persons of all ages and employments 
—shall insist, as by a common impulse, upon coming 
here once every year to do something that is wanted and 
needed, to dig or enrich the ground, to plant a tree, to 
improve a road, to help in keeping fences and walls 
in order, this park will command a general use and inspire 
a pride that will make its way into every home within 
its dnfluence. If every such person will make up his 
mind to fix and keep up a high standard of order, 
neatness, and cleanliness, the work can never lag or fail. 
While your park may seem small, you may all recall 
with pride that it is much larger in area, relatively to 
numbers, than like playgrounds in the great cities of 
the world and resolve that it shall be made a model, 
where discipline, pride, and a real personal interest shall 
be assured. It is well to have rules, it may be necessary 
to have guards, but the best rules are those inherent in 
the determination of all to do a part by keeping order, 
enforcing neatness upon himself, and respecting public 
property. The most effective guards should be those who 
use it day by day, year in and year out. In a few 
years, you will have here gardens that will be little less 
than miracles of beauty. Even in the grimmest season of 
the year, they will constantly recall, in anticipation, the 
spirit and sacrifice of your predecessors and give you 


something to look at and study that will honor both 
those who provide and those who receive, as its existence 
already reflects credit npon those about you whose 
thought, industry, and sacrifice have made it possible. 

It will, I am sure, become a place for real use. I 
expect to hear, ere long, that provision has been made 
for every kind of game that shall fit the place and the 
changing seasons. Baseball and football will, no doubt, 
remain the standard sports and I hope that your local 
victories may promote pride and the cultivation of skill, 
and your defeats teach you that patience and forbearance 
incident to the high compliment conveyed by the phrase 
"play the game" — that ought to be added to the com- 
mandments. You will probably soon naturalize, or re- 
vive, if you have not done so already, wrestling, hockey, 
basket ball, tennis, and croquet, provide for marbles, 
and introduce anew that interesting old game known as 
bowls whose enticements led Eip Van Winkle on into 
his immortal sleep and the happy resurrection which 
followed. I wish I could see you revive, as significant of 
the past, even if only for exhibition purposes, the extinct 
games that I knew in my boyish days and thus add to 
the variety which keeps life interesting. All of these 
games you will practice so well and so sedulously, as to 
demonstrate again how an outdoor active life brings 
content and tends to curb or restrain the restlessness to 
which we, as a people, are too prone. You wiJl also have 
impressed upon young and old, the fact that the people 
which plays best is best equipped for work and for fight- 
ing, if for the preservation of ideas, institutions, and 
firesides, the latter shall become a necessity. 

I look with confidence to your managers when it comes 
to making provisions for winter sports. Your situation 
will enable you to have a long and safe toboggan ending 


at the river and running, according to my memory, for 
some little distance on the stream itself or along its 
banks. In our climate it is important to bear in mind 
that cold weather and snow hold our people in their 
toils during about five months of the year, when provision 
may be made for the use of the facilities of your park. 

In like manner, if the OP Swimmin' Hole, just up the 
river from the bridge still persists, I hope that you can 
either annex it permanently or so use it as to preserve to 
future generations one of the great play spots of the 
childhood and youth of myself and my fellows. I was 
once firmly convinced that nowhere upon its surface did 
the earth contain a deeper bit of fresh water with so 
many attractions or that could afford more fun to real 
boys. Another of its great merits was the fact that, at 
least within my time, no boy was ever drowned in it. 


On the whole, this early life of our people, passed as 
it was in God's Great Outdoors, was active and full of 
the most exacting of hard, manual labor; but it was 
wholesome and fairly happy. We had to contend with 
many and serious drawbacks; we often dealt with human 
weakness in its worst and most discouraging forms; we 
lived in the midst of an isolation, the extent of which 
was never known among active minded persons or classes 
or anywhere other than in the most highly-developed 
forms of stoicism or monasticism; we were the victims of 
a theology that bred intolerance and of a bigotry, a 
narrowness, and a selfishness that approached hypocrisy; 
we often suffered physical deprivations in the midst of 
a potentiality of plenty unknown to history; and yet 
out of all these conditions and in such an environment 


we did not develop or promote more than the average 
proportion of scandal or of immorality, either open or 
hid, or of that pretension and self-righteousness that so 
weaken a people whether they have grown or settled 
upon a scene, or have come together from older sur- 

I suppose we all think, as no doubt our forerunners 
saw, that the strength of these new communities would 
have been increased if we had drawn our population 
from more varied origins; if into our religion and edu- 
cation had entered more of the elements necessary for 
a larger intellectual and moral development; if we had 
been less truculent, somewhat less confident about our 
political forms of speech and action; rather less devoted 
to what we now know were impracticable and outworn 
conceptions: and a bit more critical of the men we 
trusted. We did need broader ideas, a recognition of 
the wholesomeness and the necessity of a better and 
larger culture, and more of the all round influence that 
go to make up the life of mankind. If we could have 
escaped somewhat earlier from that sombreness, which 
was often oppressive, the grayness that even then was 
so apparent to the thoughtful, our growth, on purely 
material lines, might, perhaps, have proceeded less rapidly, 
but also had an evenness that would have made us, at 
an earlier day, both more human and more Christian. 

We should have known better how to absorb great 
contingents of foreigners, somewhat less sophisticated 
than ourselves, rather simpler in their outward show of 
human traits, people who had developed by a sort of 
mystic process some of the qualities in industry and in 
training that we have since had to acquire slowly, witli 
awkwardness and its attendant pain. Perhaps if we 
had had more discipline, less truculence, less boasting 


about size, we should have been less easy now as a 
prey for wily but ignorant politicians, for self-seekers 
and bi-ots in religion; for adventurers and pretenders 
in industry, for self-assumed leaders whose first resort 
in time of stress is to create a grandmotherly govern- 
ment and then advise everybody to run under its pro- 
tecting apron. Many things might have been incorpor- 
ated into our structure naturally that now come as the 
result of growing pains deferred so late that they must 
now be associated with fear and apprehension. , 

But whatever might have happened we are what we 
are and so must take ourselves as we find ourselves, and, 
like our fathers, make our way out as best we can. An 
advantage now is that we can the easier recognize and 
see our crudenesses; that we are somewhat less cocksure 
than our predecessors; that many things which they 
looked upon as ideas have come down in the scale ol 
life until they are only notions; and that, above all 
things, we ought, with these new advantages, to be the 
better fitted to play a part in the great world and not 
limit ourselves to our own neighborhood gardens. 

But in any event, whatever remains to be done, what- 
ever we try to do, we must never forget that the 
foundations were laid by those people whose work we 
to-day commemorate in this distinctive improvement- 
one probably unprecedented in a community of its size 
and numbers-in which, with all solemnity, we dedicate 
to-day this park as a public memorial. 


This village of ours, set in beautiful and attractive 
surroundings, with its attendant neighborhood was small 
and in its comparative relation to the rest of the world 


it has not changed. But it was typical. Its people were 
active, industrious, enterprising, God-fearing, helpful to 
each other, and only exacting in the demand that every 
man should, within his powers and opportunities, help 
himself. They were attached to the principles and pol- 
icies that underlay our social and political ideas; were 
not the victims of a vague or open discontent; and were 
anxious to know about the world in which they lived— 
a world, which for them, as for others, must always, 
like charity, begin at home. 

To one who is descending the slopes of life, it is a 
pleasure to look back upon association with the men and 
women of such a day, to recall their virtues, to overlook 
their faults, to smile at their foibles, to feel that they 
had the loves and hates, the jealousies and ambitions, 
the hopes and fears, that marked them as real human 
beings. After the lapse of many years they stand out 
before me with a distinctness that emphasizes the sen- 
timent expressed by Charlotte Bronte' when, writing of 
Arnold of Eugby, she said: ' ' One feels thankful to know 
that it has been permitted to any man to live such a 
life." In like manner, I think we should all be thankful 
that we have been permitted to live among these plain, 
unpretending people who, in our serene Iowa air, on 
our fertile soil, and among scenes whose attractive and 
primitive qualities we can recall, never overlooked or 
forgot their patriotic principles and their religion. 

George F. Parker 

New York City 


The following contributions give much interesting infor- 
mation concerning the experiences of the troops on the 
Northwest Border during the time of the Civil War. Their 
purpose there was the protection of the settlements against 
depredations and outrages by the Indians such as those 
perpetrated by the Sioux in Minnesota in 1862. 

Henry J. Wieneke and Amos R. Cherry were members 
of Company B, Fourteenth Iowa Infantry, while Josiah 
F. Hill was enrolled in Company A of the same regiment. 
These two companies, together with Company C, were 
mustered into service at Iowa City on October 23-25, 1861, 
companies D to K inclusive being mustered in at Davenport 
during the first week of November. The regiment was not 
united, however, for the three companies 1 at Iowa City 
were ordered to Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, while the 
remainder of the regiment was later sent south. 

On September 18, 1862, the three companies stationed 
at Fort Randall were withdrawn from the Fourteenth 
Eegiment and were organized into a battalion which was 
intended to be the nucleus of a new regiment— the Forty- 
first Iowa Infantry. This plan was later abandoned and 
when the Seventh Iowa Cavalry was organized m April, 
1863, the Forty-first Iowa Infantry Battalion was assigned 
to it as companies K, L, and M. 

It was during the time the three companies were a part 
of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry that they participated in 

i For an account of the service of these three companies . see the *#« 
and Becord of Iowa Soldiers in the War of the Belelhon, Vol. H, p. 
Vol. IV, p. 1253, Vol. V, pp. 1159, 1160. 



the campaign of General Sully against the Sioux in 1864. 

Wieneke and Cherry were mustered out in October^ 
1864, at the close of their three year enlistment period! 
Hill had re-enlisted and served in Company K of the re- 
organized Seventh Iowa Cavalry, being mustered out on 
June 22, 1866. His letter has to do with events a year 
later than those described in the other manuscripts. In 
the Roster and Record of Iowa Soldiers the age of Josiah 
F. Hill is given as 24 at the time of his enlistment in 1861. 
This is an error, since Hill was born in 1827. In 1850 in 
company with two brothers, Lorenzo D. Dutton and Jerome 
Button, and others, Hill made an overland trip to Cali- 
fornia from Scott County, Iowa. A journal of this trip, 
kept by Jerome Dutton and edited by Claude W. Dutton' 
his son, was published, together with some letters, in the 
Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. IX, pp. 447-483. The 
letter here published was written to Lorenzo D. Dutton and 
was sent to the State Historical Society for publication by 
Claude W. Dutton. 

The extract from the diary of Henry J. Wieneke was 
presented to the Society by Mr. Wieneke himself who is 
still living at Iowa City, Iowa. The Cherry manuscripts 
are available for publication through the kindness of Mr. 
Cherry 's son, Eugene Cherry of Iowa City. In preparing 
the manuscripts for the printers no attempt has been 
made to make uniform the capitalization and punctuation 
in the various letters, diaries, and narratives. In case of 
doubt capital letters have been retained for nouns, since 
there seems to have been a tendency to begin all nouns 
with capital letters, but there is much lack of uniformity 
in this. Capitals have been used to begin sentences even 
though they were not used in the original and in the 
iiary capitals have been used to begin phrases and groups 

vol. xx— 24 


of words which present separate ideas, even though there 
are no complete sentences. Punctuation has been added 
only when necessary for the interpretation of the text. 

The Editor 


In fall of 1861 call was issued for 14th Iowa Inf try Eegi- 
ment. Co A B & C 1st Battallion were enlisted at and in 
vicinity of Iowa City and sworn into service Oct 23rd 
1861 and were ordered to Fort Kandall Dakota to relieve 
Eegular troops there, with promise that Ballance of Eegi- 
ment would be enlisted during winter. In spring whole 
14th Infantry would be sent South. Our Battallion started 
from Iowa City on afternoon of Oct 28th to march across 
State to Council Bluffs and up the Missouri Valley to 
Fort Eandall Dakota. 

Our Eations consisted of Bacon Flour Eice Beans & 
Coffee. We marched all day and baked & cooked near 
all night. We marched across the State to Council Bluffs 
weather getting cold and wintry and by time of reaching 
Sioux City were facing Blizzards and below zero weather. 
Nov 29th reached Vermillion the Capital of Dakota in 
Blizzard with heavy Snow 32° below zero. Dec 7th reached 
Fort Eandall. Ground covered with Snow 1 foot deep. 
Camped on High Plain awaiting the withdrawal of Eegu- 
lars. Fort Eandall 2 is built of hewed Cottonwood Logs in 
oblong Square on west Bank of the Missouri Eiver. 
Here was spent wintr of 1861 and Summer of 1862 wait 

2 Fort Eandall was established in 1856 and abandoned on July 22, 1884 
It was on the right bank of the Missouri River about one hundred mile 
above Yankton and two hundred and fifty miles by river from Sioux City. 
South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. VIII, pp. 84, 85. 


ing orders to be relieved and go South. Instead on 1st of 
Dec 1862 Co B reed orders to move to Ft Piere 3 a Trading 
Post of the American Fir Co on west Bank of the Mis- 
souri Biver. Meantime the Sioux Indians had massacred 
the White Setlers of Minnesota, taking women and children 
Prisoners carrying them into Dakota where they were 
terribly mistreated. Our march to the north was facing 
Snows and Blizzards for seven days. We marched through 
Snow Drifts with Thermometer below zero. When reach- 
ing Ft. Piere found Quarters too small. The Company 
was divided 28 men with Capt Mahanna went to Fort La 
Framboise 4 a competing Fir Co where we camped out until 
the Logs were cut and draged across the Ice of Missouri 
Biver to build log walls of 6 ft high with Dirt Boof, for 
our winter quarters. In Spring of 1863 our Battallion was 
transferred to 41st Iowa Infantry thus frustrating any 
hopes of being sent South. During that winter we rescued 
and sent South 76 white women and children that the Sioux 
had carried from Eastern Minnesota to the Missouri 

In Spring of 1863 our Company moved to east side of 
Missouri Biver taking charge of Sioux prisoners sent from 

3 Fort Pierre, named in honor of Pierre Chouteau, was established near 
the junction of the Teton and Missouri rivers in 1832. In 1855 it was 
purchased from the American Fur Company by the United States govern- 
ment for a military post. It seems to have been virtually abandoned two 
years later and much of the material used in the construction of Fort 
Randall. The site, however, remained as a landmark and in 1859 a new 
stockade was built about two miles north of the old fort. It was probably 
at this new trading post that the Iowa troops were stationed. — Wilson's Fort 
Pierre and Its Neighbors in the South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. I, 
pp. 203-311, 369-371. 

* Fort La Framboise was built as a fur trading station for La Bargt, 
Harkness and Company in 1862. — South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. 
I, pp. 362, 365, 366, 369, 370. 


Minnesota and late in fall were set to building Fort Sully 5 
on the north east Bank of the Missouri River near where 
the city of Pierre now stands. 

In spring of 1864 orders came transfering our Battallion 
Cos A, B, & C 41st Iowa Infantry to Cos K, L, & M 7th 
Iowa Cavalry and ordered to prepare to join 1st Brigade 
under Command of Genl Alf Sully 6 for expedition against 
the Sioux nation. 

On June 14th 1864 our Battallion was once more united 
by the arrival of Cos K & M (after two years separation) 7 

June 26th our Horses arrived, and the 1st Brigade was 

June 27th. Started and mchd to Asneboin Creek our Co 
L on advance Guard. Capt Feilner 8 Topographical En- 
gineer accompanied by 2 Scouts passed to examine geo- 
logical formations on Banks of Creek where Indians in 
ambush shot Capt Feilner instantly kiling him. The 2 
scouts gallopd back reporting when Capt and part of Sioux 

5 This is the old Fort Sully built on the north bank of the Missouri 
Eiver just above the head of Farm Island only a short distance from Fort 
PierTe. It was established in 1863 and abandoned on July 25, 1866, for 
the new Fort Sully— South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. I, pp. 310, 
311, 371, 372, 373, Vol. VIII, p. 87. 

6 General Alfred Sully. 

7 Company L had been stationed at Fort Pierre and Fort La Framboise, 
s John Feilner.— See Heitman's Historical Register and Dictionary of the 

United States Army, 1789-1903, Vol. I, p. 416. 

6th Iowa Infantry 
Brackets Battallion 
Nebraska Jayhawkers 
3rd Battallion 7th Cavy 
Co Dakota Cavy 



2100 Men 


% ty ?7<?° WGre ° rdered t0 Capture Indians which 
they did after a race of 8 miles surrounding the 3 Indians 
m a Buffalo Waller killing them and cutting off their 
Heads carried them in Gunny Bag to Camp where they 
were stuck on poles as a warning. 

During the Evening we were visited by a terrific Deluge 
of Earn and Hail before or during the formation of our 
Lamp and water coming down the Creek six feet deep 
washing every thing and upsetting three wagons that had 
been left m the Creek bottom thoroughly soaking all as 
the wind upset the few tents that had been set up 

A march of 32 miles brot us to Swan Lake where in 
Camp we awaited arrival of the Second Brigade of Minne- 
sota troups which came to Camp on July 7th. 

July 8th Started early. Day very hot. Arriving at 
Long Creek had to build Bridge to cross and soon came in 
sight of the ever welcome Missouri river, where were four 
Steamboats unloading supplies for troops and to build 
Fort Rice 9 . Here we found a large flat Boat which was 
used as a Ferry having a long Cable fastened up at bend 
oi River thus by aid of Current of River Boat was swun- 
from Bank to bank. On 9th with aid of Steamers we were 
transfered to west Bank of the Muddy and in spite of 

Vfud we did sure enjoy drink of water without so much 

On the steamers were 4 Companies of the 30th Wisconsin 
nfantry who were to garrison the new Fort. Same troops 
hat had been with us last winter at Ft. Sully. Here also 
rere joined by long train of 120 wagons of Emigrants 
rom Minnesota, on way to the gold Fields of Montana 

» Fort Bice was built in 1864 on the right or west bank of the Missouri 
iver a short distance above the mouth of the Cannon Ball Eiver, kboot 
venty-eight miles from Bismarck. It is still in use.-South Dakota His- 
>ncal Collections, Vol. VIII, p. 90. 

asking protection of Genl Sully across the plains of Dakota j 

to the Yellow Stone. 

Jury 14th. Three Steamers with Supplies for the Army 
passed up the Eiver on way to Yellow Stone to await our 

^Sunday'july 18th. Grand Eeview and Inspection of all 

^ jTy 19th. Whole expedition accompanied by trains of 
Emigrants started, passing over Cannonball Ewer to Hart 
Eiver" total of 110 miles where Camp was formed and 
having discovered by Scouts that the Sioux Camp of arge 
dimension was ahead of us. Here the mules were to b 
piked with ten days provisions and no wagons except 
ambulances to go with the expedition all rest to stay m 
Smp until our return. After half Day j£j*g 
mules that stampeded scattering Boxes of Hard tack 
Boiled Sowbelly & c over miles of plains Genl conclude 
to take one Wagon for each 2 Companies and . two .days 
ration in each Mans Haversack. Marched 24 mjta£ 
Knife Eiver where 1st night was spent holding Horses 

with very little rest. 

July 27th. Started 3 o'clock a m 56 miles again. Hold 

Horse all night. . , 

July 28th. 32 miles fast March. Came m Sight of High 
range of Bluffs. Scouts galloping back our Battallion 7th 
cZ ordered gallop to front Dismount and Deploy as 
Skirmishers with myself as orderly to Corlonel Indian^ 
appeared covering plains 6 miles or more front and bac 
to the Hills far as you could see all was Indians & pomes 
War Whoops and all kind of Whoops. This con mu 
from 10 a m until Dark when we had their Camps of full 
6000 Tepees at the foot of Mount Tachkahute [Tahkaho 

io Heart Eiver, a western tributary of the Missouri. 


kuty] or Kill Deer Mt.» The whole Camp was Burned with 
all food & Equipments the Indians escaping over Mountain 
to Bad lands of the little Missouri. At Dark our Battallion 
out to east side of Battle Ground while making Camp were 
attacked, and quite a few wounded & 2 Men killed hut we 
saved all Horses & Camp Material but we got no rest that 
night all resting on arms and holding Horses. 

It is not known how much loss the Indians met with as 
they carried most of the Dead with them but there were 
more than 1000 Bodies Burned in with Camps on our 
return after march. The Bodies of Two Pickets were 
discovered filled with arrows 
Aug 1st. Beturned to Corall found all quiet 
Aug 2nd. Got back to Camp and had good meal first 
[in] six days. 

Aug 3rd. Started 5 a m in westerly direction over 
rolling prarie 25 miles campd on Heart river 

Aug 4th. Nineteen miles over fine Country good Camp 
plenty of Grass for Horses. Passed over remains of an 
Indian Encampment 

Aug 5th. Traveling nine Hours. Halted on Edge of 
the roughest Country. Ahead no Water except what stood 
m pools or depression of ground accumulation of heavy 
Shower. No feed for Horses and no fuel except Buffalo 
Chips and they too wet to burn 

Aug 6th. We sure were on the jumping off place on the 
border of the Bad lands. All indicated that some time in 
past there had been a terrible Conflagration or an Erup- 
tion of the Earth Surface. Looking over the way ahead 
as far as one could see were all sorts of Hills with all 
Colors of the Bainbow in Earth & Bocks all sorfs of 

" For an official report of this battle see War of the Ecbcllion: Official 
Beoords, Series I, Vol. XLI, Pt. 1, pp. 141-148. 



formations. Woods & Vegetable Petrified even large trees 
laying on ground. Solid Eock and Stumps Splintered 
Standing that when struck would ring like Steel. Quite 
a lot of Bushes trees and other Vegetation were inter- 
spersed on side of Bluffs. Some Berries that sure tasted 
good. This day were on go all day hut only made about 12 
miles to the little Missouri river where was good Water 

Grass and fuel. „ ,„ „ . 

Aug 7th Our Battallion was ordered on the Blutts west 

of little Missouri as guard to protect Eoad Making Men 

as it was found impossible to proceed through ravines 

otherwise. In mean time part of 6th Cavy had taken 

Horses down river to grass when Indians stampeded them 

creating a big racket quite a number of the Horses being 

captured by reds. 

On return of six Companys of road makers after their 
days work our Battallion was ordered in. As Co M being 
the last out came through the narrow ravine Indians on 
top of the 300 foot Bluffs began rolling stones down but 
fortunately were a bit slow as all came through safe and 
the howitzers threw a few Shells on the Bluffs soon sent 

the reds out of sight. , , . 

Aug 8th. 2nd Brigade started out first and had only 
gotten out of Camp when Indians were heard in all direc- 
tions shooting & whooping. Our Battallion had started 
out on left flank and were soon kept busy on top of blutts 
driving the reds who were thick all directions. We only 
advanced about 5 miles today the Indians 
rear guard who had a severe time protecting he Knngrants 
team, that they lost eight oxen, but no lives lost. Camped 
in a depression near a small pond of foul water so Kotten 
the Horses did not want to drink it. 

Aug 9th. Still whooping and shooting in all directions 


around us but as we advanced country being more open 
they could not do much harm. This day passed over 
ground where had been an immense Camp of the Eeds 
estimated as Ten Thousand or more. This day the Black- 
foot guide only one who was familliar with this country 
was so severely wounded as to incapasatate him as a guide. 
Our Camp this Evening was a very compact one the Hills 
& Bluffs crowding all sides. Fortunately for our company 
shortly before going into Camp I had dismounted and 
passing around an immense Eock discovered a depression 
of the Kock enough clean cool Eain water to supply our 
Company with good drinking & cooking Water enough for 
Supper & Coffee next morn. 

Aug 9. After an almost sleepless Night started 4am 
with Indians thick on all sides of us but when we dis- 
mounted and started after them on foot at a double quick 
they soon discovered that this was not their home or rest- 
ing place. Twas Estimated that the last three days had 
cost at least Four Hundred Indian lives and toward Even- 
ing they gradually left us and soon we got on level ground 
and to a large pond of clear water where we camped and 
had a good nights rest except that one of the 6th Cavalry 
raised the alarm of — Wake up the 'Camp is full of In- 
dians'. He must sure have had a big Night Mare. 

Now came news that the Commissary was about empty 
and our Eations cut to half. 

Aug 12th. Our Comp L on advance guard just at sun- 
set came in sight of Yellow Stone and after signal shot 
by the 8 Lb Howitzer the Steamer Alone 12 came in sight 
and by 10 o'clock P. M. we were feasting. 

After crossing the Yellow Stone where we left the Emi- 

12 Two small steamers — the tl Chippewa Falls' ' and the i( Alone" — met 
the expedition at this point. Each had about fifty tons of freight.— Wm 
of the Rebellion: Official Records, Series I, Vol. XLI, Pt. 1, p. 147, 


grant train, we followed the Eiver to its Entrance into the 
Missouri river to Fort Union. From there we followed 
the trail of the Sioux northward to near the Border of 
Manitoba and then turned our Course South toward the 
land of the ' living' finally arriving at Sioux City where 
we reed our discharge and Quit. 

H. J. Wieneke 

Co L 7th Iowa Cavy 



Fort Eandall, D. T. Jan 1862. 
Account of the march of companys A, B and C of the 
14th Eegt. of Iowa volunteers from Iowa City Iowa to 
Fort Eandall Dakota Territory in the month of November 

We left Iowa City on the 31st of Oct and marched only 
two miles and went into camp at Gov Kirkwoods Farm 
and remained there in camp the next day the first of 
November Saturday Nov 2nd. Left camp at Kirkwoods 
at eleven Oclock A. M. and marched ten miles and en- 
camped at or near the residence of Mrs. Douglass in Clear 
Creek Town Ship. We arrived there at half past three 
Oclock P. M. We was all somewhat tired with this our 
first days march but after a good nights rest we came out 
as good as ever again and was ready for the next days 
march. While we was in camp at this place we was pre- 
sented with a beautiful Flag by the Ladies of Clear 
Creek. They apeared in camp about eight Oclock in the 
evening acompanied by Mr Evans Esqr who presented 
the Flag in behalf of the Ladies. The Battalion ^was 
ordered into line and large Bond Fires was built in front 
of the line when the Ladies was escorted in by the Band 


and marched up in front of the ranks when they was 
greeted with three cheeres from the troops. Mr. Evans 
then addressed the men and presented the Flag to Capt 
Pattee 13 with some very approprate and soul stiring re- 
marks which was responded to by Capt. Pattee with a fiew 
but approprate remarks. Lut Luse 14 of Co. B. was then 
called upon and came out and made some very spicey 
remarks which was then loudly cheered by the Battallion. 
Miss Washburn then appeared and adressed the troops in 
a very able manner and exorted us to prove ourselves true 
and brave men and allso to prove true to this just cause 
and that she hoped and believed that we as brave men of 
Iowa would maintain the honor of that beautifule emblem 
of our Countrys glory which they as patriotic Ladies had 
presented us with. When she withdrew and as she finished 
speaking three times three cheeres was given and this 
was not enough, cheer after cheer went up for Miss Wash- 
burn and the patriotic Ladies of Clear Creek long may 
they wave. Co. B. was then called upon for a Song and 
we of course complied and sang the happy Land of cannain 
which was cheered loudly by all pressant. We was then 
dissmised and we all retired for the night. Several Ladies 
was in camp at this camp from Iowa City that I was ac- 
quainted with. One of them was Miss Delia Zimmerman 
from our old neighborhood. 

Sunday, 3rd. Left camp again this morning at eight 
Oclock and marched twenty miles and encamped two miles 
east of Marrengo on Bear Creek. We marched very fast 
this day and was all very tired when we arrived in camp 
at night and you could have seen the men laying arround 
in all directions upon the grass or leaning upon their guns. 

13 John Pattee was captain of Company A, Fourteenth Iowa Infantry. 
He was appointed lieutenant colonel May 15, 1863. 

14 Marvin R. Luse, first lieutenant of Company B, Fourteenth Iowa In- 
fantry, and Company L, Seventh Iowa Cavalry. 


The reason of our marching so fast this day was this. It 
was Co. C's turn to march to the right (or in front) and 
they made their braggs that they was going to run Co. A. 
and B. down before we reached demoin and they strung out 
like a pack of wild Bulls and at times they would call out 
to us (for we was next to them) close up Co. B. close up 
and we did close up to and tread their heels about as close 
as they cared abbout. We would have kept up with them 
if it had killed us all. Co. A. was in the rear and would 
call out to give it to them Co. B. and I tell you the Wap- 
seys as they call themselves got enough of that days march 
trying to run Co. A. and B. During this march we passed 
through Rome Stead and the Butch Colony. Neither of 
these towns are of much importance. Home Stead has a 
population of about one hundred. The Dutch Colony™ has 
a population of about five hundred I should judge from the 
appearance of it. It is a very pretty town and things has 
the appearance of being well conducted. Every thing ap- 
pears to be in its place and a place for every thing. It 
is a beautifull farming Country arround the Collony and 
it is allso well cultivated. 

Monday, 4th. Left Camp this morning at eight Oclock 
and marched fifteen miles and encamped again on Bear 
Creek 12 miles west of Marrengo. We passed through 
Marrengo to day in four ranks and made a very good 
appearance. We was welcomed by the people of that place 
who manifested their Loyality to the Union by causing 
the Stars and Stripes to float from every public building 
and flagg staff in the town as they saw us approaching 
the place. When we marched through this place the band 
played the very approprate air the girl I left Behind me. 

is The Amana Community. Homestead was purchased by the society in 


You may rest assured that when I heard this favourite air 
it brought many sweet recollections before my vision 
Often now when I hear this air do I think of the girls 
I left behind me. This morning was the first time we 
saw a Scarcety of provisions but if eatables was not 
scarce this morning at our camp near Marrengo they 
never was scarce if I understand what scarcity means 
Well I will tell you what we had to call a breakfast that 
morning. It was this one flap Jack and a .half peice 
of boHd Beef about as large as a good large potato and a 
pint cup full of coffie sweetned with some very poor 
brown shugar. Our flap Jacks was one half flower and one 
half corn meal and mixed up with cold creek watter. Was 
not this rather tough feed for men on the march but such 
was our breakfast on the morning of our second days 
narch through a plentifull and peaceable country with 
Dlenty of provisions which could have easily been pro- 
cured at any time but our commanding Officer did not 
jxert himself to get them and we was obliged to 
?et allong without them which we done by calling at Farm 
louses and telling the people our true situation and the 
ray we was being treated and in every instance they freely 
:ave to us all as long as they had any thing eatable to 
;ive. Co. B this day refused to march in ranks and was 
f course much scattered. At times not more than fifteen 
len of Co. B was to be seen in ranks the remainder being 
cattered along the road for two or three miles back but 
very man answered to his name at camp at the six Oclock 
toll Call. We never left ranks without first asking per- 
mission of Lut Luse who was in command of Co. B. He 
aid to the men if they could get what was necesarry to 
istain them on the long and weareysome march before 
lem by calling [at] houses along the road they was at lib- 


erty to do so but Co. A and C was not so fortunate their 
Officers being more ridged in the enforcement of their 
Diciplin and not allowing a man to leave the ranks under 
any conditions whatever and at some tunes when the* 
Z came into camp at night they was allmost exauste 
with hunger and fatigue while Co. Bs men would all be m 
camp in time for Roll Call and have enough with hen, 
for a good Supper besides getting a good dmner aUong 
the road at some kind old Farmers House. On the mgW 
of the fourth we had a good supper in camp that we hac 
begged allong the road and brought with us into camp 
Our evenings nieal that night consisted of Slap Jacks Mo 
Masses butter squash cabbage vinegar beef coffie shuga, 
and milk which made up quite a styleish supper and yo, 
bet it was rellished by us all. After eating this our even 
ings meal we all took to cuting up and havmg a goo. 
time in every way we could. Some was jumping other 
was wrestleing and others siting in their tents singim 
some favourite peice of music or an army song and anothe 
thing we had a fine lot of sport over and it was this On 
of the men went out into the woods hunting and kiUed a 
Owl and brought it into camp with them. The boys thougl 
this a fine chance to have some fun and at it they wen 
They would take the Owl and go slyly up to the dore < 
some tent and carefully draw open the folds of the te, 
dore and send the Owl in amongst the men that a, 
gathered inside telling over the adventures of the d< 
when in would come the old Owl casting terror among 
the assembled Braves inside and the next thing you won 
see would be one of the boys running down through 
camp as if all the rebbles of the south was after him a 
some ones head sticking out of the tent telling what 
would do if ever he found out who done that and 


Schell 16 amused himself by takeing this old Owl and 
throwing it into our tent and takeing me right fair in the 
mouth. No sooner had it came in than I went out and if 
I could have seen any one near I would have snatched him 
bald at one grab but the sport did not end here. He came 
into our tent after I had gone in and wanted to know 
what the trouble was (apearring very innocent). Says I 
you own up now to the truth or I will clean out every 
Lutennent in the camp and he roared out laughing which 
told us very well who done it. Well after awhile he went 
back to his tent and he and Lut Luse was studying over 
a pile of papers and in went the old Owl again right into 
the midst of the papers scattering them in all directions. 
When Luse says what in thunder does that mean Jo, who 
was that. Oh says Jo that is nothing but some of the boys 
fun. Well says Luse that aint as much fun as it is cracked 
up to be I dont think. So this ends this nights sport and 
the nine Oclock tattoo told us that the bed time had arrived 
and we all retired for the night and slept soundly after 
our nights sport. 

Teusday, 5th. Left camp at Bear Creek at half past 
eight Oclock and made a march of twelve miles and reached 
Brooklyn at three Oclock, and encamped near the town 
and near a creek of fine watter. 

Brooklyn is a small town and allso a very pretty town. 
Its population is about three hundred. The town is situ- 
ated upon a high Bluff. While we was encamped at this 
place we was favoured with visits from the fair Sex of 
Brooklin who sang several very pretty songs and allso 
some very approprate ones for our benifit. We of course 
extended to them all the courtesy due these congenial be- 

16 Joseph F. Schell, second lieutenant of Company B, Fourteenth Iowa 
Infantry and Company L, Seventh Iowa Cavalry. 


ings After they had entertained us very agreably for some 
time they returned to their homes and we was preparing 
for to retire when it was anounced that we was to be seren- 
aded by the Brooklin Brass Band and soon they apeared 
in camp and favoured us with some excellent music played 
Dixey Hail Columbia, Yankey Doodle and many other 
favourite National airs. They then returned to their homes 
and we to our tents but before they left Co. B was called 
upon for a Song and again sang the good old Happy Land 
of Cannain which was cheered by all present. While here 
we was the reeipants of many gifts in shape of eatables. 
The patriotic people of Brooklin will long be remembered 
by the men of the Battallion. After our evenings enter- 
tainment we all retired for the night and slept soundly 
until! morning it being rather warm in our tents however 
but we did not mind this for we had the cheereing pros- 
pect before us of seeing cool weather before we reached 

Wednesday, 6th. Left camp at Brooklin this morning 
at seven Oclock and marched twenty miles and reached 
Grenell We refused to march in ranks to day on acount 
of not getting enough to eat but we did not suffer you 
may bet for we called at allmost every house and in most 
cases found the people very liberal in giving provisions to 
the Soldiers. I hope they may be rewarded for their kind- 
ness at some future time. We found Grenell a very pretty 
town indeed. We arrived there about four Oclock, P. M. 
and encamped on some vacant Lots in the Subburbs of the 
town. We found the people very kind indeed in fact ever} 
thing that they had that would add to our comfort was 
freely given. Best ashured that we did not suffer for the 
necsessaries of life while at the town Grenell. We had 
not only the substantial things of life but we had the 


luxuries of life. Our camp looked like one vast Bakery or 
provision Store. I tell you these things was thankfully 
received and the soldiers friends of this place will long 
be rememberd for their kindness. While we was here I at- 
tended a danceing party at the Read House and had a 
splendid time. I did not expect to atend another party 
until I returned to Iowa but I was happily disapointed for 
as I was preparing to go to bed Seargant Pumphrey 17 
came up along the line of tents calling for Seargant 
Cherry. I did not at first care much about answering 
thinking perhaps I would be politly asked to take a squad 
of men to bring watter or provisions from town or perhaps 
to get some of the Boys that was up in town on a spree 
but I answered however. Says he, where are you. Says 
I, here I am going to Bed, when he came to the tent dore 
and called me out and said there was a dance up town 
and wished to know if I would go up. I told him I would 
exactly so I got out my full uniform arid came out and 
went down to the Oncers tent and there found Pumphrey, 
Wm. Mahanna 18 and Lut Luse waiting for me. We went 
at once up to the Hottell and was [met] politely by the 
proprietor and escorted into the dressing room. After 
fixing up in the best of Style and brightening up our brass 
works we was then invited to walk into the Parlor which 
we done with all the pleasure imaginable whare we found 
some very handsome young Ladies and allso some very 
interesting and intelligent ones allso. We was all intro- 
duced by Lut Luse to all the people presant. We soon 
selected Partners for a dance and at it we went and had 
a good time. We danced until about one Oclock and after 

17 Horace B. Pumphrey, third sergeant of Company B, Fourteenth Iowa 

18 William B. Mahana, a son of Captain Bradley Mahana. 

VOL. XX — 25 


eating a splendid supper we returned to camp. Need I 
say that us Soldiers was great favourites with the Ladies 
that evening. We of Brass Button noteritery was all the 
rao-e After sleeping about four hours I was awakned in 
the morning at the roll of the acustomed Eevelle. After 
eating a good Breakfast we was ready for the march. 

Thursday, 7th. Left camp at Grenell at eight Oclock 
and marched twenty miles and reached Newton in Jasper 
Co We did not suffer any from want of provisions to 
day for the good people of Grenell filled our haversacks 
well before we left there so we had a plenty on this days 
march and made the march without any trouble and kept 
-cod order and kept in ranks. Allso we found the people 
of Newton very kind but business more dull than at Gre- 
nell Newton has a population of 1,500. Wm. Boyd and I 
obtained a pass from Lut Luse to go ahead of the com- 
mand in the afternoon in order to find Mr. Bain and Mr. 
Tef t [ but they lived so far from town that we thought we 
would not go to see them. They live about six miles from 
Newton so we did not go. We stayed in town until tlw 
command came along when we joined them and startec 
to go with them down into camp but we had not gone fai 
when Seargant Pumphrey came along and caught me b : 
the arm and says he let us go up town and get our sup 
per Well says 1 1 dont care. We turned round and wen 
back When we came up with the rear of the compan; 
whare Lut Schell was he asked us whare we was going 
We told him we was going up town to get our supper. A 
right says he and we went on and did get our supper an 
a good one to. After supper we went down into cam 
and found it full of Ladies who was singing songs an 
entertaining the Soldiers in every way they couK 
We done all we could to make it apear that their son? 


was listned to with pleasure and that the moral that was 
contained in many of them was duly apreciated by us. 
After they had finished singing we thought we should re- 
turn the compliment by singing one to so we Co. B. struck 
up and sang the Happy Land of Cannain which was re- 
sponded to by a Eev. Gentlemen from town in a neat 
little speech. After he had finished three cheeres was 
given for the people of Grenell Newton and vicinity long 
may they live in the enjoyment of heavens choicest Bles- 
sings. After they had all returned to their homes we took 
to our tents and layed ourselves down for a little rest. 

Friday, 8th. Eesumed our march this morning at nine 
Oclock and marched eighteen miles and encamped on 
Camp Creek fourteen miles east of De Moin we broke 
ranks a great deal this day in order to get provisions and 
was very sucsessfull finding the people very kind and will- 
ing to do any thing to make us comfortable. The men 
was very tired to night and many of them suffering from 
sore feet. My feet however did not give out yet and I got 
along finely. Lambert Martins feet was very sore this 
night so bad he could hardly walk. The night we was 
in camp here was very cold and disagreable and the men 
being very near worn out went to bed early. After all 
was still in camp I and a corprall and our Orderly Sear- 
gant went to the cook and asked him if he would cook us 
some chickens on the shares if we would get them. He 
said he would so when Co. B. Guards was in I went to 
Guard No 1 and told him I wanted to go out and take 
some men out with me. Well says he it is all right. So 
I got the Boys togather and out we went and paid our 
respects to an old Sescessionest that lived near by way 
of paying our respects to his hen roost and after getting 
a chicking or two apeice we returned to the camp and had 


a good mess of chickens that night and allso had the fun 
of & stealing them besides. It has been said that stolen 
fruit is sweet and I geus it is a true saying for nothing 

was relished more by me than that mess of chickens. On 
our way up to the house says Corpral Welling what if we 1 
should get catched at this. Oh says Orderly Seargant 
Dennis it dont make any difrerance. We are all Seargants. 
Let it rip. Who cares. We will get the chickens you know. i 

Well by the time the chickens was devoured it was one 
Oclock and we all went to bed and slept until morning. 

Saturday, 9th. Left camp at eight Oclock this morning 
and marched fourteen miles and reached Fort De Moin at 
three Oclock P. M. and encamped in the outskirts of the 
town in the forks of coon and De Moin rivers. Had a very 
pretty place for our camp and enjoyed ourselves finely. 
Found the people very kind but not the same good feeling 
toward the soldiers that was manifested at Grenell and 
Newton. When we came into our camping place Capt 
Pattee marched his company up to the left and pitched 
his tents. His company and Co. C. went to work and 
set up their tents and we got orders not to leave ranks 
and there we stood in ranks with our arms at an order 
and all attention. Pattee came up and says he Capt why 
dont you put up your tents over there why do you keep 
your men standing here for. Says Capt Mahanna 19 I shall 
not pitch my tents until I can pitch them on the left whare 
they should be that is the place for my company and 
when I get my rights I will break ranks and set up my 
tents and not one moment before. Why says Pattee what 
is the trouble. Says Mahanna you have marched your 
company to the left and pitched your tents whare you had 

19 Bradley Mahana was captain of Company B, Fourteenth Iowa Infantry, 
and Company L, Seventh Iowa Cavalry. 


no right to because it was a befter peice of ground for a 
camp. Move your company out here to the right whare it 
should be and all will be right and not until this is done 
My men shall not stack their arms mark that sir. So 
Pattee had to take up his tents and move them over to the 
right and we went to the left whare we should be and 
Pattee found that he could not fool Capt Mahanna much 
Well all passed on smoothly for a while until some of 
the Boys wanted to go up town and Lut Cooper 20 of 
Pattees company was Officer of the day and he would 
not let the Boys be out when they was provided with a 
pass from Our Captain. They came back and told Mahanna 
that the Officer of the day would not let them pass the 
Guard. Well says Mahanna I will pass you out come with 
me all who want to go up town, when about fifty of Co. 
B. started with him for town. He went to the out posts 
and told the Guard to pass these men out. Says the 
Guard I had orders not to let any one out. Says Capt 
Mahanna call the Officer of the Guard or the Officer of 
the day. He called for the Officer of the day No. 1. He 
came and Mahanna says to him I want you to pass these 
men out. Says Cooper I had orders from Capt Pattee 
not to let any one out. Says our Capt I want to know 
sir if you are going to pass these men out if you dont I 
will. Says the Officer do you mean that you wont obey 
the orders of our commanding Officer. Mahanna turned 
arround and says Boys pass out pass out. I will see 
whether you wont go out on a pass from a commissioned 
Officer and out the Boys went and Cooper went off swear- 
ing about Co. B. and Captain Mahanna. 
Sabath, 10th. Still at De Moin. I attended Church in 

20 Francis H. Cooper, first lieutenant of Company A, Fourteenth Iowa 
Infantry, and captain of Company K, Seventh Iowa Cavalry. 


the morning and evening at the Methodest chnrch. I 
went in charge of a squad of sixty men of Co. B. and 
many of them went to other churches. I think every one 
of Co. B. except the Guard was at church that day. The 
people appeared to be pleased to see us at the church and 
received us very politely and took great pains to see that 
we was provided with seats. We heard a very good ser- 
mon both in the morning and evening. At night he preached 
a sermon on the war and complimented us very highly 
and with dificulty the Soldiers refrained from cheering 
him in the midst of the sermon. We went to and from 
church in perfect order and made a very fine appearance 
and was complimented by the people of De Moin. 

Monday, 11th. Still at De Moin. To day we performed 
the painfull duty of following one of our fellow Soldiers 
from Co. C. to the grave. His name was Maxwell 21 and 
was from Wappello, Louisa Co., Iowa. He was burned 
with the honors of war. He was followed to the grave by 
the whole command in full uniform with unfixed Bayonets 
and arms reversed. The drums was all muffled which 
made them sound very solem indeed. We went from the 
camp to the hottell whare the Boddy was and formed m 
two ranks in front of the house. The Band then played 
one or two tunes and the Boddy was brought out before 
the coller company when the Band again played a very 
solem air. The corpse was then carried up to the right 
and the Guard arround it the Band in front. We was then 
brought to a right face and moved toward the grave yard 
which was about one mile distant. The Band played the dead 
march and nothing was heard but the solem sound of 
the muffled drums the steady step of the men and the 
subdued commands of the Officers. After we arrived at the 

21 Wilson S. Maxwell died at Des Moines on November 10, 1861. 



grave we was drawn up in two ranks at the mouth of the 
grave and three discharges was fired over his grave as 
soon as it was filled up. After this cerimony we returned 
to town at a quick step the Band haveing taken off the 
muffles. They played Yankey Doodle, the Girl I left Be 
hind me, and many other favourite airs. After we re 
turned to camp and stacked our arms and looked arround 
the camp was as still as a grave yard allmost not a loud 
voice was heard or any thing that would breake the silence 
and the solemnity of the scene. A large concourse of citi- 
zens allso followed us to the cemetary. 

Teusdaij, 12th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
nine Oclock and marched sixteen miles. To day we re- 
ceived only about half rations and Co. B again refused to 
march in ranks and feU out at every house to obtain the 
necessairies of life and subsistance for the march and our 
evenings meal. We are now in camp now as I am wright- 
ing some are singing others dancing some playing the 
violin some the clarenot and some the Gituar others play- 
ing some of their favourite plays and amusemints which 
gives the camp a cheerfull appearance. To night G. B. 
Zimmerman and Samuel Kirk are on the sick list but they 
are neither of them very bad and will probaly be better 
soon. I forgot to notice in the proper place that we came 
very near stacking arms and refuseing to march out of 
De Moin but our Capt got to hear of it and when our 
company was paraded for roll call he came out and talked 
to us about it. He did not say you must do so and so but 
merely advised us to keep up the reputation of the com- 
pany and to show the others that if Pattee was mean 
enough to cheat us we was brave enough to stand it with- 
out a murmur and he talked us right out of it and we 
broke ranks with shouts and laughter. We was not base 


enough to show any disrespect to our beloved Old Captain 
and when our Captain joined us at Newton he was received 
as a lot of children would receive their Parrent. When 
we saw him cumming the company fell in and came to a 
present arms and after he had returned the salute we gave 
nine cheres for Capt B Mahanna. 

Wednesday, 13th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven Oclock and marched twenty one miles and encamped 
on Coon Eiver near the town of Eeeding in Dallas County. 
At this place the men was obliged to waid the river the 
Bridg being gone. I did not wade the river and was de- 
termined not to go through the cold watter for it was as cold 
as ice. I waited until a waggon came along and then rode 
over on that. Many of the boys that wadded the river was 
sick for two or three days afterward. Eeeding is a small 
town of about 200 inhabatants and is mostly Irish people. 
While we was encamped here the Ladies visited us and 
sang some very pretty songs. We again sang the Happy 
Land of Cannain. It was new to them and was cheered 
by all pressent. We passed through Adell the county 
seat of Dallas County. It is the finest little town we passed 
through on our whole march. They have the finest court 
house I ever saw. Its population is about 500. 

Thursday, 14th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven Oclock and marched thirty four miles and encamped 
on the open Pararie near the town of Dalmanutha 22 a small 
town of about one hundred inhabitants. This day was our 
hardest days march since leaving Iowa City. We got 
very hungry and called at housess along the road but there 
was not many to call at. Sometimes we would go ten 
miles without seeing a single habitation. The command 

22 Dalmanutha in Guthrie County was at one time a prosperous stage 
route station but disappeared later, when the town of Casey was built.- 
Eistory of Guthrie and Adair Counties, Iowa (1884), p. 607. 



was much scattered. It was about seven miles from the 
advance to the rear Guard and the teams and men scat- 
tered all the way between them. I and Seargant Trask 
and Lut Schell Samuell Waldron Jos Crouse Ed Pinney 
and S. B. Zimmerman fell back to the rear and made up 
our mind that we would call at the first house we came 
to and get our supper. So when we came to a station called 
Bear Grove Station and we went in and asked if we 
could get our supper there. There was no one at home 
but the Ladies and they hesitated at first and then said 
if we would wait until they cooked it we could have some. 
Lut Schell asked them how long it would take them to get 
it up. They said about an hour. says Schell we will 
wait of course. After we had been there a short time and 
begun to talk about the war we found that we was talking 
to a lot of sescisionsts. They said it was good enough for 
us that we did not get enough to eat and that if we was 
fools enough to go to the war let us take what we could 
get. She said she had a son in the Iowa fourth Eegt and 
he w T as a fool and hoped that he was getting the same 
fare as we w 7 as. This raised our dander a little and Trask 
told her about what he thought of her and the south. She 
said she would like to see all the oficers in the northern 
army hung. Says I you had better look out how you talk 
says I there is one of our Officers at the same time point- 
ing toward Schell. She looked arround at him and sneer- 
ingly said, Oh he is a little young thing I would not be 
afraid of him myself. This raised a perfect roar and 
rather took dowm the Lutennant. Well after supper was 
ready and on the table we sat up without much cerimony 
and commenced to lay away the provisions at a fearfull 
rate. We did not take off our hats or caps canteens Haver- 
sacks or any thing. We eat everything that they had 


cooked in the house and after the table was swept clean 
and we all set back Trask who was sitting up to the table 
knawing a Bone of Beefe said dont quit boys because I 
have eat hearty. I am just beginning to get hungry. We 
then paid them our twenty cents apiece and expressed a 
wish that our army would come out victorious. We then 
went on in the direction of camp which was about two 
miles off. We arrived there about an hour after dark. 
The tents was all up and supper cooked and we sat down 
and eat another supper in camp and for once I was satis- 
fied. When we arrived in camp we found that the men 
was much dissatisfied about the way they had been treated 
and said they had not half enough to eat for supper after 
marching 34 miles and thought it was rather rough. This 
day we did not get a bit of dinner only what we begged 
any thing and was of course allmost starved when we got 
any thing and was of course allmost starved when we got 
to camp at dark and had to make a supper out of two Slap 
Jacks a piece of beefe about as large as a potato and 
some poor come. Was this not a shame? I think so at 

Friday, 15th. Eesumed our march this morning at eight 
Oclock and marched twenty miles and encamped on Turkey 
Creek in a fine boddy of timber the men very tired and 
the command much scattered the advance and rear Guards 
being about five miles apart. I started this morning with 
the front of the command and at night came in with the 
rear Guard. I and Seargent Trask fell back on purpose. 
When we got back to whare the rear Guard was we found 
that they was about five miles behind the command and 
was driveing three small hogs along with them that would 
weigh about 60 pounds apeice and was as fat as butter. 
I asked the corprall of the Guard what they was going 


to do with them hogs. Oh says he we are going to have 
some pork. Says Trask that is right we are in for that. 
says some of the Boys you will report us. No says I I 
wont do no such a thing. I asked them if they was going 
to kill them. They said they was so when we got down in 
a hollow out of sight we loaded a gun and shot two of them 
and skined them cut them up into small peices and 
divided it arround amongst the six. Guards and Trask 
and I got all our Haversack could hold. We brought it 
into camp and I knew I was to be Seargant of the Guard 
that night and I told Trask that I would get the cook to 
cook ours after they had all gone to sleep so we hid it in 
our tent untill they had all gone to sleep and I took it out 
and the cook cooked it for me and I carried it and put it 
into the tent for Breakfast and you bet we had a good 
Breakfast of fresh Pork that morning besides giving the 
two cooks all they could eat. But our good fortune did 
not end here. Five of the boys were out in the woods 
hunting squrils and came across a bee tree and about a 
barrell of honey in it. They came into camp and told me 
about it and wanted to know if I would let them out in the 
night to get it. Yes I told them I would pass them out. 
When Co. B. Guards was put on I took the two men who 
had two Buckets apeice to the Guard Beat No. 1. and told 
the guard who was a good fellow to let these men go out 
and come in when they wanted to and told him what they 
was after and they went out and brought in four Buckets 
full of honey and set it in the cook waggon and you better 
believe I had all that I could eat that night I and one of 
the cooks sat up and stole flour out of the commissary 
waggon and baked Flap Jacks and eat them and honey 
until we was nearly ready to bust and when I went to go 
the rounds I took a large peice of honey and gave a large 


peice to each Guard. This rather pleased them and no 
wonder. And another good Joke took place that night. 
When the Boys brought up the Honey they set a pan full 
of it just inside of the Captains tent. The Captain went 
to go out early in the morning and in a great hurry to and 
he steped right into the pan of honey with his stocking 
feet. When he came out to the Guard fire whare I was 
sitting he held up his foot to the light of the fire and says 
Cherry what in the world did I get into in the tent there. 
At the same time the honey was all over his foot. I 
roared out laughing for I could not help it. Oh says he 
you rascles are trying to get me into a scrape. As soon 
as I could quit laughing I explained it to him and he 
laughed as hard as I did at him and said it was a good 
Joke on him and the honey. The next morning we all had 
honey to eat on our cakes which was a rare treat to us 
you had better believe. 

Saturday, 16th. Left camp at Turkey Creek this morning 
at seven Oclock and [marched] twenty miles and reached 
Lewis, Cass County, and found it a very pretty town with 
a population of about five hundred. It has two stores two 
Hottels one drug store one crockrey store one Methodest 
Church a fine building one Drs Office Post Office a court- 
house one Blacksmith Shop one large waggon Shop and 
paint and repairing establishment. About one fourth of 
a mile from town runs a stream about as large as Black 
Creek in N. y called the Nitchenie Bottemy and on it is a 
large flouring mill in good order and a good run of busi- 
ness. At this place there is a splinded Bridge over the 
stream the best one I have seen since I left Iowa City. 
The Buildings in Lewis are very nice ones. They are all 
painted white that are of wood with nice yards and dore- 
yard fences and in fact it is a very pretty town. There is 


a great many of the houssess are made of red sand stone 
which makes the finest looking house I ever saw It i« 
as red as paint and are cut perfectly square and nice I 
think our land that is near there will prove a good invest 
ment at some future time. I was in both stores and they 
was both crowded with customers from the county. The 
population of the county is about 200 I believe This is 
what they told me at that place. The country arround 
there is high rolling Paraire the fineist I ever have seen 
since I came to Iowa without exception. It is ahead of 
the Pararie where you live but I am afraid that timber 
will be very scarce in that part of the state for I did not see 
but little near there but perhaps it is not so scarce as I think 
perhaps I did not get a good view of the country. It is 
only 45 miles from Council Bluffs. There is a good road 
leading from Lewis to that Place and is travled a great 
deal. The night we encamped here it rained and stormed 
all night but we was in the timber which protected us a 
good deal our tents was very warm and did not leak any 
at all and we enjoyed as good a nights rest as ever I did 
in my life. 

Sabath, 17th. Resumed the march this morning at eight 
Oclock and marched twenty five miles and encamped on the 
west Nitchenie Bottomey the men very tired and lame and 
suffering greatly from sore feet I among the rest. My 
feet was so sore that I could hardly walk at all but I took 
my time and got into camp about an hour after the rest 
of the command was in. Our dinner consisted of two hard 
crackers and plenty of creek watter. While we was in 
camp at this place one of our commissary waggons caught 
fire and burned the cover all off of it and in trying to 
put it out the men distroyed about two hundred pounds of 
Flour. When the fire broke out about twelve Oclock at 


night the Guards gave the alarm and every one was call- 
ing out fire fire and of all the climbing I ever saw that 
heat all. Sometimes five or six would go out of a tent 
dore all at once and land in a pile at the out side for we 
all thought that the high grass had got on fire and was 
comming into our camp and we knew if this was the case 
our tents was a goner for the grass was as high as my 
head and as dry as powder and our camp was in the midst 
of it. After the fire was put out it was fun to look at the 
men some of them had nothing but their shirts on some 
had their pants on and one Boot others had only their 
drawers. I tell you I had a good laugh over it to think 
how they got out of their tents. If the enimy had a come 
in at this time they could not have told us from a set of 
Indians. We are now only twenty five miles from Council 
Bluffs. We expect to go through to there to morrow if we 

have good weather. 

Monday, 18th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven and a half Oclock and marched 25 miles and en- 
camped on Mosquto Creek two miles from the Bluffs. 
The men allmost gave out to day. We had only two crackers 
a Slap Jack and a small piece of pork and a cup of coffie 
for Breakfast and no dinner at all. The men was much 
enraged at this kind of useage and a great deal of swear- 
ing was done you had better believe. Co. B. again refused 
to march in ranks and the whole command was much 
scatred. It was about five miles from the advance to the 
rear. I started at the head of the company in the morning 
and came in about five or six miles behind with the rear 
guard. I and the Guard stoped at a house and got our 
supper and got a good one to as it was thought such by 
us at that time. Pattee went ahead into the Bluffs and 
said he would have some bread in camp in time for supper 


so we trudged along with the expectation of getting a good 
supper at night but when we arrived at our camp Pattee 
was not there and had not been there or the Bread either 
The indignation of the men knew no bounds and we all 
declared openly before our Officers and Pattees Officers 
allso that we would never leave that camp until we was 
better provided for. Well we went to work and pitched 
our tents and waited for our Bread until after dark and 
it did not come so we went to work again allmost dead as 
we was to cook our slap Jacks and at it we went. Our 
Captain came arround and says he now deal out flour to 
these men untill they are satisyed if it takes all there is 
m the waggon and we had all the Slap Jacks we could eat 
that night and if it had not been for our good old Capt 
we would have fared worse then we did for he done all in 
his power to make things comfortable for us. It was not 
his blame that we did not get enough to eat no indeed. 
Some do not like Capt Mahanna but I do and the more 
I see of him the more I like him and there is not a man 
in this company but loves him. His enimies are among 
the cowardly stay at homes not among the soldiers that 
he has the honor to command. Let any man speak a word 
disrespectful of Captain Mahanna before one of Co. B. 
and he might as well slander the person himself it would 
not be resented any sooner. Pattee did not come into 
camp that night at all so much for his word. We did not 
find the people of Council Bluffs very patriotic. They 
treated us soldiers very cool indeed but we did not ask 
any odds of them you may rest ashured of that fact. 

Tuesday, 19th. Stil in camp at the Bluffs. Went up 
town to day expecting to get a letter from home but was 
disapointed. Come back to camp and wrote two letters to 
Iowa City one to Father I believe and one to Miss Ella 


g a nd allso wrote a communication to the 

[illegible] News and to Miss Starks. I thought if I could 
not receive any letters I would wright some at any rate. 
We was still expecting to get a boat to take us up the 
river but was disapointed for Pattee came down into camp 
to night and said we could not get any and we would be 
obliged to go on foot to the Fort. This was a stunner I 
tell you and the men went allmost mad about it and all 
said they would fight before they would go on foot until 
they was better provided for. 

Wednesday, 20th. Still in camp at the Bluffs. The men 
are thretening to stack arms if they are ordered to leave 
here without an asurance of being better provided for. 
Co. C is as bad as Co. B. and say they will stand by us 
in any thing we may do. 

Thursday, 21st. Eesumed the march to day at twelve 
Oclock and marched ten miles and encamped on Pigeon 
Creek ten miles north of Council Bluffs and two miles 
north of Crescent City a small Mormon Settlement of about 
three hundred inhabitants. When we received the Order 
to march Co A and C struck their tents and made prepara- 
tions to start but Co B was not to be deceived any farther. 
We was told that Pattee had hired six more teams and 
had loaded them with provisions but we told them if we 
saw the waggons with the provisions in them we would 
beleive it and go on and not untill then so we did not toutch 
a tent or one thing of our baggage. Every thing in our 
part of the camp looked as if we was going to remain 
there all winter, while Co A & C tents was all loaded their 
baggage all in the waggons their knapsacks on their guns 
in their hands all ready for a start. We laughed at them 
and asked them if they was traveling or going some place. 
They replyed that they intended to obey orders we might 


call it what we pleased. We replyed that we intended to 
obey all reasonable commands but we would not go any 
further without any thing to eat that we would fight there 
first. This silenced them and we sat arround taking our 
ease not a tent moved not an article of Baggage toutched 
or a team hitched up and we was waiting to see how it 
would terminate. While we was thus waiting Capt Pattee 
came down with the extra teams loaded as had been said 
with eatables and Co. B. went to work with a right good 
will to striking their tents and loading their Bagage and 
took their arms from the stacks fell into line and reported 
themselves ready for duity and we went on in the faithfull 
and cheerefull discharge of our duity but if those provi- 
sions had not came at that time we would not have started 
an inch until they did come we had made up our mind on 
that and was determined on that point. We fared very 
well from there to this place. We got all we could eat 
and that which was good to. The day we left the Bluffs 
we passed through the Out Skirts of the town. As we 
was passing allong I and the Orderly Seargant was walk- 
ing along togather we had our overcoats on and [they] was 
rather [heavy] . Says he let us fall back and put our coats 
on the waggons. Well says I I dont care if we do. I am 
rather [tired]. So we halted and put our overcoats on the 
waggon. Then says the Orderly let us go allong slow 
here and call at some house and get our dinner. Well 
says I I am in for that evry time. So we come along to 
a neat little white cottage and called in and asked for our 
dinner. The Lady of the house said we could have the 
best she had cooked in the house which was not very good. 
We sat up and eat our dinner which was very good (but 
I have got just as good at home before now) and while we 
was eating the rear Guard went past and we sit still and 

vol. xx — 26 


sliped them very neatly and had things onr own way the 
rest of the day and took it slow and easey and kept about 
five miles behind the command. We did not get into camp 
nntill after dark and got a ride with a kind old farmer for 
two or three miles at that. When I got in camp the boys 
was cooking their supper at the camp fires but I was not 
very hungry and did not pay much atention to them. I 
went up to the tent and got out my note Book and took 
down the incidents of the day. When it was time for 
roll call I went out and answered to my name. I thought 
this was all but when the guard was detailed and the 
Seargant anounced that Seargant Pumphrey would be 
Seargant of the Guard but he reported himself sick and 
could not act. When the Orderly turned arround to me 
and said you will be seargant of the Guard to night. Says 
I all right so I took the Guard and reported them to Lut 
ScheU who was Officer of the day. After the first releif 
was mounted a load of provisions for Pattees family came 
into camp and was unloaded in a pile by themselves and 
Pattee came to me and told me to take one Guard off 
the beat and lengthen the others out and place him over 
this load of provissions. I done as he directed and put the 
man at his post to Guard these articles amongst which 
was two Barrells of crackers one of which had no head 
in. When Co. B. Guards came on duity it came so that 
an old fellow by the Name of McCart was placed at this 
post and he being rather sharp on the track of eateables 
discovered the crackers, and when I came round in going 
the rounds he called out to me and says, Seargant do you 
know what is in these Barrells. Says I no I dont know 
what they contain. Says he come here and see. So up 
I went and there was a Barrell of crackers with the head 
out. You bet we lived high that night. I eat all I could 


and took enough into the tent for our breakfast. I told 
every guard that was on that post that night and they 
had plenty to eat you may rest ashured. That night was 
very cold and windy and once along towards morning I 
went the rounds again. When I came to the beat whare 
Ed Pinney was he was not to be found. I called out to 
him and found him down behind a waggon out of the 
wind. Says he it is so cold up there I thought I would 
get down here out of the wind. Says I all right stay there 
if you can get out of the wind. It is all right. The next 
Beat was Archie 23 and the next ones was German Mc- 
Cardles. When I got up to theirs I found them seting 
down in the tall grass out of the wind smokeing. The next 
ones was W McCaddons and I found him down on annother 
mans beat by a fire warming himself. He asked if it was 
any harm for him to go down there to warm. Says I I 
dont think it is any harm to warm yourself such a night 
as this at least I mean to warm if I can and you are a 
fool if you dont do so to. 

Friday, 22nd. Resumed the [march] this morning at 
eight Oclock and marched twenty miles and encamped at 
Calhoun a small town in Harrison County. This day was 
very cold and windy. I and Seargeant Trask fell back 
and took our time. The rear Guard over took us and Ave 
went on to gather for a mile or two and we concluded that 
we would disband the Guard and call and get our supper 
at some house along the road. So when we came to a 
house we all stoped ten of us and asked if we would get 
our supper. They said we could and set to work prepar- 
ing it and a very good supper it was to. I will tell you 
what we had the pleasure of putting out of sight that 
night at that kind old farmers house. We had Buckwheat 

This is probably Archibald McNeil, also of Iowa City. 


Cakes Sorgum warm buiscut hot corn bread butter roast 
Beefe come shugar cream potatoes and all the trimmings 
that was needed to set it off to a good advantage. After 
we had finished eating we offered to pay for our meal 
but not one cent would they take. The old Grey hared man 
of the house said all he asked of us was to be good boys 
do our duity as soldiers and maintain the good name and 
honor of Iowa. We ashured him that we would try and 
do this and thanked him kindly and started on in the direc- 
tion of camp which was about two miles distant. When 
we arrived there we found the boys hard at work cooking 
their supper of Slap Jacks and Beefe. The camp was in 
a wheat feild near a large pile of straw which provided 
ns with good bedding. We filled our tents neerly half full 
and banked the tent up on the out side about half way to 
the top which made them very warm and we slept soundly 
all night. 

Saturday, 23rd. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven Oclock and marched fifteen miles and encamped 
near the town of Little Sioux a small town situated on 
Little Sioux river. Its population is about three hundred. 
The day was very windy and none of the companies pre- 
tended to march in any kind of order at all. We walked 
behind and at the side of the waggons in order to be pro- 
tected from the wind. When we was cooking our Break- 
fast the wind blew a perfect gale and blew our Batter 
full of straw and ashes and all manner of dirt and when 
the cakes was baked there was more straw and ashes in 
it than there was flour but we did not care for that for 
it made more cakes and any thing to get more to eat. We 
did not care if it was half dirt. When we started and got up 
in town I called at a saloon and got a good drink of Brandy 
and I am not ashamed to own it either. I needed some- 


thing to stimulate me on such a cold morning as that and 
was determined to have it to and felt relieved after I had 

Sabath, 24th. Left camp at eight Oclock and marched 
eighteen miles and encamped two miles south of the town 
of Onawa a small tow. The population I should think 
was about three hundred. It was a very pretty town 
the finest little town we have seen since we left Lewis 
The day was well observed by the men and we had a very 
quiet and pleasant march no singing or hurahing or any 
thing to mar the pleasure of the holy sabath day, this is 
I think a credit to us as soldiers. 

Monday, 25th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven Oclock and marched twenty miles. We marched aU 
the forenoon without seeing a single dwelling after leaving 
Onawa. We halted at a house for to eat our dinner and 
in so doing drank the mans well dry which he did not thank 
us for but after we had the watter we did not care for 
his thanks. I bought some butter and honney at this 

place which we eat with a great deal of 24 

Wednesday, 27th. Left Sioux City at eleven Oclock and 
marched five miles and crossed Sioux Eiver on a ferry 
and encamped for the first time in Dakota. When we all 
got safely across we looked back perhaps some of us for 
the last time upon Iowa. We then struck up and sang 
Oh aint I glad to get out of the Willderness. This day 
we encamped on the same ground that Gen Harney 
camped on when he was comeing out to build this fort 
here. He had a fight with the Indians and killed many of 
them and allso lost some of his own men. We could see 
some traces of his camp and the fight yet when we was 
there. This day I had the honor to command Co. B. 

24 A part of the manuscript is missing here. 


Every other Officer was up in town at the time the Order 
was given to march bnt myself and Corpral Snook so all 
we had left to do was to make the best of it so he went with 
the advanced Guard and I marched the company out to 
Sioux Eiver. Our Capt and Luts did not get in until after 
dark in fact I had the whole command of things and got 
allong with it finely to. While I was at Sioux City I re- 
ceived a letter from Father written in answer to the one 
I wrote from Marengo. This was thankfully received and 
read with pleasure. Lutenant Luse got the mail for our 
company but mine was not in that package and after 
supper I started up town to see if mine was not there tor 
Jos Grouse told me at the Bluffs that his father had wrote 
to him that Father had wrote to me and directed to Sioux 
City but before I got to the Office I met McCart who had 
my letter. Ton bet I was pleased. I went back to camp 
and answered it immediatly. I wrote in the Captains 
tent whare I allways went when I wanted to wright out 
of the noise. To night the grass got on fire and caused 
another alarm and got every man out of his tent about 
twelve Oclock at night. You bet I did not go out of the 
tent and warm bed. I thought when the tent began to 
smoke would be time enough to deprive my self of a good 
warm nest. The men was in the best of spirrits thinking 
that they was allmost at their journeys end being only 
one hundred and thirty miles from Fort Eandall. 

Thursday, 28th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
seven Oclock and marched only fifteen miles and went 
into camp at Elk Point. The reason of our going mto 
camp here was this. A severe snow storm set m when 
we had gone about five miles and of all the storms I ever 
saw this was the worst. We could hardly keep our feet 
at all the wind was blowing a perfect hurricane and the 


snow was coming in perfect blinding sheets and in one 
solhd mass. Besides this it was very cold and the men 
nearly froze. The wind was directly in onr faces. We 
halted at noon and got all np in a crowd behind an old 
log house and stood and eat our peice of bread which was 
troze as hard as a stone. It was so hard that we had to 
break the loaves apart over the waggon wheels when deal 
mg it out such was our diner that day. We went on how- 
ever without saying a word for no one was to blame for it 
being cold. I and several of the boys called at a house and 
got all the Bread and milk we could eat. This reminded me 
of home again. When we got to Elk Point station Pattee 
gave orders to go into camp that it was to bad for men 
to march such a day as that. We had intended to march 
thirty miles that day but the storm stoped us at fifteen 
the snow was about six inches deep and we scraped the 
snow away with a shovle and set our tents and got some 
Buckwheat straw for our beds. We built large camp fires 
out of logs which was plenty. We made a large fire right 
at the dore of our tent and there was a Guard fire right 
behind it so we slept as sound as ever I could wish to. 
We had a good supper that night in camp and you bet it 
was relished. 

Friday, 29th. Eesumed the march this morning at 
eight Oeloek and marched fifteen miles and encamped 
near Vermillion. The population of this place is about 
two hundred. It is said to be the largest town in Dakota 
and is the Capitol of this Territory. It is on the Bank of 
the Mo. river and is a very pretty site for a town. Several 
of the boys went up in town to night and got tight as 
Bricks but the Captain did not hear of it. If he had they 
would have been sorry for it I tell you. Our Orderly 
Seargent and I came into town to gather and was behind 


all the rest. When we came to the hotell we thought we 
would go in aud warm. What was the Orderlys surprise 
to find one of his old friends there and that he was the 
proprietor of the house which was a good one to. He 
made us stay for supper and stay all night with him allso 
so after we eat our Supper we went down into camp and 
remained there untill after roll call and then went hack 
and slept on a good feather Bed and eat a good Breakfast 
in the morning. This was nice was it not. Well you may 
think what you please we called it O. K. we did exactly 
(but I have often got just as good at home). 

Saturday, 30th. Left camp this morning at eight Oclock 
and marched twenty two miles and encamped on James 
Eiver We crossed this stream on the ice. The men was 
very tired this night. I was very tired and cold when 
I came into camp and went to a large fire and warmed 
myself. After I began to get warm I felt sick and had the 
cold chills run over me. I went up to the Captains tent 
as soon as I saw I was going to be sick. I went into the 
tent and sat down by the Captains Stove and as soon as 
I done so the Captain remarked why Cherry are you not 
sick I told him that I did not feel very well but thought 
I would get better when I got warmed through good again 
He sot up and went to his trunk and took out a flask ot 
Brandy and gave me some which helped me as soon as I 
had taken it. Mrs. Snook" came in then and she made me 
some tea with some Brandy and ginger in it which warmed 
me up very quick. They allso made me stay in there 
for supper and I got a good one to for our Officers lived 
at the top of the pile. I remained in the Officers tent until 
bed time and then went out into my own tent and went to 
bed and slept soundly and waked up in the morning as 

2 s Probably the wife of Eden H. Snook, a private in Company B. 


well as ever. While we was here an old Irishman by the 
name of Cannon stole a blanket and sold it for whiskey 
to an old Frenchman that lived near. He was caught at 
it and reported to the Captain who immediately ordered 
him arrested and sent a corporal with six men to get the 
Blanket and bring it back into camp. The Corprall went 
and done as he was directed. When the Blanket was re- 
turned the Captain put a board upon the theifs back with 
this inscription on it / stole a blanket and sold it for 
whiskey. He was then put in charge of a corprall and 
marched all over the whole camp to let the men all read it. 
After this was done he was put on Guard and made to 
stand Guard all night. After he was put on Guard he 
told the Officer of the Guard that if he would come and 
stand Guard in his place he would bring in sixteen of the 
finest chickens he ever saw and he could have half. The 
Officer told him that he was not standing Guard as much 
as he was. I will bet he wont steal another Blanket very 
soon again. 

Sabath, December 1st. Left camp at James Eiver at 
seven Oclock and marched seventeen Miles and encamped 
on the open Pararie near a traders house which was 
about two miles from timber. This I think was the coldest 
day I ever experianced. I froze my nose my cheeks and 
chilled all my fingers on my left hand. We could not keep 
warm no way we could fix it. We marched some of the 
way on double quick until we would get out of breatli and 
then we would not be warm. I thought I would certainly 
freeze before I got whare there was a fire but I got along 
very well much better than some of my companions. Some 
of the men froze their feet and could not walk at all the 
next day. We went out on the bare Paraire to cam]). 
There was not a stick of wood to make a fire with and \hv 


wind was blowing a gale that was sharp enough to shave 
the hare from ones head and we was standing arround 
putting up our tents allmost froze. After the teams was 
unloaded they went for wood but it being two miles off 
it was some time before they could go that distance and 
cut it and get back. I dont believe no set of men ever 
sufferd more than we did that night hungry cold and 
nothing to warm us, was not a very cheering prospect 
to us but after the wood came and we got our fires made 
and our supper cooked and eat we felt better. We all 
went to bed early and slept comfortably and warm. In 
fact I never slept more soundly in my life but when we 
pitched our tents I had no other idea than that some of 
the men would freeze to death before morning, but we all 
got up in the morning all right and in the best of spirrits. 

Monday, 2nd. Left camp at nine Oclock and marched 
13 miles and encamped again on the open Parairie. The 
day was very pleasent and we had a very pleasent march. 
We went into camp about two Oclock. We had to bring 
our wood four miles this time but it was not very cold and 
we was not as hungry as we was the night before and we 
did not mind it much. I was sick again to night and was 
allso on as Seargent of the Guard but could not act. Cor- 
pral Snook took my place. I was never much sicker in my 
life than I was for a while that night. I went up to the 
Officers tent again to sit beside the stove and Mrs Snook 
made me another cup of tea that releived me wonderfully. 
They insisted on me siting up again and eating supper 
with them but I was so sick that I could not eat. I thanked 
them kindly and set stil by the stove which apeared very 
comfortable to me just then. After Mrs. Snook had 
docterd me up I went into my tent and went to bed. The 
other boys fixed the blankets in arround me and done 


every thing they could to make me comfortable. You may 
rest ashured that I felt truley thankfull to them for their 
kindness and hope I may be able to repay them some time 
for their trouble. If it had not been for the kindness of 
Mrs. Snook and that of my mess mates that night I would 
have sufferd more than I did and by the way I will say 
that Mrs. Snook is the best woman I ever saw. She was 
like a mother to all of us. When any of us was sick it 
seemed a pleasure to her to administer to their wants and 
to try and make them comfortable. Next comes my mess 
mates I dont beleive there ever a lot of brothers that was 
more kind to one another than they was. It seemed to be 
the aim of every one of them to make themselves instru- 
ments to add to the comfort of the others and all done 
every thing we could to make it pleasant for one another. 
There was not a short word spoken during our whole 
march. Every thing passed of pleasantly and agreeably 
to all I think. 

Teusday, 3rd. Eesumed the march at nine Oclock and 
marched twenty five miles all the way over an open 
parairie. We did not see a house tree stone stump or 
fence or in fact any thing out side of our command but 
sky and Pararie untill we was within two miles of our 
camping place. Here we came to a ledge of rocks and 
some Wigwams and a few Indians. These was the first 
Indians we had seen. They was quite a curiosity to us all. 
We encamped on a small Pararie creek this night and had 
a splendid camp and a good supper. 

Wednesday, 4th. Left camp this morning at seven 
Oclock and marched sixteen miles over the Pararie with- 
out seeing a single man or any thing out side of our com- 
mand. We received orders this morning to take our guns 
and carry them in order to show our strength (for they 


had been hauled in the waggon all the way from Council 
Bluffs). Pattee went on in the stage the night before and 
left the command to Capt Mahanna and it was for once 
conducted right. We passed through the Indian Agency 
and halted here a short time to rest. We found several 
white families here which apeared to be very respectable 
people and well informed. This agency is whare the 
Sioux Indians received their Annuities from the Govern- 
ment. The Agent from all accounts is a rascall and cheets 
the Indians out of their just dues. The Indians surrounded 
the Agency about two thousand strong and thretned to 
burn it. A messenger was sent to this place for troops 
and Lut Tennet 26 went down with about one hundred men 
and drove off the Indians. This hapened last fall. The 
Indians went off on a Buff alow hunt and have not returned 
yet. The Officer of this post dismissed the Agent and 
had a new one appointed which is no better than the other 
and there is much dissatisfaction among the Indians. They 
have made their threts that they will burn the Agency when 
they return from the hunt and if they atempt that we will 
have to go down there and attend to them. The interpeter 
says that they can muster eight thousand warriors if they 
try. This will give us a pretty hard rub but I geus we can 
manage them. We will give them the best we have at any 
rate, and that is as good as any one can do. We encamped 
on the Bottom about two miles from the Agency and the 
camp was full of Indians. They was all well armed and 
equiped but are in a state of starvation allmost. When 
our Guard was mounted they was told to pick a chee which 
means to leave. They understood and left very soon after 
getting the orders. They did not apear to like this much 

26 Lieutenant Thomas R. Tannatt was in command of the regular troops 
at Fort Randall. 


but if we had let them stay in camp untill after dark they 
would have stole every thing we had. You bet the Boys 
that was on Guard kept their eye peeled that night and 
walked their beat pretty steady to. The boys was in high 
glee to night to think they was so near Eandall we being 
only sixteen miles from that place. 

Thursday, 5th. Left camp at nine Oclock and marched 
to Fort Kandall D. T. We marched about seven miles and 
then crossed the river on the ice. We lost our road before 
we got to the river and did not know whare to go so we 
got an Indian for a guide and he took us through all right. 
We arrived at this place about three Oclock on the 5th of 
December 1861. When we got near the place we was met 
by Capt Pattee who told us that we would be obliged to 
go into camp two days there in the woods to give the 
Eegulars time to get out of the quarters. We did not like 
this much but had to make the best of it so we set up our 
tents again and went to work cooking our supper after 
the old fashion. We remand in camp that night and the 
next day and the next untill about noon when we went 
up and took possion of our own quarters. The Eegulars 
left on the sixth. We went out in full rig to see them off 
and gave them three hearty cheeres and they in turn gave 
three for the Iowa Vollenteers. On the night of the fifth 
we all received an invitation to attend the Theatre and 
of course we accepted and all went up and was very 
agreabley entertained. The performance was very good 
as good as ever I saw. At the close the actors sang a 
song they had composed for the Ocassion called a well- 
come to the Iowa Vollenteers which was very good and was 
cheered loudly by us all. So ended our first night at Fort 
Eandall. We keep up the theatre still but I have not 
attended it yet. They say it is very good. They had a 


performance last night. It is free to all. Besides this 
we have a Lyeceum which is well attended and is very 
interesting. The subject that was discussed last Thursday 
night was resolved that Wimmin should have the right of 
sufferage. I was on the afirmative of this question and 
got beat to. It was decided in favour of the negitave. The 
question for the next evening is resolved that the Peru- 
sale of fictitous works is bennifical. I am on the affini- 
tive of this allso. I think I can substantiate my part of 
this argument. We allso have a Sabath School which is 
well attended. Capt Mahanna is the Superintendent and 
L. A. Martin is one of our teachers. It is very interesting. 
We allso have a Good Templars lodge. I do not belong 
to it and of course can not tell you much about it. We 
have a Billiard room and two splendid Tables. In fact 
we have all all we could ask for to amuse ourselves with 
we allso have a good Library containing about two hun- 
dred volumes of very interesting works. We have a Sut- 
lers store with a good stock of goods and things is as 
reasonable as we could expect to get them. We can get 
any thing we want as well without the mony as with it. 
It is entered on the books and taken from our wagges. Our 
quarters are very comfertable and convenient each room 
is eighteen feet square and is ocupied by sixteen men. 
There is a double Bunk in each corner which will accomo- 
date four men two below and two above. We have all the 
blankets we need. Our rooms are cealed up in the inside 
with matched cedar which makes them as warm as if they 
. was plastered. We have a good large stove in the centre 
of the room and plenty of good wood to burn. We allso 
have looking glasses combs brushes and all things needed 
to make ourselves look slick. We have good Boxes to keep 
our clothes in to keep them from the dust. We have wash 


Pans towells watter buckets brooms ash Pans shovls 
pokers and a full kit of things to keep house with. We 
take our regular turns at keeping the room in order. 
Archie is on duity in the room to day and it looks as neat 
as a school marm. My clothes are all whole my socks have 
not got a hole in them yet. We have large army over 
coats now that we received since we came here. They are 
heavy cloth of a sky blue collor. They come down below the 
knee and have a large cape that comes down to the waist so 
we are warmly clothed. The weather has not been very cold 
since we came here the coldest it has been was down to 
twenty below zero. We have had no snow of any acount. 
We have about an inch of snow now and that is the most 
we have had. We get plenty to eat and more then we can 
eat. I have about a half a loaf of bread in my box now 
that I could not eat in the morning. We have Beefe or 
Pork Bread and Coffie. We have Beefe three days in the 
week and pork four days. When we have pork we have rice 
in our soupe when we have Beefe we have Beans. We 
have an excellent cook and our fare is allso good. On 
sabath days we have warm buiscut roast Beefe and Pie 
and molassas this is quite a treat to us but we all got it 
at home and thought nothing of it. Well we will learn to 
apreciate a good home when we get back. Several of 
Co. B have been promoted since we come here. Our second 
Seargent Trask has been promoted to Seargant. Major 
J. T. Crouse has the apointment of asistant Commissary. 
C. M. Bell is apointed overseer over the saw mill which 
is a splendid thing. It is the best mill I ever saw. It cost 
about $40,000. It is not in operation at pressent however 
there being no need of lumber at the post. The duty 
here is not very hard. Privates only comes on duty oneo 
in two weeks or once in fourteen days corprals comes on 


once in nine days and the Seargants once in twelve days. 
I am on duity to morrow my duty is not very hard how- 
ever. I need not go out of the Guard house from morn- 
ing till night only to go to my meals. I tell you a small 
petty Office is better than none, it exemps one from Guard 
duity which is quite an item I tell you. We get the mail 
here on Wednsdays and Saturdays, twice a week. I dont 
know as there is any thing more to tell you about my 
tramp to this place. I will give you a list of my room 
mates. It is this A. E. Cherry Seargant L. A. Marfan 
Corprall J. M. Welling Corprall S. P. Hughes A. E. Clear- 
man S. F. Adair E. F. Thompson W. T. Boyd W. A. Mc- 
Caddon I. C. Jepson E. L. Pinney J. T. Crouse A. L. 
McNeil Alex Euth Samuel and Wm Waldron. Dont you 
think we have a good mess? I think so at least. They 
are all fine fellows I can tell you that. I received a letter 
from Tom Piney one from Amos Boss one from James 
Shaw and one from James and Dunwiddie. The mail 
came in to day but nothing for me. Amos Boss wrote 
that he was in the oil Business and was making money. 
He said he had cleared $2000 in eight days he bought it 
for $2.50 and sold it for $7.90 

Fort La Framboise Dakota Territory 

Thursday Night May 7th/63 

Friends at home. 

Our mail arrived here this afternoon from Fort Eandall 
much to our gratification I assure you and in it I received 
two letters from home which was as ever wellcome. One 
W as from Ellisia of April 6th the other from Father and 
Mother of the 24th. I received letters from Lieut Culver 
Abbie Libbi James Miss McCreney and one from Crouse 


at Fort Randall, who is now acting commissairy Sergt or 
a. a. c. S. as it is called in the Military phraseoligy. I was 
pleased to hear of cousin James Culvers visit and that 
he had located near you for a time at least. I hope he may 
like it and remain in Iowa and finally make it his home in 
the glorious Parerie State. Give him my respects and 
tell him to write me and I will answer promptly. I was 
pained to hear of Mr. Wigtens illness. I hope he may yet 
recover to serve his country in the field or at least re- 
turn to his home to enjoy the benefits of a peace, when 
it shall be brought about. I seen a letter from Sergt 
major Trask clerk for Gen Cook at Sioux City which stated 
that the 6th Cavalry was expected soon at Sioux City and 
that a Boat had arrived there with 6000 rations and that 
another boat was expected every day. He speaks in high 
terms of Gen Cook and staff and says he thinks the men 
will like him. I am glad to hear of that. He allso stated 
that the two companies of the 41st at Fort Randall and 
perhaps Co B would accompany the expedition against the 
Indians. This is good news. Another rumor says we 
have been transfered to the 7th Iowa Cavalry. This is 
allso good news but not at all reliable. I shall be glad when 
more troops arrive and we shall have company, and this 
for more than one reason to. There was some Indians 
arrived here some time ago and reported the Unk pa pas 
Sans Arks and Black Feet Sioux all coming in to trade 
and trouble is feared with them but we feel confident that 
we can hold our position against any odds. 

These Indians made a feast when they came in and told 
the Yanktonais that they ought to leave here and make 
those fellows with blue coats leave allso. The Yanktonais 
informed them they should not leave and that tlioy was 
going to stand by the traders who had befrended and fed 

vol. xx — 27 


them all winter and that the Soldiers had treated them well 
and they would fight with them and all die togather. Thus 
you will see the Yanktonais are on our side. They number 
about two hundred Lodges and about eight hundred War- 
riors. They have airways befrended the whites and are 
treated very kind by them in turn. 

On the first the detachment gave a feast to the fool 
band who figured so conspicuously in the rescue of those 
white prisoners from the Santees. 27 There was only six of 
the fool band there however all the rest being off on a 
hunt— I will give you the name of some of them that did 
not belong to the fool band. First, Young Bears rib whose 
father was killed while defending the whites at Fort Peirre 
last spring a noble yong man. Next was Drag the Bock, 
White Crane and White Balk (or) Two Lance (as he is 
sometimes called). These three was the ones who went 
up after that little girl last winter. Next was Bone nec 
lace the head chief of the Yanktonais here. Scratch was 
allso present a noted chief of the tribe. Asside from 
these was the six of the fool band and allso red Dog, and 
Bed Vine and Crazy Dog. 

All these Indians went after prisoners the first time 
except Young Bears rib and crazy dog. Crazy Dog was 
the one who bought the little girl for white crane and 
the two others that went from here last winter. He was 
camped near the Santees. He gave his only horse for 
her and then bid them come away with her and he re- 
mained to try and buy the other prisoners and after trying 
in vain him and his squaw came down here three hundred 
miles on foot and had a large dog to carry his provission 
for him. What do you think of that friends. Is not that a 

27 For an account of the rescue of the captives by the Fool Band of the 
Sioux see Pattee's Dakota Campaigns in the South Dakota Historical Collec- 
tions, Vol. V, pp. 286, 287, 350. 


patern of principle and feeling worthy of being inmrita 
ted by white men. Need I say crazy dog is allways well- 
come to our quarters and our table. I wish you could 
have been at the feast and seen them all arround the table 
They were waited upon by the soldiers with as much 
gusto as could be expected of an Astor House ebony white 
apron. Drag the rock and Bone nec Lace made short 
speeches which was full of warning and friendship and 
assured us that when these Indians came from above they 
would be on our side and fight with us in the fort. My 
time is haf up and over and I think I can stand it a short 
time and one year and a half if nessisary. I will wait 
with patience at any rate. I was glad you thought so 
much of my communication to the Union Village Journal. 
I feered it might not be worthy of a place in the collums 
of that sheet. Glad it was axcepted however. I have writ- 
ten several communications to the Press at Iowa City. 
Have you seen them? I have received all the papers con- 
taining them. I will take mothers advice concerning my 
corespondents and not get fast so I cannot untie it with 
my teeth, but what of Wapello and a union tell me please. 
I was glad to hear of so much improvement at the old 
homestead by way of trees and shrubery. Keep on and 
I wont know the old place when I return but I think I can 
find out where Cherry lives. 

I had a letter from Cleveland in the 22nd this mail. It 
was quite friendly. They were at Vixburgh or near there. 
I am glad to hear that you have got a good minister. I 
hope he may suit the old foggies and allso the fashionable 
people and serve such a jargle as has allways been kept 
up in that church. 

The Boys are nearly all in good health only two eases 
of sickness both of these are scurvy and I am sorry io 


say Archie is one of the victims. It is not bad and I think 

by D r care they will get better. I hope so at least. 

Archie never hears from home at all never has had but 
2 letters from home since he entered the service. I know 
he is lonesome and anxious and would like to hear from 
them. He airways asks about you all at home there as if 
he was one of the family and I show him all your letters. 
I do wish you would all write to him. Some of you write 
every little while. It would do him good I know. Wont 
you do it for a fellow soldier of mine and an old friend. 

I remain your most obdt. 


Paper is scarce you will preceive. 

Fort La Framboise Dakota Territory 

Sabath July 5th/63 

Friends at home. 

Yesterday our mail arrived but I received "narry" 
a letter from home, or any other place much to my dissa- 
pointment. I will write one however home, for your pe- 
rusal. Perhaps you can gather some information from it. 

I am well and killing time as well as I can under existing 
circumstances which are anything but pleasent or favor- 
able, for it becomes my duty to anounce the death of two 
of my fellow soldiers since the 28th of June. Ed Pinney 
died on that day and died very sudenly. He was not very 
well on the 27th but was up arround all the time and eat 
his meals with the rest of the boys on the morning of the 
28th. The team was going to Fort Peirre and he said he 
would go down and get some medicin he rode down and 
talked laughed and joked and got out of the wagon him- 
self and walked into the Hospital and was to all appear- 
ances no worse until about half past five that evening 


when he was taken with a congestive chill and died at ten 
minutes past six that night-this sad occourance has cast 
a gloom over the whole Co. but he was not the last 

Kusell Bartlett went to the Hospital the same day Ed 
was buried and died in the same way on the 2nd of July 
Very suden allso. The Dr was much down hearted at this 
sad state of affairs and has got the co in very good 
health again. 

He issued an Order that no buiscuit should be eat, and 
no bacon but pleanty of beef. That there should be roll 
call at 4 Oclock in the morning drill at fifteen minutes 
past four breakfast at five dinner at 12 Oclock supper at 
five and drill again at six in the evening roll call at nine 
at night taps at quarter past nine and no sleeping in day 
time at all. That we must exercise more. That is the 
kind of a Dr he is worth his weight in gold. Samuel 
Waldron is now in Hospital but is nearly well. Will be 
ready for duty in a few days. I am in hopes so at least. 

All the other boys from Pleasant Valley are well, and 
in good spirits. 

We received Orders to cross the river when the trans- 
port "Belle Per arte" arrived here with supply s. It is now 
expected here every hour. It left Eandall before the mail 
did and it reached here last night. The Order read as 
follows the steemer "Belle Perarie" will proceed to Fort 
Peirre and land her cargo at a point about three miles 
above and oppisit. The Co of Wissconsin troops on board 
will land and guard the supplys. Co B 41st Kegt Iowa 
Vol. will cross on the boat and encamp with the other 
Co and await Orders. The ranking Officer wil assume 
command of the whole. 

by Order of Brig Gen A. C. Sully. 


So you will see we will cross as soon as this boat arrives 
which I hope will be soon— The entire expedition under 
Gen Sully is now this side of Eandall as it was there when 
the mail left. It is expected here in a day or two. Lieut 
Col Pattee is Ordered to Sioux City to command this dis- 
trict in the absence of Gen Sully. His head Qrs will be 
at Sioux City Iowa. What will be done with us is more 
than I can tell now. I cant even geus any where near it. 
Time will tell. I dont know of any more news at this 
time so I will stop. There is two disserters from the 6th 
Iowa Cavalry to be shot at Eandall soon so some of the 
boys wrote up here to me. Good for them. You please 
all write soon and write to Archie. He gets no letters, 
from any person and he inquires after you every mail. 
Write to him wont you at home and oblige. 

Your most obdt 


Fort La Framboise July 10th/63 Morning 
There has been no boat here yet and we cannot tell why 
it is not here. Our Co under command of Lieut Col Pat- 
tee starts down the river on sabath morning. We will go 
to Peirre and cross the river and camp that night and 
start the next morning for Eandall if we dont meet the 
General before. The Cavalry under Maj Ten Broecke 28 
will f oUow one day in our rear. We leave on the account 
of being out of rations having only 6 days rations on 
hands, to take us to Eandall short allowance. The Col 
leaves without orders. He says he wont keep men here 
any longer. 

I have a Eobe that Mr. La Framboise 29 gave me and 

28 Edward P. Ten Broeck was appointed major in the Sixth Iowa Cavalry 
on October 21, 1862. He was made lieutenant colonel on June 22, 1864. 

29 Probably Francois La Framboise, a nephew of Joseph La Framboise, 
who was in charge of the fort. 


Archie has one. We will pack them up with the other 
boys robes and send them to Luse and Brother at Iowa 
City where you can get them. Mine is marked T W 
Cherry. Archies is marked J. S. Cherry. You can call 
there and get them. If there should be any back charges 
you can pay them there. 

Tuesday, July 5, 1864. 30 
Broke camp at 4 Oclock and marched 32 miles to Beaver 
Creek. Fine creek. Men and Horses very tired indeed 
Ox team did not get in until long after dark. Bear Guard 
with it. Some Bain to night. Passed Goose Lake. Nice 
Lake stoney Shores. 

Wednesday 6 

Left camp at 7 Oclock. Morning quite rainy. Had time 
getting cross creek over two hours crossing. Crossed a 
very bad creek on road. Bridged it with grass and dirt 
Camped at 2 Oclock. No wood. Chips used for fuell for 
the first time since starting good wood. Day fine. 

vZ^VT^ T^ 1 Genera ' SulIy left Fort StdI y °* J<™ 28, 1864. 
The Sixth Iowa Cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel Samnel M. Pollock commanding- 

ttree compames of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, Lieutenant Colonel John 

Pattee commanding; two companies of the First Dakota Cavalry, commanded 

l\ £ ^ MinCT; f0UI C ° mpanie3 of m — a ""own - 

Brackett's Minnesota Battalion, commanded by Major Alfred B. Brackett- 

an independent company of Indian sconts, commanded by Captain Christian 
Stufft, and a battery, under Captain Nathaniel Pope, made up the First 
•Brigade. In the Second Brigade, commanded by Colonel Minor F Thomas 
were ten companies of the Eighth Minnesota Infantry, under the command' 
of Lieutenant Colonel Henry C. Eogers; six companies of the Second Min- 
nesota Cavalry under Colonel Robert N. McLaren; and two sections of the 
Third Minnesota Battery, under Captain John Jones. The whole force 
numbered about 2200 men.-War of tke Xeoellion: Official Becords, Series 

n w „ ' ' PP ' 131 ' 142 ' fish's Dakota's First Soldiers in South 
Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. IX, pp. 273, 274. 


Thursday 7 

Lay in camp. Genl came from B[nlegible] Encamped 
12 mUes from Missouri. Day fine. 2d Brigade" overtook 

us camped on our right. 

Friday, July 8, 1864 
Broke camp at 3 Oclock and marched 15 miles. Camped 
on Mo. at mouth of Tiny Lake Creek. Country very hdly 
aud rough to day. Creek very bad to cross. New cam* 
Three Steamers at landing opposite here. Post to be 
established called Fort Bice. Good timber and any amount 
of it. 4 companies of 300 here. 

Saturday 9 

Crossed the River and camped near the site of Fort 
Eice. Fine camp in sight of ruins of old Eea Village on 
East Bank of Eiver about 2 miles above Eice. Eight 
steamers here. 

Sunday 10 

Still in camp. 2d Brigade crossing Eiver on U S Grant 
and Tempest. Detail for Bridge go out. Genl himself at 
their head. 

Monday, July 11, 1864. 
Co K men kill three Buffalo and some antilopes. Day 
fine. Visited Co F 30th Wis. Good time. 

Tuesday 12 

Still in camp. 

Wednesday 13 
Thursday, July 14, 1864 
Friday 15 

Still in camp. 

ax The Second Brigade mobilized at Fort Ridgely and »^T£^ 
to unite with the First Brigade on the 

War of the Beoellion: Official Becords, Series I, Vol. XU, Pt. 1, PP- 38, 

Still in camp. 
Still in camp. 


Saturday 16 

Still Laying in Camp, getting impatient for a move of 
some kind. Grass getting scarce. Chas M. Beal arrested 
for stealing money from J. Junk and Charlie [illegible], 

Sunday, July 17, 1864. 

Grand review of whole Command in Eear of the Camp 
of 2d Brigade. 30th Wis out with Knapsacks on. Genl 
calls them damned fools with trunks on, &c. Day awfull 

Monday 18 

Still in camp. Expect to start tomorrow. Day very 
warm, indeed. 

Tuesday 19 

Broke camp at 3 Oclock and Marched 20 miles and 
camped on Cannon Ball River. Fine stream about the 
size of Black Creek. Very strange hills seen on Right 
today. Day very hot. Grass poor, indeed. 

Wednesday, July 20, 1864. 

Left camp on Cannon Ball at 4 Oclock. Day fine with 
Showers. Marched 20 miles to Three Beauts [Three 
Buttes]. 32 Fine camp. Good wood but watter tremendius 
scarce. Bought pair of Boots for $7.00 of Capt. King 
formerly of Sully's Staff, now Sutler. Country very 
rough and hilly to day. 

Thursday 21 

Left camp at 3 Beauts, at 3 Oclock marched 19 miles. 
Camped on Cannon Ball River. Day very hot. Roads 
rough and hilly bad ravines to cross &c. 

Friday 22 

Left camp at 4 Oclock. Marched 22 miles and camped 
on a fine stream of watter. Day fine good grass no wood 
at all. No more corn for our Horses. 

32 Three Buttes is in Grant County, North Dakota. 



Saturday, July 23, 1864. 
Marched 19 miles Camped on Branch of Cannon Ball 
river. Day awfull hot. Hard march several creeks to cross 
much delay. All day going 19 miles. Camped on fine bot- 
tom. Watter poor, night pleasant. Co L on duty as 
fiunkers. Today crossed sand hill before coming into 

Sunday 24 

Left camp at 3 Oclock and marched over a fine country. 
Very levell and excellent grass. Marched 25 miles. En- 
camped on Heart River Small Stream about as Large as 
Black Creek fine clear watter with gravell bottom. Grass 
poor. Dusty camp with Brigades close togather. 

Monday 25th 

Laid in Camp all day fixing for trip to Knife Eiver and 
Kill Deer Mountains 33 after Indians. 

Tuesday, July 26, 1864. 

Left Camp at Heart Eiver at noon for Knife River. Day 
very hot. Marched 20 miles and camped on small stream 
where Scouts had had a fight today nearly a mile in our 
advance. Capt of Scouts drunk ordered retreat. Lt or- 
dered forward. Capt drew revolver &c. No fires to be 
built tonight. Maj Bracket runs the Capt of Scouts with 
saber drawn. 

Wednesday 27 
Left camp after sleeping on the ground without Blanket 
or tent all night beside our horses. At 3 Oclock march 18 
miles. Camp at 2 Oclock. Camped on Knife river. Fine 
camp. No fires to burn. Capt Pell curses Co L for hav- 
ing fire. 

33 Also known as Tahkahokuty Mountain. 

For a description of this battle see General Sully's report in War of the 
'Rebellion: Official Records, Series I, Vol. XLI, Pt. 1, pp. 142, 143. 


Thursday 28 

Left camp at Heart Eiver at 3 Oclock marched 12 miles. 
Scouts discover Sioux camp. Line of battle 34 formed. 6th 
on Eight 7th in center 8th Min on left all dismounted 
Bracket support 6th. Dakota & Battery the 7th. 2d Min 
Cav 8th Min Infy. All march forward fight the Indians 
6 hours kill 150. Loss 3 men killed 12 wounded. Bracket 
makes saber charge on them. 

Friday, July 29, 1864. 
Spent in burning Lodges and property of Sioux 35 . 1600 
Lodges burned 50 tons of dried meat distroyed woods set 
on fire and we leave good Springs on Bluffs. Many dogs 
shot. Today ten companies at work all day. Camped 
tonight about 5 miles from battle field. 2 men killed by 
Indians on Picket. Men ran away from spring of watter. 
Sergt of Co E 6th Iowa killed on Picket by one of his 
own men. 

Saturday 30 

Left camp early and marched 25 miles. Camped at 
noon on fine creek of watter. Good grass and abundance 
of it. Dry hot and dusty. 

Sunday 31 

Left camp early and marched to Heart Kiver again, 
distance 25 miles. Heavy thunder storm as we were com- 
ing into Camp. No tents here yet all at Corral. Every 
thing wet and every body cold. Camped near our old 
camp at Corral. 

Monday, August 1, 1864. 
Still in camp on Heart Eiver. Day fine after the rain. 
Corn issued to animals which were out in rain and at 
Fight on Knife Eiver. 

35 A report of this destruction of the Sioux village is given by Colonel 
R. N. McLaren of the Second Minnesota Cavalry. — War of the Rebellion: 
Official Records, Series I, Vol. XLI, Pt. 1, pp. 172, 173. 


Tuesday 2 

Still in camp. Day fine Lt. Col Pattee kicks one of 
Provost guard out of camp a corporal, for telling one of 
our men he lied. 

Wednesday 3 

Left camp near Heart Eiver. Marched 19 miles. 
Camped on Heart Eiver further up. Day hot. Watter 
very scarce indeed. 

Thursday, August 4, 1864. 

Left camp at Heart Eiver and marched 21 miles. 
Camped on Branch of Knife Eiver again but far to left 
of our route to Battle field. Fine Camp poor grass good 

Friday 5 

Left camp marched 26 miles. Day very warm. Eoad 
very rough, and poor water. Camped in Eange of hills 
called Mauva Terres or Bad Lands. Watter scarce and 
far from camp down a steep hill. On watter squad to 
night good joke on me. 

Saturday 6 

Left camp at 4 Oclock and marched 13 miles through 
one of the awfullest countries you ever saw to Little Mis- 
souri Eiver distance 13 miles. All day going it. Good 
camp tonight. Fine stream of watter. Plenty of wood left 
in old camp by Indians last winter. Pinney Wood. 

Sunday, August 7, 1864. 

Battalion of 7th Iowa and detail from other Eegts all 
under Lt. Col Pattee making Eoads through hills for 
train tomorrow. Worked all day. Got 6 miles. Eeached 
where it was some better. Could see day light out the 
other side. Co K caught in creek by Indians &c, Co L 
on Picket all day. Some Horses stolen by Indians from 
2d Brigade. 


Monday 8 

Left camp early this morning crossed Little Mo. and 
marched 8 miles fighting all day. Both Batteries at work 
all the time. Many Indians killed to day. Awfull country 
for an army to pass through. Bear Guard attacked. 7th 
Iowa go to support them. Indians draw off. Camped 
near Pond much worn out all around. Corn issued. 

Tuesday 9 

Left camp early and marched about 15 miles and camped 
on open Prairie again near creek or Pond of watter. Very 
good. Good camp grass scarce however. Fighting all 
day. 100 horses shot by rear guard. One guide shot to 
day and carried to ambulance. Great alarm of Indians to 
night — false alarm. 

Wednesday, August 10, 1864. 
Left Camp early and marched 19 miles. Camped on 
Beaver Biver. Good Watter. Much Sage brushes where 
we camped. Col Pollock & Capt Marsh quarrell about 
ordering the Battery across Biver. Orderly Berry Lee 
& Hull got quite happy to night. Very well Educated 

Thursday 11 

Broke camp early. Co L in advance. Capt giving Orderly 
fits for not having all ready. Orderly tight night before. 
Slow in moving finally got started. Not a particle of 
grass all day or watter. March 29 miles. Camp at 9 
Oclock at night. Watter much alhili. Many Horses give 
out in road. Watter as bitter as gall. Cant drink the 

Friday 12 ; 
Left camp about noon and marched 10 miles to the 
Yellow Stone River. No grass at all to day. None at 
yellow stone. Cut cotton wood brush for horses tonight. 


Col and some men go and get corn from Boat about 2 
miles off after night. Pure stream clear and cold very 
swift current indeed 2 Steamers here. First seen up river. 

Saturday, August 13, 1864. 
Crossed the Yelloiv Stone this after noon things carried 
in Boat. Horses and riders swim over also wagons and 
teams. Several teams drowned. Three men drowned 2 
soldiers and an Emigrant. They cross in water tight 
wagon Boxes. 6th Iowa cross in night— Genl curses 
terribly because the Boats were so slow. Very much 
mixed up. Many things lost alltogather. 

Sunday 14 

Left camp at 3 Oclock and marched 8 miles and camped 
at the mouth of a creek where there was an abundance of 
good grass. Horses fill themselves good. Buffalo shot 
near camp 2 Brigade cross the Eiver. Idaho 36 cross also. 

Monday 15 

Left Camp at 6 Oclock after grasing horses 2 hours. 
Day fine and cool. Good grass and any amount of it. 
Camped near the river twelve miles from the mouth. 

Tuesday, August 16, 1864. 

Laid in Camp all day. Felt quite unwell all day. A 
party of hunters sent out kill several Elk and deer report 
abundance of game. Went about 5 miles down Eiver. 
Train sent back to where we crossed after Stores to lighten 
Steamer over Bar, 

Wednesday 17 
Our Battalion left Camp by itself and marched to oppo- 
site Fort Union. Day fine. No grass at all. Camped 
in willows that night on bank of Eiver. Corn issued to 

36 A train of emigrants bound for the gold fields of Idaho accompanied 
the Second Brigade.— War of the ■Rebellion: Official Becords, Series I, Vol. 
XLI, Pt. 1, p. 168. English's Dakota's First Soldiers in South Dakota His- 
torical Collections, Vol. IX, p. 279. 


horses much of it stolen besides. German McCardle 
drowned yesterday. 

Thursday 18 

« W/" ed ^ AmiS E ™ ent ™d over in 

FoTn ' ? 01 ' SeS ™ aeCr ° SS river - AU P ass 
Fort Uxuon" 1S very pretty place indeed nice painted m 

fine sty e. Col of 30th well contented. Indians line [,] ° 
over white mens grave. Go into camp near two miles 
from Fort. Brackett after Indians. 

Friday, August 19, 1864. 
Left camp at 5 Oclock and marched one mile and camped 
near the river and near the ruins of old Fort Williams « 
Sun dried Bricks roofs all caved in. Big Pit neaTfev 
where many Indians was hurried from Small poX . Skull 
visible now 150 hurried in one hole. Eecefved orde 
at twelve to move down Biver 5 miles. 

Saturday 20 

Left camp at 12 and moved down about 5 miles and 
camped on bank of the Biver. Good grass and fin amp 
Made Landing for Steamer and unloaded the train and 

Co o e f 2d B ^ ^ With - £e 

Co of 2d Brigade here before us. Said they were the 

advance guard of their Brigade. After grass I guess. 

Sunday 21 

Still in Camp. Whole Command arrived. Genl & Staff 

at the time of the Sullv JLZ-<- "' rtleth Wisconsin was stationed here 
in tke Far West Vof m "o^ 11 "^ 6 "' 3 **« AmeH ™ Trod. 
Beeoras, Serie^'vl, X^'pf l,Tut °' *** <** 

the 8 nfo°nth ^TyX^ ^ ^ ° f the *«* opposite 

and Campbell and abrfoZ ? eStabhshed in 1833 h ? 

*r JP«rt, Vol. 111/;. 960. 8 * "' me, ' i<!0 ' , *" r Tra * 


arrive at 10 Oclock day fine. Many sage hens. Boys have 

fine sport shooting them. 

Monday, August 22, 1864. 
Left camp after Loading Steamer. Marched 15 miles. 
Camped on Bottom near River. Day fine showers about 
4 Oclock. Grass good. Fine camp. Guide hired at Union 
to guide us to Berthold.™ Good guide half Breed. 

Tuesday 23 

Left camp after grasing about an hour and marched 
about 8 miles and camped at noon on "Big Muddy"** 
Poorwatter. Grass good. Fine camp. Pleasant day but 
some windy. Passed Medicine poles of Indians when 
they had the small pox. Clothes still up in crotch of them. 

All their new goods put there. 

Wednesday 24 
Left camp at 4 Oclock and marched 24 miles. Camped 
on Bottom near the River. Good Watter near camp not 
far to River. Any abundance of good grass. Night very 
cold indeed. Camp very compact and close. 

Thursday, August 25, 1864. 
Left camp at 4 Oclock and marched 22% miles and 
camped on Little Muddy. Grass poor and scarce. Watter 
poor. Much alhilL Rough country again. Camped up in 
hills about one mile from River. Go along narrow pass 
at foot of hills wide enough for one team at a time. Genl 
Sully curses guards in advance for hunting without orders. 

Friday 26 

Left camp at 4 Oclock and marched 12 miles & camped 
on River good watter of course. Good grass to day. 
Grase often. Horses gaining again. Country Rough but 

39 Fort Berthold was built by the American Fur Company in 1845 on the 
left bank of the Missouri River in what is now McLean County, North 
Dakota— South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. I, pp. 359, 360. 

40 This was the Missouri River. 


some better than yesterday. Horses and men in good 
trim. Good camp. Good grass. Crossed Large Indian 
trail to day. Col and Maj Wood go to Steamer. 

Saturday 27 

Left camp at 4 Oclock and marched 20 miles and camped 
on river. Good camp and plenty of good grass and watter. 
No signs of hostile Indians. 

Sunday, August 28, 1864. 

Left camp at 3 Oclock and marched 25 miles and camped 
on small creek three miles above Fort Berthold. Fine 
camp good grass and watter. Plenty of Indians from 
Fort in camp. Day fine. Lt Col Pattee on Board Steamer 

Monday 29 

Laid in camp all day. Put in good time sleeping making 
up lost time. Genl Sully and Indian Eees & Grosvents 
have a big council. Indians friendly disposed. Genl 
promised them that he will be here in the Spring again. 
Co G left at Berthold. 

Tuesday 30 

Broke camp at 5 Oclock and Marched 12 Miles. Camped 
on Biver near Berthold. 5 miles below. Fine camp— any 
abundance of grass. 

Wednesday, August 31, 1864. 

Left camp near Fort Berthold and marched to mouth 
of Snake creek distance 20 miles. Good Koads and good 
feed and watter, pleasant camp. Troops mustered at 4 
Oclock. Camp near the river. 

Thursday, September 1 

Start for Maison du chien. Left camp on Snake creek 
and marched 22 miles and camped on two Large Lakes. 
Saw immense herds of Buffalow all day estimated at 10 
thousand. Hunting Party sent out of 24 men on foot on 

vol. xx — 28 


arrival in camp. Lake much muddy from Buff alow. Grass 
all fed off &c. 

Friday 2 

Left camp very Early and marched 22 miles. Camped 
near Maison du chien a high hill about 2 Miles Long. 
Some of Officers of Genls Staff went to top of hill about 
6 miles distant. Saw for 30 miles each way. No signs of 
Indians at all. Buffalow in every direction except to 
north. Watter very poor. Sick [1] Buffalow dying 
[?] in pond. 

Saturday, September 3, 1864. 
Left camp early and took up our March in direction of 
Fort Rice D. T. about 60 miles distant. Passed over hilly 
country. Many Lakes. Heavy rain and wind. Command 
thoroughly wet through. Horses wheeled into Line when 
halted. Saw immense herds of Buffalow all day. Hunt- 
ing parties out killed great many of them. Run them into 
collumn. Great many arrested by Provost. Co L on ad- 
vance guard today. 

Sunday 4 

Laid in camp all day on fine Lake of watter. No wood. 
Much trouble cooking. Buffalow chips wet from last 
nights rain. Co L no Breakfast. Invited to eat with Lt. 
Courtwright Co. We did so. Good meal. Bitters before 
Eating. Made monthly return for August to day. Lt. Col 
Pattee Cooper and Ryan Hunting. 

Monday 5 

Left camp early and marched about 20 miles and camped 
on fine creek. Either Apple River or Painted Wood. Day 
very cool with high wind all day. Immense herds of 
Buffalow seen all day. Grass good all day. 

Tuesday, September 6, 1864. 

Left camp on Painted Wood and Marched 23 Miles 


through a drenching Eain. All wet and much fatigued. 
Left the 2d Brigade far in rear. Many Horses and Mules 
give out. Several Battery Horses give out. Horses put 
in co teams in place of mules give out. Went into Camp. 
No watter and no wood except some Indian wood. Old 
Indian camp. Good fire and good supper. 

Wednesday 7 

Left camp early. Day very fine. Camped on Apple 
Creek near Sibleys 41 old camp of last year. Good camp. 
Excellent watter. Crossed Sibleys old trail. Very dim 
indeed. Col & Capt Cooper crossed down to Sibleys Camp 

Thursday 8 

Left camp at 3 Oclock and marched 18 miles and camped 
on high piece of table land overlooking the Eiver. Good 
grass. Eiver near at Hand. Passed 2d Brigade in camp 
about 3 miles back. They in good camp. Genl gone on to 
Fort Eice Col Pollock in command. About 8 miles from 

Friday, September 9, 1864. 
Left camp at 6 Oclock. Marched about 12 miles and 
camped on the Eiver Bank about 2 miles below Fort Eice. 
Heard of Capt Fisk 's 42 trip and fight at White Beaut. 
Col Dille sends all our men left sick at Fort Eice D. T. 
also their Horses. Genl very mad. Went to Eice with Col 
after dark. Got mail today. 

Saturday 10 

Still in camp. Men to be sent to the Eelief of Capt 
Fisk and party. 100 men from 7th Iowa. Day very 

4i General Henry H. Sibley had made a campaign in this region in 1863. 

* 2 James L. Fisk was in command of an emigrant train which had been 
attacked by the Indians. He was captain in the United States army on 
special duty. — War of the Bebellion: Official Becords, Series J, Vol. XLI, 
Pt. 1, pp. 132, 151-154, 169, 795. 


pleasant indeed. Went to Fort after dark with mail. 
Corpl Poland goes along. Good fellow. Col gone to Eice 
not back tonight. Detachment leave for Cap Fisk. 

Sunday 11 

Still in camp. Good grass and watter. Wood getting 
scarce. Very high wind indeed all day. Col not back yet. 
100 Men go from Battalion to the Belief of Capt Fisk. 
Col Dill Comds Expedition 1000 Men. 

Monday, September 12, 1864. 

Laid in camp all day. Day very warm and pleasant. 
Visited "Bice". Saw Sergt Cumby [!]. Presented with 
Pair of Pants of which I was much in need, also. Bottle 
of nice grape Jelly. Very nice. Fine visit. Billy bully 
fellow. Eeturned to camp with 2nd Lt of Neb Scouts. 
Good fellow. 

Tuesday 13 

In camp all day. Bay very cool and somewhat rainy. 
Detail gone up to build Boats for men in Bain [?]. 

Wednesday 14 
Laid in camp all day. Fine day. 

Thursday, September 15, 1864. 

Still in camp. Fine day. 

Friday 16 

Still in camp. Day fine. Lt. Luse goes aboard of Chip- 
pewa Falls Sick. 

Saturday 17 

Still in camp. Very windy and cold. Sand flew at a 
terrible rate filling tents and cooking utensils full ( of 
sand. No cooking done today being impossible. Capt 
Cooper goes aboard of Chippewa Falls Sick. 

Sunday, September 18, 1864. 

Still in camp. Fine day. Cooking again resumed. 
Something to eat again. Tents cleaned out again, &c, &c. 
Laid around camp and slept all day. 


Monday 19 

Pleasant day. Visited Fort Eice in co with Corpl Po- 
land took Super with Sergt Cumbey [?] Co F 30th Wis. 
Vol. 43 Fine time. Called on our boys building Boats also on 
Lt. Col. Pattee who was at the Fort. Fine Boats. Sergt 
Emerson and Amlong arrive from Sully with dispach. 
Atlanta taken by Sherman. Alabama troops at Sioux 
City Iowa. 

Tuesday 20 

In camp all day feel quite bad. Threatened with fever. 
Move in tent at Head Quarters to get out of Gray Backs 

Wednesday, September 21, 1864. 
Laid in camp all day. Felt quite sick all day and all 
last night. Day pleasant. One Sergt killed by Indians 
from Co L 6th Iowa. Corpl Thompson escaped by swim- 
ming river to the Fort. Scouting Parties out after the 
Indians &c. Got corn for our horses. 4 P [illegible]. 

Thursday 22 

Laid in camp all day. Very unwell. Cold chills all day. 
Bay very raw and cold. 

Friday 23 

Laid in camp all day. Quite unwell. Cold chills and 
soreness in my whole person. Continued quite sick all 

pay, ' , -\ 

Saturday, September 24, 1864. 
Bay cold and raw with some wind. Felt very badly all 
day. Suffered very much with head ache an awfull head 
ache. Went to Br. Bardwells and received Quinine which 
only made it worse, than before. 

« Five companies of the Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry were stationed at 
Fort Bice.— War of the Mebellion: Official Becords, Series L Vol. XLI Pt 
1, p. 135. ' ' 


Sunday 25 

Laid in camp all day. Suffered all day again and all 
last night with an awfull pain in head. Got better at 

night some. 

Monday 26 

Laid in camp all day. Felt quite unwell and suffered much 
from pain in head. Mail arrived today. Schells Woman 
comes up on mad to see her pimp Jim Franks. 

Tuesday, September 27, 1864. 
In camp again felt much better to day. Party of men 
hauling hay from "Cannon Ball River" attached]. One 
Sergt Killed and one man wounded. Parties of Indians 
seen in several places crossing the river below where our 
horses are grasing &c. Capt. Fisk heard from. Messen- 
gers from Col Dill arrive out 70 miles. Much rejoicing 
in camp. 

Wednesday 28 
Still in Camp. Received Orders to draw rations for 
down trip. An extra team and wagon issued to each co. 
today Mail leaves. Schells woman on board. Hippie & 
Hinchliffe Co L and Irish Co M Tompkins Co K go down 
as escort. Amlong and Emmerson also return with it to 
Fort Sully. 

Thursday 29 

Still in Camp. Start below tomorrow morning. Visited 
Fort Rice today. Called on Billy Cumbey and friends of 
Co F. 

Friday, September 30, 1864. 
Left camp for Sully all in high glee over an order to 
march. Ambulance train from Col Dill got in last night 
Beport many sick. Command get in to day. Met mail 
with Old Brigher" 8 mile out from Camp marched fifteen 
miles and camped near Beaver Creek. Good Camp. 

« Possibly this is James Bridger, who sometimes acted as a guide for the 
troops.-lFar of the Rebellion: Official Records, Senes I, Vol. XLVIII, *| 
1, p. 256. 


Saturday, October 1 
Left camp and marched 37 miles. Camped at Da Bois 
Creek. Reached camp long after dark. Met Geo Pleats 
With three Indians. He had been taken Prisoner bv two 
Bears Band when going up with an Express to Gen! Sully 
Capt Miner sent after the Indians. Got to camp at niirfit 
with 8 Indians. 

Sunday 2 

Left camp 7 Oclock after grasing my horses two hours 
Marched 27 miles and camped at Lost Timber. Day very 
windy and cold. Camped by ourselves tonight. Vent 
over a mile and cut grass for my horse. 

Monday, October 3, 1864. 
Left camp at an early hour and marched to Swan Lake 
Creek 19 miles. Fine day. Good camp and good supper. 

Tuesday 4 

Left camp at day Break and marched to Artichoke Creek 
30 miles. Fine day but very poor camp. No wood No 
grass at all hardly. Got in Late Very. 

Wednesday 5 

Left camp at Artichoke Creek and marched to Oak Boje 
[Okobojo] 20 miles from camp. Good grass but wood quite 
scarce. Orders issued assigning troops to their Stations 
tor the winter. &c. 

Thursday, October 6, 1864. 
Left Camp at Sun Eise and marched to near Fort Sully 
and camped in the woods aU scattered over the Brush 
Very wmdy. Went to Sully and stayed over night with 
Ldd. Plenty of good living there. Good time. 

Friday 7 

Started for camp. Met the Battalion on their way down 
Stopped at the Fort and got all our things and moved 
to near Medicine Creek and camped. Good Camp. Capt 
Mahana at Sully. Lt. Ryan in Command. Good time. 


Saturday 8 

Left Camp at Sun Eise and marched about 20 miles and 
camped on a creek off the Eoad about six Miles from La 
Chapelle creek. Good camp. Iowa 6th in advance. 

Sunday, October 9, 1864. 

Left camp at Sun Rise and marched to Crow Creek 
Agency 30 miles. Met the mail and stoped it. Got our 
mad out. Got a letter from Mother. Col Pollock about 
ten miles ahead. Genl Sully and Brackett's Battalion 5 

miles in rear also the Battery. 

Monday 10 

Left camp at 7 Oclock and passed through agency. 
Camped on East fork of crow creek. Marched 20 miles. 
Day fine. Good camp but poor grass. Tonight looks like 
storm. Got horse shod at Agency. Col Pollock leaves 
some horses. Genl very angry at it. 

Tuesday 11 

Left camp at Crow Creek and marched 18 Miles. 
Camped on Red Lake. Fine camp. Genl Sully and 
Brackett arrive and camp near us. Large camp of Yank- 
tonais Indians also camp near. 

"Wednesday, October 12, 1864. 

Left camp at Red Lake and marched to Pratt [Platte] 
Creek. Went into Camp on fine bottom. Wood scarce and 
watter good. Good grass. Genl Sully and Escort arrived 
quite late and go into camp near. Left camp this morn- 
ing before day light. 

Thursday 13 

Left Camp at Pratte [Platte] Creek at 4 Oclock and 
marched to bottom above Randall. Fine Camp. Good 
wood and Missouri watter. 

Friday 14 

Broke camp at seven Oclock and marched three or four 


miles and camped in the thick timber. Good camp. Flat- 
Boat-fleet arrived from Eice all safe. Sergt Wright and 
myself went to Bandall crossed the Missouri in canoe 
rowed by two Squaws. Eeached camp at Midnight. 

Saturday, October 15, 1864 
Left camp at 6 Oclock and Marched to Branch of 
Choteau Creek near two fine springs. Good camp and 
fine watter. Traveled about 25 miles. Passed through 
the Yankton Agency. Looks all in ruins allmost. Agent 
running for Congress. 

Sunday 16 

Left Camp at 4 Oclock marched 25 miles & camped at 
Bon homme. Passed Bracketts Battalion before they were 
up. Took them down to have the 7th march 4 Miles & 
pass them in Bed. Passed Co D 30th Wis and Dakota 
cav and scouts on the road also. Fine camp tonight. 

Monday 17 

Left camp at 4% Oclock. Marched 20 miles. Passed 
through Yankton the Capital. Quite a fine town for Dako- 
ta. Much improved since 1861. Camped on James Eiver. 
Passed the whole thing to day and were the first Co to 
reach James Eiver. Co D go by Bottom. 

Tuesday, October 18, 1864. 

Left Camp on James Eiver at 4 Oclock. Left the whole 
thing behind us in camp yet. Genl Sully says the 7th 
is hell on getting up early aint they, when he heard us 
marching out of camp. Passed through Vermillion. Some 
of Co I 7th Iowa there. Fine day in camp in woods at 
Hulls Point. 

Wednesday 19 
Left Camp at 4 Oclock and marched 25 miles and crossed 
the Big Sioux Eiver and once more are camped on the 
soil of our Beloved Iowa. Good camp. Many of the boys 


drunk and much fighting in Co K. Bob Smith gets 
hamered by a Frenchman. Snow to night. 

Thursday 20 

Eeceived orders last night to recross the Eiver into 
Dakota & camp. Crossed as ordered and camped at Sioux 
Point 2 miles below opposite Brighers residence. Thick 
woods and good watter. 

Friday, October 21, 1864. 

Laid in Camp all day. Day cold and Raw with some 
snow and Rain. Total distance marched from Sully back 
to Sioux City 1369 miles and from Sioux City the trip 
back there 1669 miles and 1000 men sent after Fisk 
marched 400 miles extra from the above on foot 

Saturday 22 

Still in camp. All in high spirits. Fine day. A general 
time all arround. Time up to night, hurrah for hurrah 

Sunday 23 

Still in camp. Fine day and all in high glee. Time out 
to night. Good. 

Monday, October 24, 1864. 
Fine day. Went to Sioux City in company with Corpl 
Trimble. Eat dinner at Lt. Robinsons Co D 30th Wis. 
Good dinner of Potatoes & onions fresh beefe and good 
light Bread & Butter. Town very dry. In my oppinion a 
very poor Town to live in. 

Wednesday 26 
Still in Camp. Clear day. Turned over all my traps 
today. Pay Master arrived from Randall last night. 

Thursday, October 27, 1864. 
Still in Camp at Sioux Point D T 

Friday 28 

Moved Camp up the Missouri river about a mile. Good 
camp. Thick woods and brush. 


Saturday 29 
Still in camp. Day fine. 

Sunday, October 30, 1864. 
Still in Camp. Time drags heavily. Finishing up back 
returns and papers. Nearly done. 

Monday 31 

Still in camp. 


Co Mustered out. I not mustered out not being informed 
that Co was to be mustered out so soon. 

Tuesday, November 1. 
Paid off. Mustered out and start for home. Good time 
and happy as a clam. Mahana Wieneke McCaddon Page 
Trimble McNeill & Pumphrey and I come home together. 
Good crowd. Eeach station 20 miles out. 

Wednesday, November 2, 1864. 
Left Station early this morning. Had rough night last 
night. Slept amongst Steel traps and no blankets. Good 
meals however. House 9 by 10 feet. Travel 30 miles 
today. Eeach Ida Grove. Good place. Went through 
' ' Correctionville ' \ Judge Moreheads. 

Thursday 3 

Left Ida Grove before sun rise. Travel 30 miles and 
reach Sac City small town on Coon river. Small stream. 
Good Hotel. Found Miss Bent there. Called on her. 
Spent pleasant evening "Very". 

Friday 4 

Left Sac City early. Traveled 50 miles to Jefferson. 
Fine town. Very loyal indeed. Found about 30 of our 
boys ahead of us here all out in ranks drilling. Ladies 
very patriotic and good looking indeed. Fine town. 

Saturday, November 5, 1864. 

Left Jefferson at sun rise and traveled to Boonesboro. 


Fine town bnt full of Rebels ' ' Copperheads ' '. Copperhead 
meeting to night. Boys raise hob with the Dance at Parker 

House. Sick tonight some. 

Sunday 6 

Left Boonesboro at sun rise and came to Nevada, 30 
miles. Fine town. Terminus of Rail road. Stop at the 
National Hotel. Good place. Lay over all day. Good 

Monday 7 

Left Nevada on 4 Oclock train for the East. Reach 
Blairs Town at 8 Oclock. Stop at Browns Hotel. Good 
place. The other boys go to Marengo. Tonight rain to 
hard for our load. Stay all night at Blairs town. 

Tuesday, November 8, 1864. 

Hire double wagon and go to Marengo in time for 9 
Oclock freight train. Get aboard and go into Iowa City in 
time for dinner at Clinton House. Go to Election. Vote for 
old Abe and reach home at dark. Rain all yesterday and 
to day much mud. 




Fort Randall, Da, Ter, Oct., 22nd 1865. 

Mr. L. D. Dutton 
Dear Friend: 

Thinking that it might be interesting to you to hear 
something about our summer campaign I thought I would 
improve a few spare moments in writing to you. Our 
Batt. left Sioux City on the 8th of June & arrived at Fort 
Sully on the 22nd. We were joined in a few days by 


General Sully with the ballance of his command, which 
consisted of four companies of the 6th Iowa cavalry, four 
companies of Minnesota cavalry, called Brackett's Batt., 
a battery of four guns & part of Co. B., 1st Dakotah cavy.,' 
acting as a body guard for the Gen. We broke camp on 
the 5th of July & started to Fort Eice, at which post we 
arrived on the 13th. We were then nearly five hundred 
miles from Sioux City. On the 23rd we were again on the 
march bound for Minniewaken, or Dakotah Lake. 45 On 
the 28th we camped near a band of Pembinaue, or Eed 
river half-breeds. 46 Their train consisted of nine hundred 
carts, with scarcely a bit of iron to be seen about them. 
There was two other bands not far distant. They come 
into the territory three times a year for the purpose of 
procuring robes & meat. We reached the lake on the 
29th. It is situated in 40 [48] N. lat. & 99' 15" W. Ion. 
The water is saltish, & it is said to be forty miles in length. 
It is distant from Rice 132 miles. There is some timber 
near the lake & an island in it. We had to use Buffalo 
chips all the way from Rice to cook our grub with. We 
did not find any Indians near the lake or any signs of 
their having been there lately. The Gen. heard that the 
Red skins were on Mouse river, so on the 2nd of Aug. we 
struck out. We reached the Mouse on the 4th, but "nary" 
Indian. On the 8th we got to Fort Berthold, having 
marched since we left Rice about 245 miles. We saw 
thousands of buffalo & we had no trouble in supplying 
ourselves with plenty of the best fresh meat. I killed 

« Devil's Lake, the largest lake in North Dakota.— See letter of General 
Alfred Sully, War of the Bebellion: Official Becords, Series I, Vol. XLVIII 
Pt. 2, pp. 1145-1147. 

*« Th e Pembina Band of Ojibways lived in the northeast corner of North 
Dakota, along the Red River of the North.— GiMllan >s Names of the Ojibways 
in the Pembina Band, North Dakota, in Collections of the State Historical 
Society of North Dakota, Vol. II, p. 150. 


several. On the night of the 18th we were visited by a 
very severe storm of rain & hail. The wind blew our 
tents down & the hail pelted the horses so hard that a 
number of them broke from the lines, but they were all 
found next day. A few moments after it quit raining a 
wall of water three or four feet high came rushing down 
the creek bottom on which Co. M. were camped. It carried 
everything before it. Several of the boys had narrow 
escapes with their lives. The boys fished out nearly all 
their lost property the next day. We broke camp & started 
for Fort Rice on the 20th & got to our destination on the 
25th, marching 37 miles the day we got in. The Indians 
had made an attack on the fort a day or two after we 
started to Devils lake, but they were driven off. They 
killed one soldier & wounded two, one of whom after- 
wards died. It was not known how many of the red 
devils were "nepoed" as it is their custom to carry off 
their killed & wounded if possible. The murdering villains 
killed a man in the timber within forty rods of camp on 
the 28th. He belonged to Brackett's Batt, & was a fine 
man & leaves a wife & children to mourn his untimely 
fate. We had to build a large store house before we 
started down the river. It was finished on the fourth & 
the command started down the river on the 5th. We 
reached fort Sully on the 11th & on the 14th our Batt. 
was ordered below to relieve the 6th cavy which has gone 
below & I suppose has been mustered out ere this. Our 
Co. arrived here and releived the troops stationed here 
on the 22nd. Co. L. are building a fort on the Niobrara 
river 30 miles south of this. Co. M. are building a fort on 
the James or Dakotah river. We are very badly disap- 
pointed. We had no idea but that we would be mustered 
out this fall. Brackett's Batt. is a veteran organization 


also, & the boys belonging to it talk just as ours do, that 
is if they had their pay they would bid Uncle Sam good 
by. I would not blame them if they did for we have served 
now several months longer than we agreed to. There is 
nearly ten months pay due us. The Paymaster is expected 
here the first of next month. The duty is not so very 
hard but it goes terribly against the grain to soldier now 
the war is over. I think we are in for another six months 
but I may be agreeably disappointed. I heard from Abe 
a few days since. He was well. As soon as we are paid 
I will send money to square accounts between you & I 
Give my best wishes to your family. Please answer soon 
& let me know how my family & yours are prospering, also 
the folks generally. Direct to Co. K. 7th Iowa Cavalry, 
Fort Eandall, Da., Ter. From your friend 

Josiah F. Hill. 


American Indian Life. Edited by Elsie Clews Parsons. New 
York- B W. Huebsch. 1922. Pp. 419. Maps, plates. This 
volume is a compilation of twenty-seven stories of Indian char- 
acters so written that they present a picture of Indian life and 
beliefs These stories are collected in eight groups according to 
the geographical location of the tribe described and are usually 
biographical sketches of Indian characters. 

The list of contributors is a long one and includes many names 
well known to students of ethnology. The stories of the plains 
Indians are told by Robert H. Lowie and Clark Wissler; eastern 
stories by Frank G. Speck, Alexander A. Goldenweiser, M. R. 
Harrington, and John R. Swanton; middle western stories by 
Alanson Skinner, Paul Radin, and Truman Michelson; stories of 
the southwest by P. E. Goddard, Elsie Clews Parsons, Stewart 
Culin, Leslie Spier, and A. L. Kroeber; Mexican Indian stories 
by J. Alden Mason, Herbert Spinden, Sylvanus G. Morley, and 
\lfred M Tozzer; tales of the Pacific Coast Indians by N. 0. 
Nelson, T. T. Waterman, and Edward Sapir ; stories of northern 
Athabascan tribes by Robert H. Lowie and T. B. Reed; and 
stories of the Eskimo, by Franz Boas. The introduction is writ- 
ten by A L. Kroeber, who describes the volume as "a picture of 
native American life, in much the sense that a series of biogra- 
phies of one statesman, poet, or common citizen from each country 
of Europe would yield a cross-sectional aspect of the civilization 

of that continent." 

The stories are in fictional form and are remarkably vivid. 
The writers have attempted to select certain customs character- 
istic of the various tribes and to weave these into a story of 
some Indian man or woman. 

The volume is attractively printed and bound and is provided 
with plates, maps, and a bibliography and notes on the various 
tribes of Indians. 

James Hall of Albany, Geologist and Palaeontologist. By John 





11 Clarke. Albany: S. C. Bishop. 1921. Pp. 569. Plates. 
This volume is not only a biography of a distinguished scientist, 
but also indirectly a source of information relating to the study 
of geology and palaeontology. James Hall was born at Hingham, 
Massachusetts, on September 12, 1811, and died at Echo Kill, 
New Hampshire, on August 6, 1898. Having received two years 
of training at the Rensselaer School, Hall became interested in 
the study of geology and for the remainder of his long and active 
career devoted his time to the study of geology and allied subjects. 

In 1S55 James Hall was appointed State Geologist of Iowa by 
Governor James W. Grimes. Although he personally spent little 
time in Iowa, the survey of the State was carried on under his 
direction, and much of the credit of the work belongs to him. 
Unfortunately the survey was discontinued in 1859 before it was 
completed and the two parts of volume one of the report issued 
cover only the eastern part of the State. Mr. Hall was also the 
first professor of geology and natural history in the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa but this position seems to have been merely nominal. 

The most important work of Hall, however, was in New York 
where he did his greatest work in geological research. His long 
period of activity, his familiarity with many fields, and his ac- 
quaintance with American and European geologists make the 
volume a valuable source of information concerning men in similar 

A list of the honors awarded Mr. Hall and an index completes 
the volume. 

The J ournal of American Genealogy is the title of a new quar- 
terly magazine published by the National Historical Society. The 
first number is dated March, 1921. 

The Year Book of The Holland Society of New York, for the 
years 1920 and 1921 has recently been distributed. 

A Report on the Archaeology of Maine, prepared by Warren 
K. Moorehead, has recently been issued by the Department of 
Archaeology of the Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. 

The American Historical Review for April contains a report of 

vol. xx— 29 


the meeting of the American Historical Association at St. Louis 
in December 1921. There are also two articles— The School for 
Ambassadors, by J. J. Jusserand, and Jay's Treaty and the 
Northwest Boundary Gap, by Samuel F. Bemis. 

Negro Congressmen a Generation After, by Alrutheus A. Tay- 
lor and The Priority of the Silver Bluff Church and its Pro- 
moters, by Walter H. Brooks, are two of the papers in the April 
number of The Journal of Negro History. 

Three of the articles in the April Americana are the following : 
Women Patriots and Heroines of New York State in the Revo- 
lution, by Amelia Day Campbell, Dickinson College and Its Back- 
ground, by Charles W. Super, and John Woolman's Cottage, by 
Caroline Ladd Crew. 

The Americanism of Andrew Jackson, by Frank J. Klingberg, 
The Middle States and the Embargo of 1808, by Louis Martin 
Sears and Pro-Slavery Propaganda in American Fiction of the 
Fifties, by Jeannette Reid Tandy, are three articles of historical 
interest in The South Atlantic Quarterly for April. 

The Geographical Names Used by the Indians of the Pacific 
Coast by T. T. Waterman, is one of the articles of historical 
interest in The Geographical Review for April. Two other articles 
relating to history are Geographic Factors in the Relations of the 
United States and Cuba, by D. S. Whittlesey, and The Geography 
of History: A Review, by Douglas Johnson. 

One of the contributions to a recent number of the Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society is a monograph by Qumcy 
Wright on The Control of the Foreign Relations of the United 
States • The Relative Rights, Duties, and Responsibilities of the 
President, of the Senate and the House, and of the Judiciary, m 
Theory and in Practice. 

Maior Howell Tatum's Journal While Acting Topographical 
Engineer (1814) to General Jackson, edited by John Spencer 
Bassett, is published in Smith College Studies in History for 
October, 1921, to April, 1922. 

The Ethics of the Professions and of Business is the general 
subject of a large number of papers in the May number of The 


Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 
There are also four articles relating to China. 

Aboriginal Tobaccos, by William Albert Setchell, A Preliminary 
Report on the So-called "Bannerstones", by John Leonard Baer 
and The Linguistic and Ethnological Position of the Nambicuara 
Indians, by Rudolph Schuller, are three articles in the American 
Anthropologist for October-December, 1921. 

Fire Worship of the Hopi Indians, by J. Walter Fewkes, and 
Racial Groups and Figures in the Natural History Building of 
the United States Museum, by Walter Hough, are two of the 
papers in the 1920 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The Woodland Indians, by H. C. Hill, and Literature in the 
Synthetic Study of History, by M. E. Curti, are two of the 
papers in The Historical Outlook for April. In the May number 
G. M. Dutcher contributes an article entitled A Problem of His- 
torical Analogy and D. C. Knowlton writes of the Relation of 
Geography to the Social Studies. The Immigrant in American 
History, by Carl Wittke, The Window of World History-and the 
Educational Vista, by Eldon Griffin, and Columbia College Course 
on Contemporary Civilization, by J. J. Coss, are three articles in 
the June number. 

The United States and World Organization, by Edwin D. Dick- 
inson, Ministerial Responsibility and the Separation of Powers, 
by Charles Grove Haines, and a second installment of Constitu- 
tional Law in 1920-21, by Edward L. Corwin, are three papers in 
the May issue of The American Political Science Review. Among 
the shorter contributions are Amendments to State Constitutions, 
1919-21, by Charles Kettleborough ; Governors' Messages, 1922, by 
Ralph S. Boots; and The Washington Conference, by Quincy 

The Crisis of 1920 in the United States : A Quantitative Survey, 
by Warren M. Persons, The Crisis of 1920 and the Problem of 
Controlling Business Cycles, by Wesley C. Mitchell, The Present 
Position of American Trade Unionism, by George E. Barnett, 
Constitutional Government in American Industries, by Wm. M. 
Leiserson, The Railroad Situation, by Walker D. Hines, The 
Core of the Railroad Problem, by Logan G. McPherson; The 


Present Status of Workmen's Compensation in the United States, 
by E H Downey, Industrial Accident and Compensation Statis- 
tics by Charles H. Verrill and The Economic Basis of Federation 
in Central America, by Harry T. Collings, are the chief papers 
included in the Papers and Proceedings of the Thirty-fourth 
Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association which 
appears as a supplement to the March number of The American 
Economic Review. 


The Proceedings of the Wyoming Commemorative Association 
for 1920 contains an address by Milledge L. Bonham, Jr., on 
Patriotism and History. In the Proceedings for 1921 is a paper, 
by William Elliot Griffis, entitled Was Brant at Wyoming? 

Art and Artists in New Orleans Since Colonial Times, by Isaac 
M. Cline, is a short contribution to the Biennial Report of the 
Board of Curators of the Louisiana State Museum for 1920-1921. 

Marshal Foch Day, an account of the reception of Marshal 
Ferdinand L. Foch at Indianapolis, Indiana, on November 4, 1921, 
has recently been published by the Indiana Historical Commission. 

The Departed Waters of Detroit, by J. V. Campbell, is the 
sketch published in the Burton Historical Collection Leaflet for 
April. In the following number is a short paper, City Planning 
in Old Detroit. 

The Fundamental Elements of Northern Yana, by E. Sapir, 
Ifugao Economics, by R. F. Barton, and Functional Families of 
the Patwin, by W. C. McKern, are three monographs which have 
recently appeared in the University of California Publications in 
American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Robert M. McBride and Company have recently published A 
Tour Through Indiana in 1840, edited by Kate Milner Rabb. This 
is written in the form of a diary by a young man named John 
Parsons of Petersburg, Virginia, who is represented as making a 
tour through Indiana and writing up his experiences. The volume 
is attractively bound, and contains numerous illustrations, while 
the style and content are both unusually interesting. In spite of 
its title and form, however, this is not history but historical fiction 


showing much familiarity with early times, places, and people 
The book is provided with an index, and contains, in a very 
readable form much valuable information as to early methods of 
travel and manner of living. 

The Proceedings of Third Annual Conference on Indiana His- 
tory has recently been issued as Bulletin No. 15, by the Indiana 
Historical Commission. The conference was held at Indianapolis 
on December 9 and 10, 1921. Among the addresses and papers 
included are the following: Jonathan Jennings, the First Gover- 
nor of Indiana, by Samuel M. Ralston; The Local Library^a 
Center for Historical Material, by William J. Hamilton; Kinds of 
Material to be Preserved for Historical Purposes, by Esther U. 
McNitt; The Value and Importance of Historical Markers by 
Robert L. Moorhead ; The Writing of Family Histories, by Edgar 
T. Forsyth; Indiana's Part in the Butler Expedition to New 
Orleans During the Civil War, by Rufus Dooley; Local Pioneer 
History as Seen through Local Pioneer Laws, by George R. Wil- 
son; The Possibilities of Historical Pilgrimages, by Amos W. 
Butler and Ben F. Stuart ; Creole Customs in Old Vincennes, by 
Anna C. O'Flynn; and Some Old-Fashioned Indiana Writers, by 
Mrs. Demarchus C. Brown. 


The April number of The Journal of the Iowa State Medical 
Society contains a continuation of Physicians Who Located in 
Iowa in the Period between 1850 and 1860, by D. S. Fairchild. 

A report of the meeting of the National Conference of Bar 
Associations and an article on the Legal Status of American 
Indmn and His Property, by Karl J. Knoepfler, are the papers in 
the May number of the Iowa Law Bulletin. 

The April issue of the Quarterly Bulletin of the Iowa Masonic 
Library contains an article entitled Items of Interest to Iowans, 
by Newton R. Parvin. This contains short accounts of various 
interesting places and episodes in Iowa and some references on 
each one. 

Installation of a Memorial Tablet Commemorating the Services 
of the 351st Infantry, 88th Div., A. E. F. is the title of the first 
article m the Annals of Iowa for October, 1921. The presentation 


occurred on August 12, 1921. The Lewis and Clark Expedition 
in Its Relation to Iowa History and Geography, prepared by 
David C Mott, Black Hawk: Some Account of His Life, Death 
and Resurrection, reprinted from Gregg's Dollar Monthly and 
Old Settlers' Memorial and The Future Seat of Government, 
reprinted from the same periodical, are other contributions to 
this number. 

A series of newspaper articles by Richard Herrmann has recent- 
ly been published in book form by the Dubuque Times-Journal 
Company under the title Julien Dubuque, His Life and Adven- 
tures The story of Iowa's first white settler is unusually inter- 
esting, combining as it does the occupation by the Indians and 
the whites and the rivalry of the French, Spanish, and English 
for the Great Valley and the land west of the Mississippi. In 
this book Mr. Herrmann has collected a large number of the facts 
and legends concerning Dubuque and the first white settlement 
at the " Mines of Spain". 


Adams, Ephraim Douglass, 

The Hoover War Collection at Stanford Universtty, Califor- 
nia. Stanford University, California: Stanford University 
Press. 1922. 

Albert, Henry, , „, " .,. ^ n 

Classification of Diptheria Bacilli Based on the Toluidm Blue 
Iodine Method of Staining (University of Iowa Studies in 
Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Aldrich, Bess Streeter, . . 

Nell Cutter's White Elephants (The American Magazine, 

April, 1922). ^ 
The Present Generation (The American Magazine, May, 


Ml ™TU U X%ay in the Diagnosis and Management of Fractures 
(University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 



Andrew, L. A., 

Ba ^l LearUed ° f Kee ^ Ass ^ Liquid 

(Ine Northwestern Banker, May, 1922). 

Artis, G. H., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Johnson County, Iowa. Washington • U S 
Department of Agriculture. 1922. ' ' 

Bailey, Alfred M., 

Th ^ool in Arctic Alaska (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 

Baldwin, Bird T., (Joint author) 

Mental Growth of Normal and Superior Children (University 
of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, Volume II, No. 1). 
Beach, Lena A., 

Finger Prints (Bulletin of State Institutions, January, 1922). 
Bergman, Ted, 

Production of Coal and Water Gas (The Iowa Engineer 
Kay, 1922). engineer, 

Birge, E. G., (Joint author) 

Health Hazards in the Pearl Button Industry (University 
of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Bordwell, Percy, 

Mistake and Adverse Possession (Iowa Law Bulletin, March 

Brown, Bernice, 

Stephen Douglas d'Artagnan ( Collier >s Weekly, Mav 6 
1922). ' 

Brown, Charles Reynolds, 

The Honor of the Church. Boston : The Pilgrim Press. 1922. 
Buell, Mary Van Rennslaer, (Joint author) 

A Metabolic Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Mus- 
cular Dystrophy and Other Muscular S trophies (University 
of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Bunch, C. C, 

Demonstration of the Improved Methods of Measuring the 
Tonal Range Showing Progressive Development of the 


Apparatus (University of Iowa Studies in Medicine. Volume 

B^Obiained from. One Years Fse of the If*™*"™ 
iht Otologic*! Clinic (University of Iowa Studies m Med!- 
cine. Volume II, No. 2). 

Butler. Ellis Parker. , 
Giwsts What Ain't (The American Magazine. May 19-^). 
What Would the Boys We Were Think of Ts Sow. (The 
Saturday Evening Post. June 24. 1922). 

Bvneld. Albert H.. ( Joint author) , 
Th, Antineuritic and Growth Stimulating Properties of 
Orange Juice (University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, 

Volume II. No. 2). 
The Etiology of Arthritis Deformans in Children University 
of Iowa Studies in Medicine. Volume IL No. 2). 

Calhoun. Henrietta A.. . 

Effect of Injection of Nonspecific Protein on DiptKno » 
Unce Tests in Guinea Pigs (University of Iowa Studies 
in Medicine. Volume LT. No. 2). . 
Resume on the Circulatory System Literature of 1920 (Lni- 
Tersitv of Iowa Studies in Medicine. Volume II, No. -). 

^"^f 'Ufhe True Financial Situation Of the Western Farmer 
Today? (The Northwestern Banker. April, 19U). 

Chen. James S. C. ,, 
Vacuum Process Has Varied Vses (The Iowa Engineer. May, 


Church. Zala A.. . T 

The Draining of Goose Lake (Iowa Conservation, January- 

March, 1922). 

C0U lfoirf Design of Steam Motor Cars (The Iowa Engineer. 
April, 1922). 

Conkling. VTilbur S.. 

BesponsibUity or fTie 5faf£ in fte Control of Venereal Disease 
(Bulletin of State Institutions. October, 1921). 



Corcoran, Harry J., 

Fire Protection Engineering (The Transit, March, 1922). 

Craig, Hardin, 

Some Problems of Scholarship ' in the Literature of the 
Renaissance, Particularly in the English Field (Philological 
Quarterly, April, 1922). 

Crane, 0. E., 

Advise Life Insurance Policyholders to Keep Their Contracts 
in Force (The Northwestern Banker, April, 1922). 

Daniels, Amy L., (Joint author) 

The Antineuritic and Growth Stimulating Properties of 
Orange Juice (University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, 
Volume II, No. 2). 

Dean, L. W., (Joint author) 

Results Obtained from One Year's Use of the Audiometer in 
the Otological Clinic (University of Iowa Studies in Medi- 
cine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Using the Pitch Range Audiometer (University of Iowa 
Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Devine, Edward T., 

More about the Klan (The Survey, April 8, 1922). 
The Klan in Texas (The Survey, April 1, 1922). 

Downey, Ezekiel H., 

The Present Status of Workmen's Compensation in the United 
States (The American Economic Review, Supplement, 
March, 1922). 

Dubridge, Elizabeth Browne, 

Arbutus (People's Popular Monthly, April, 1922). 

Eldred, Myrtle Meyer, 

Blue Eyes and Knitted Ties (Household Journal, May, 1922). 

Elwell, J. Ambrose, 

Soil Survey of Mahaska County, Iowa. Washington : Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, 1922. 

Foster, W. L., 

Alaska's Great Natural Resources (The 'Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1922). 


Franzen, Carl Gustave Frederick, 

A Comparison Between General and Special Methods Courses 
in the Teaching of High School Subjects. Iowa City : The 
State University of Iowa. 1922. 

Gallaher, Ruth Augusta, 

Hummer's Bell (The Palimpsest, May, 1922). 

Gibson, R. B., (Joint author) 

Administration of a Pituitary Extract and Histamin in a 
Case of Diabetes Insipidus (University of Iowa Studies in 
Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

A Case of Alkaptonuria with a Study of Its Metabolism 
(University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

A Metabolic Study of Progressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscu- 
lar Atrophies (University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, 
Volume II, No. 2). 

Some Observations on Creative Formation in a Case of Pro- 
gressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy (Uni- 
versity of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Hanson, Leslie, 

Bond Prices Are Getting Higher and This Is Good For 
Business (The Northwestern Banker, May, 1922). 

Havens, Leon C, 

Biologic Studies of the Diptheria Bacillus (University of 

Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Health Hazards in the Pearl Button Industry (University of 
Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Hendee, Elizabeth, 

An Ancient Industry and its Modern Advertising (Judicious 

Advertising, May, 1922). 

Herrick, John F., 

Applied Physiology or a Plea for a Comprehensive View of 
Disease (Bulletin of State Institutions, October, 1921). 

Herrmann, Richard, 

Julien Dubuque, His Life and Adventures. Dubuque, Iowa ; 
Times-Journal Company. 1922. 


Higbee, F. G., 

The Iowa Prony Brake (The Transit, May, 1922). 
Hill, Charles, 

Leading American Treaties. New York : Macmillan Comnanv 

Hinman, Jack J., Jr., 

Standards of Quality of Water (University of Iowa Studies 
in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

The Swimming Pool (University of Iowa Studies in Medi- 
cine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Water Purification in Iowa (American Municipalities, June 

Holbrook, Royal H., 

A Coal Oversight (Bulletin of State Institutions, October 

Hoover, Herbert Clark, 

The Problem of Prosperity and the Part In It Played by the 
American Railroads. New York: Association of Railway 
Executives. 1922. 

Hornaday, William Temple, 

The Minds and Manners of Wild Animals. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1922. 

Hough, Emerson, 

The Covered Wagon. New York: D. Appleton Co. 1922. 

Howard, C. P., (Joint author) 

A Case of Alkaptonuria with a Study of Its Metabolism 
(University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Hughes, Rupert, 

Souls for Sale. New York : Harper & Brothers. 1922. 

Hunting, Ema Suckow, 

True Love (The Midland, June, 1922). 

Ibershoff, C. H., 

Bodmer as a Literary Borrower (Philological Quarterly, 
April, 1922). 


Irion, Clarence E., 

Science Tries to Disintegrate Atom (The Iowa Engineer, May, 

Jellison, L. J., 

Value of an Efficient Fire- fighting Organization (The Ameri- 
can City, March, 1922). 

Jennings, Walter Wilson, 

The American Embargo, 1807-1809. Iowa City: The State 

University of Iowa. 1921. 
Johnson, K. J., 

The Basis for Present Iowa Law Taxing Banks and Monies 
and Credits (The Northwestern Banker, June, 1922). 

Jones, Ralph E., 

Principles of Command. Des Moines: Riker's Bookstore. 


Kating, Ona, 

Katie Murphy (The Husk, March, 1922). 

Kawakami, K. K., 

Japan's Pacific Policy. New York : E. P. Button & Co. 1922. 

Khorozian, Krikor G., (Joint author) 

Animal Utilization of Xylose (University of Iowa Studies in 
Medicine, Volume II, No. 2. 

Knoepfler, Karl J., 

Legal Status of American Indian and His Property (Iowa 

Law Bulletin, May, 1922). 

Krappe, Alexander H., 

Pierre de Ronsard's (( Hymne de la Mort" and Plutarch's 
"Consolatio ad Appolonium" (Modern Language Review, 
April, 1922). 

Laird, Donald A., 

Educating the Superior Child (The Yale Review, March, 

Lambert, B. J., 

Steel Grandstands on Iowa Field (The Transit, May, 1922). 


Larsen, Henning, 

Wudga: A Study in the Theodoric Legends (Philological 
Quarterly, April, 1922). B 

Lawler, Lillian B., 

Rejuvenating the Classics (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1922). 
Lees, James H., 

God's Call in the Out-of-Doors (Iowa Conservation, January- 
March, 1922). y 

Loomis, William D., 

Newspaper Law. La Grange, 111. : The Citizens Publishing 
Co. 1922. * 

Loughlin, Eosemary, (Joint author) 

The Antineuritic and Growth Stimulating Properties of 
Orange Juice (University of Iowa Studies in Medicine 
Volume II, No. 2). 

Lowrey, Lawson G., 

An Analysis of the First One Hundred Admissions to the 
Iowa State Psychopathic Hospital (University of Iowa 
Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Notes on the Psychiatry of 1895 and of 1915 (University of 
Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
McClenahan, Bessie A., 

Organizing the Community; a Review of Practical Principles. 
New York: Century Co. 1922. 

Mackin, M. C, 

State Care vs. County Care of the Insane (Bulletin of State 
Institutions, January, 1922). 

Manatt, R. R., 

Placing Concrete in Structures (The Iowa Engineer, June 

Martin, Francis T., (Joint author) 

A Metabolic Study of Progressive Pseudohyperthropic Mus- 
cular Dystrophy and Other Muscular Atrophies (Univer- 
sity of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Administration of a Pituitary Extract and Histamin in a 


Case of Diabetes Insipidus (University of Iowa Studies in 
Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Some Observation on Creative Formation in a Case of Pro- 
gressive Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy (Univer- 
sity of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

McGovney, D. 0., 

Ineligibility of a United States Senator or Representative 
to Other Federal Offices (Iowa Law Bulletin, March, 1922). 

Mott, David C., 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition in Its Relation to Iowa 
History and Geography (Annals of Iowa, October, 1921). 

Mott, Frank Luther, 

El Homre De Taz Magnamina (Inter- American, May, 1922). 

Moulton, D. A., 

Changing Shale into Building Brick (The Iowa Engineer, 

May, 1922). 

Nagler, Floyd A., 

Utilization of Surplus Flood Water to Suppress Backwater 
Power Developments (The Transit, March, 1922). 

Newton, Joseph Fort, 

Preaching in London. New York: George H. Doran Co. 


O'Connor, Rose A., 

Library Work in Hospitals (Iowa Library Quarterly, Janu- 
ary-March, 1922). 

Parish, John Carl, 

The First Mississippi Bridge (The Palimpsest, May, 1922). 

Parker, George F., 

Grover Cleveland as Governor of New York (The Saturday 

Evening Post, June 24, 1922). 
The Pioneer Family (The Saturday Evening Post, June 10, 

Pioneer Methods (The Saturday Evening Post, June 3, 1922). 

Parrish, Randall, 

The Case and the Girl. New York : Alfred A. Knopf. 1922. 


Patterson, T. L., 

Th€ Readjustment of the Peripheral Lung Motor Mechanism 

After BiUteral Vagotomy in the Frog (University of Iowa 

Studies 111 Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Pearson, Raymond Allen, 

National Policy for Agricultural Research (Science March 
24, 1922). ' 1VAdlC11 

Prentiss, H. J., 

Fossa of Rosenmueller (University of Iowa Studies in Medi- 
cine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Some Experiments to Show the Flow of Fluid from the 
Region of the Tegmen Tympani f Extradural to and Medial 
to the Passage of the Sixth Cranial Nerve Through the 
Dura Mater to the Lateral Wall of the Cavernous Sinus 
(University of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No 2) 
Some Observations on the Mastoid Process and Its Cells (Uni- 
versity of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
Raymond, William Gait, 

Are Four Years Enough (The Transit, May, 1922). 
Rockwood, Elbert W., (Joint author) 

Animal Utilization of Xylose (University of Iowa Studies in 
Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 

Rowe, George L., 

Commercial Paper—Why and How the Bank Should Buy It 
(The Northwestern Banker, June, 1922). 
Runner, J. J., 

Summer Field Courses in Geology (Iowa Conservation, Janu- 
ary-March, 1922). 

Russell, Charles Edward, 

The Outlook for the Philippines. New York: Century Co 
1922. * 

Russell, Frances Theresa, 

The Manly Art of Hazing (The Stanford Illustrated Review, 
February, 1922). 

Russell, William F., 

The Educational Equalizer (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 1922). 


Sabin, Edwin L., 1Q99 
Desert Dust. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Co. 1922. 

^ZZlopmtts in Steel Tank Design (The Iowa Engineer, 

April, 1922). 

SCM *et;" American History. New York: Maemil- 
lan Co. 1922. 

S nttTi L ^"C^ Situation in W (The Etude, 
March, 1922). 

S ^t^^ Personam ™* Actions in Bem in l0Wa (I ° Wa L ^ 
BuUetin, March, 1922). 

^nrajcrne Besse Toulouse, . 
V Mures of a -Lovelorn" Editor (The American Maga- 

zine, June, 1922). moo\ 
At the Sign of the Flower (Household Journal, May, 1922). 
Old Maid Caroline (McCall's Magazine, July, 1922). 

versity of Iowa Studies in Child Welfare, Volume II, No. 1). 

St6f ^^S- of Arctic Geography (The Geographical 

Beview, April, 1922). 

Steindler, Arthur, - . . 

Congenital Malformations and Deformities of the Hand (Uni- 
versity of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2). 
The Treatment of Pes Cavus (Hollow Claw Foot) (University 
of Iowa Studies in Medicine, Volume II, No. 2) . 

Stoner, Dayton, A 
Report on the ScuteUeroidea Collected by the Barlados-Anti, 
gua Expedition from the University of Iowa in 1918 
(Studies in Natural History, University of Iowa, Volume 

X, No. 1). _ . ■ ,. . 

The ScuteUeroidea of the Douglas Lake Region (Studies in 


Natural History, State University of Iowa, Volume X. 

Taft, Laura L., 

Spring Moods (People's Popular Monthly, April, 1922). 
Taylor, Alonzo Englebert, 

C °Z17 P s°i9^ fter m Boom (The Saturda y Evenin ^ p °st, 

I Treat, F. S., 

The Institution Child (Bulletin of State Institutions, Janu- 
ary, 1922). 

Trowbridge, Arthur C., 

Laboratories in Hills and Dells (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 
-ij — ) . 

Tull, Jewell Bothwell, (Mrs. Clyde Tull) 

Sylvia of the Stubbles. Chicago: Reilly & Lee. 1922. 

Voiding, M. Nelson, 

Luminal in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Preliminary Report 
(Bulletin of State Institutions, October, 1921). 

Wallace, Henry C, 

Why There Is Need for a Better System of Agricultural 
Credits (The Northwestern Banker, May, 1922). 
Waples, Frank C, 

Advantages of Heal Estate Mortgages for the Average In- 
vestor (The Northwestern Banker, May, 1922). 
Weaver, Louise Bennett, 

Feed Him Well, Oh Bride (Pictorial Review, June, 1922). 
A Thousand Ways to Please a Family. New York- A L 
Burt & Co. 1922. 

Weir, Kenneth J., 

Radio Activity at Iowa (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1922). 

Weller, Charles Heald, 

Problems of the Summer Session (The Iowa Alumnus Anril 
1922). ' F ' 

vol. xx — 30 


Williams, Henry Smith, 

The Long Chords of Mazeppa (The American Magazine, 

June, 1922). 
Wittc Max K 

Eastern Impressions (Bulletin of State Institutions, Octoher, 

1921) . 

Wylie, Robert B., , 

Iowa's Lakeside Laboratory (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 

1922) . 


Sketch of the life of George V. Fowler, in the Waterloo Courier, 
April 1, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Calvin Hook, in the Sioux City Tribune, 
April 1, 1922. 

Recollections of the Old River, by J. M Turner in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, April 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, May 6, 13, 20, 
27, June 3, 10, 17, 24, 1922. 
The life and adventures of Captain Stephen B. Hanks, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, April 1, 8, 15, ll, £), 
May 6, 13, 20, 27, June 3, 10, 17, 24, 1922. 
Charles F. Ames, Mississippi River character, in the Dubuque 

Telegraph-Herald, April 2, 1922. 
A history of the Rock Island Railroad, in the Iowa City Press- 
Citizen, April 3, 1922. 
0. L. Grant, brother of U. S. Grant, at Cedar Falls, in the Cedar 

Falls Record, April 4, 1922. 
Fort Atkinson proposed for park site in the Fort Dodge Me, 
senger, April 4, 1922, the Clinton Herald, April 6, 1922, and 
the Des Moines Register, April 9, 1922. 
Pdla seventy-five years old, in the Pella Chronicle, April 5, 1922 
Sketch of the life of C. D. Leggett, in the Fairfield Ledger, April 
6, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of J. S. Hunnicutt of -Tama in tfie Tarna , ft* 
April 6, 19, 1922, and the Toledo News, April 13, 1922. 


Some early history of Benton County, in the Vinton Eagle, April 

7, 14, 21, 28, May 5, 12, 19, 26, June 2, 9, 16, 23, 1922 
The homestead of Bartholomew Sheridan, in the Dubuque Herald, 

Early days in Bancroft, by Verne S. Ellis, in the Sum City 
Herald, April 13, 1922. 9 

Flag from Ehrenbreitstein in Iowa, in the Eddyville Tribune, 
April 14, 1922. ' 

Sketch of the life of Jasper N. Bell of Bell's Mill community in 
the Webster City Journal, April 14, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Adrian C. Anson, in the Marshalltown Times- 
Republican, April 15, 1922. 

Early days in Winnebago County, by W. C. Hayward, in the 
Lake Mills Graphic, April 19, 1922. 

How the name Wapsipinicon has been spelled, in the Independence 
Bulletin-Journal, April 20, 1922. 

The Amana Society, in the Williamsburg Tribune, April 20, 1922. 

Early history of Linn County, by M. E. Hinkley, in the Center 
Point Independent, April 20, 1922. 

An historic house in Hardin County, in the Eldora Herald, April 

20, 1922. F 

Reminiscences of pioneer days in Iowa by George W. Henderson, 
in the Rolfe Arrow, April 21, 1922, and the Lake Park News', 
May 3, 1922. 

The organization of the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Rail- 
road, in the Lansing Mirror, April 21, 1922. 

How the towns of Lee County were named, in the Donnellson Re- 
view, April 21, May 4, 1922. 

The English colony in Lyon County, in the Rock Rapids Review, 
April 21, 1922. 

Proposed State park near Cascade, in the Dubuque Journal, April 

21, 1922. 

Naming the towns in Jefferson County, in the Fairfield Ledger 
April 21, 1922. 


How Montrose was named, in the Fort Madison Democrat, April 
22, 1922. 

Old ^Belmont capitol" now used as a livery stable, in the 

Dubuque Herald, April 23, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of Evans Blake, in the Sioux City Journal, 

April 26, 1922. 

Bones of pre-historic animal found at Dubuque, in the New 
Hampton Gazette, April 26, 1922. 

The mill at the Devil's Backbone, by W. H. Lewis, in the Winter- 
set Madisonian, April 26, 1922. 

The story of the Half-breed Tract, by Ralph B. Smith, in the 
Keokuk Gate City, April 27, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of W. W. Morrow, in the Afton Star-Enterprise, 
April 27, 1922. 

Pioneer life in Buchanan County, from the diary of A. A. Lewis, 
in the Gilman Dispatch, April 28, 1922. 

A N. Harbert, collector of Iowa history items, in the Des Moines 
Register, April 30, 1922, and the Vinton Times, May 2, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of L. T. McCoun, in the Bedford Times-Republic- 
an, May 2, 1922. 

The Delicious apple tree at Winterset to be marked, in the Winter- 
set Madisonian, May 3, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Jacob Baker, in the Webster City News, May 
4, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of C. S. Turneaure, in the Waterloo Courier, 
May 6, 1922. 

Old lead tablet at Dolliver's Park recalls days of French claims 
to Iowa, in the Des Moines Register, May 7, 1922. 

Shall the Skunk River be called the Halcyon, by Hiram Heaton, 
in the Fairfield Ledger, May 9, 1922. 

Antoine Le Claire and the early history of Davenport, in the 
Davenport Democrat, May 7, 1922, and the Burlington Satur- 
day Evening Post, May 27, 1922. 


Early history of Monroe County, in the Ottumwa Courier Mav 
10, 1922. ' 7 

Sketch of the life of William C. Rice, pioneer and hunter of 
Hardin County, in the Marshalltown Times-Republican Mav 
10, 1922. ' y 

Life on the Des Moines River, by J. S. Shepherd, in the Mt Ayr 
Journal, May 11, 1922. 

An incident in an early school, in the Des Moines Capital May 
12, 1922. * 

Sketch of the life of George F. Parker, in the Des Moines Capital 
May 13, 15, 1922, the Marshalltown Times- Republican, May 
15, 1922, and the Waterloo Courier, May 16, 1922. 

The dedication of Carlisle State park, in the Des Moines Tribune, 
May 15, 1922, the Des Moines Capital, May 15, 1922, and the 
Indianola Advertiser-Tribune, May 18, 1922. 

Tribute to John A. Nash, in the Des Moines Tribune, Mlav 16 
1922. ' 

The Dale Woolen Mills at Guthrie Center, in the Council Bluffs 
Nonpareil, May 14, 1922. 

Pella is seventy-five years old, by Walter H. Fowler, in the Pelto 
Booster, May 17, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Georgia Wade McClellan, in the Denison 
Review, May 17, 1922, and the Cedar Rapids Times, June 16 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Kate D. Barr, in the Keokuk Gate City, 
May 17, 1922. 

A log cabin of the forties at Wapello, in the Ottumwa Courier, 
May 17, 1922. 

The settlement of Delaware County, in the Manchester Democrat, 
May 18, 1922. 

Address by George F. Parker at the dedication of Carlisle park, 
in the Indianola Advertiser-Tribune, May 18, 1922. 

Joliet and Marquette at Muscatine, in the Muscatine Journal, May 
18, 1922. 


Iowa in the Civil War, by George Monlux, in the Rock Rapids 

Review, May 18, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of Hiram Heaton, in the Fairfield Ledger, May 

20, 22, 1922. 

I. N. Kramer and the early history of Linn County, in the Cedar 

Rapids Gazette, May 20, 1922. 
Ancient tree recalls Iowa lynching, in the Bes Moines Register, 

May 21, 1922. 

The ferry across Oneota River, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
May 21, 1922. 

How Iowa acquired its name, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
May 21, 1922. 

Captain Jule Calhoun, last of the "Lightning Pilots", by William 

Nichols, in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, May 21, 1922. 
How Oskaloosa was named, in the Ottumwa Courier, May 22, 

1922, and the Oskaloosa Herald, June 5, 1922. 
The Rock Island the first railroad into Iowa, by James J. Hruska, 

in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, May 22, 1922. 
Early days in Centerville, by Mrs. Mahlon Hibbs, in the Center- 

ville Iowegian, May 22, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of Mrs. L. L. Treat, in the Webster City News, 

May 22, 1922. 

First claim in Mitchell County was made by D. E. Cutter, in the 
Marshalltown Times-Republican, May 23, 1922. 

Abraham Lincoln at Council Bluffs, in the Ottumwa Courier, May 
24, 1922. 

Sketch of the career of Herbert Quick, in the Marshalltown Times- 
Republican, May 24, 1922. 

Keokuk County named for Indian chief, in the Sigourney Review, 
May 24, 1922. 

The story of Black Hawk, in the Muscatine Herald, May 25, June 
1, 1922. 

Early schools in Iowa, by Rosette B. Whitaker, in the Corydon 
Democrat, May 25, 1922. 

David A. Daley, first white child born in Taylor County, in the 

TS^STi 1% T' the Bedford 

an, May 30, 1922, and the Lenox Time Table, June 7 1922 

C ~ ^9, F lS2 eld ' S ° ld6St reSident ' ^ ^ ** 

J. F^Klingaman charter member of the Kobert Anderson post 
It. A. K. of Waterloo, in the Waterloo Courier, May 30, 1922 

An Tl922 hibit ^ WaShingt ° n ' iU the W«^9ton Journal, June 

Mrs. Curliss Ford's reminiscences of Cedar Falls seventy years 
ago, m the Cedar Falls Record, June 2, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of L. Y. Lenhart, in the Burlington Saturday 
Evening Post, June 3, 1922. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. Comfort P. Stow of Burt 
in the Bancroft Register, June 3, 1922., 

^tfLf* ° f Ge ° rge IrWiD ' in the Le *«* Sentinel, June 

Albert Giles, pioneer scout, in the Waterloo Tribune, June 6, 1922 
and the Marshalltown Times-Republican, June 7, 1922. 

Indians in Hancock County, in the Titonka Topic, June 8, 1922, 
and the Kanawha Reporter, June 14, 1922. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. R. S, P. Notson, in the 
Hamburg Reporter, June 8, 1922. 

History of Iowa County, in the Williamsburg Tribune, June 8, 

Pioneer experiences of Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Kilpatrick, in the 
Morning Sun Herald, June 8, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of James C. Dunn, in the Des Moines Register, 
June 10, 1922. 

The Little Brown Church in the Vale, by Alex R. Miller, in the 
Davenport Democrat, June 11, 1922. 



The Amish Community, by Alex R. Miller, in the Burlington 

Hawk-Eye, June 11, 1922. 
Civil War battle flag owned by Conrad Braum of Milford, in the 

Muscatine Journal, June 12, 1922, and the Lone Tree Be- 

porter, June 15, 1922. 
Sketch of the life of P. B. Wolfe, in the Davenport Democrat, 

June 12, 1922, and the Clinton Advertiser, June 2b, Via. 
Early days in Washington, by S. R. Hamilton, in the Washington 

Journal, June 13, 1922. 
The old Fort Madison Academy, by F. M. Myers, in the Fort 

Madison Democrat, June 14, 1922. 
Reminiscences of Andersonville, in the Pleasantville News, June 

15, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Robert Sloan, in the Keosauqua Republican, 
June 15, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of James S. Whittaker, by E. A. Rea, in the 
Cory don Times-Republican, June 15, 1922. 

By-gone days in Winterset, by Charles M. Hyskell, in the Winter- 
set Madisonian, June 15, 1922. 

Early history of Jasper County, in the Newton News, June 15, 

Mammoth tooth found at Moingona, in the Bes Moines Register, 
and the Boone News, June 16, 1922. 

Steamboat days on the Des Moines River, by W. H. H. Barker, 
in the Oskaloosa Herald, June 17, 1922. 

The flag of Company A, Twenty-fourth Iowa Infantry, in the 
Cedar Rapids Republican, June 18, 1922. 

The Volunteer Firemen's Association of Davenport, in the Daven- 
port Times, June 20, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of J. B. Harsh, in the Iowa City Press-Citizen, 
June 20, 1922. 

Old days on the Des Moines River, in the Knoxville Express, June 
21, 1922. 


ChiI 22 W 192 S 2 0ldierS ^ MOntiCell ° ^ M ° ntiCell ° Ex P ress > June 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Trent, in the 
Osceola Sentinel, June 22, 1922. 

Kemmiscenees of Sully's campaign against the Sioux, by D R 
Cowles, in the Lacona Ledger, June 23, 1922. 

The log cabin of Ben Marks near Manawa, in the Count* Bluffs 
Nonpareil, June 25, 1922. JJ 

BlaC June a 2, 1922 hiS ° PP ° nentS ' * ^ *** 

The word "Iowa " by L. F. Andrews, in the Council Bluffs Non- 
pared, June 25, 1922. 

Sac and Fox Indians in Wapello County, in the Ottumwa Courier 
June 26, 1922. ' 

Sketch of the life of Wilson Daubney, in the Chariton Leader 
June 27, 1922. ' 

Sketch of the life of John Snyder, in the Clinton Advertiser, June 
27, 1922. 

The Historical Department of Iowa, by Edgar R. Harlan, in the 
Iowa Magazine section of the Rockwell City Advocate June 
29, 1922. 

The Abbe Creek cemetery, in the ML Vernon Hawheye, June 29, 

An early copy of the Fremont Record belonging to Mrs. L. A. 
Springer, in the Fremont Gazette, June 29 ; 1922. 



Story of a Medford Piano, by Moses \Y. Mann, and At M<ed- 
ford's Old Civic Center, by Eliza M. Gill, are two short but inter- 
esting papers in the March number of The Medford Historical 

Col David L. Payne Monuments and an account of the death 
of an Oklahoma Indian named Keokuk are two of the papers 
in Historia for April. 

Memoirs of Benjamin Van Cleve, edited by Beverly W. Bond, 
Jr constitute the issue of the Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, for January- June, 1922. 

Travel Across New Jersey in the Eighteenth Century and Later, 
by William H. Benedict, a continuation of A Young Man's 
Journal of 1800-1813, and The Preakness Valley Settlement and 
the Hey Mansion, by John Neafie, are among the contributions 
to the April issue of the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 

The three papers found in the March number of The Georgia 
Historical Quarterly are the following: Development of Agricul- 
ture in Upper Georgia From 1850-1880, by Roland M. Harper; 
The Code Napoleon, by Beverly D. Evans; and Howell Colo 
Papers, edited by R. P. Brooks. 

Boston Traders in the Hawaiian Islands, 1789-1823, by Samuel 
Eliot Morison, The King's Woods, by Lawrence Shaw Mayo, 
Diary of William Greene, 1778, and Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, 
by John Torrey Morse, Jr., are among the papers in the Proceed- 
ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society for 1920-1921. 

Missouri in 1822 reprinted from The Arkansas Gazette, The 
Followers of Duden, by William G. Bek, Records of Missouri Con- 
federate Veterans, a third installment of Pioneer Life m South- 




west Missouri, by Wiley Britton, Origin of "I'm From Missouri", 
and a seventh installment of Shelby's Expedition to Mexico, by 
John N. Edwards, are the articles in The Missouri Historical 
Review for April. 

In the April number of the Western Pennsylvania Historical 
Magazine Charles W. Dahlinger contributes a fifth chapter of his 
Fort Pitt, Edwin W. Smith gives a biographical sketch entitled 
Hon, Philander Cliase Knox, Morgan M. Sheedy describes Pitts- 
burgh Point under the heading Ten Years on Historic Ground, 
and Henry King Siebeneck contributes The Life and Times of 
Robert King, Revoluntary Patriot. 

The Microscope Method Applied to History, by Joseph Schafer, 
appears in the Minnesota History Bulletin for February-May, 
1921. There is also a report of the annual meeting of the Society 
on January 17, 1921, and, under the heading Notes and Docu- 
ments, the Correspondence Occasioned by the Dinner in Honor 
of Dr. Folwell. 

The Journal of Rev. and Mrs. Lemuel Foster, edited by Harry 
Thomas Stock, is concluded in the March issue of the Journal of 
the Presbyterian Historical Society. Two other articles are A 
Family Fruitful in Ministers' Wives, by William P. White, and 
The Pioneer Presbyterians of New Providence, by S. Gordon 

The Washington Historical Quarterly for April contains the 
following papers and articles: The Loss of the "Tonquin", by 
F. W. Howay; The Background of the Purchase of Alaska, by 
Victor J. Farrar; James Bryce, a Tribute, by Edward McMahon; 
A Daughter of Angus MacDonald, by Christina M. M. Williams; 
Yakima Reminiscences, from the Yakima Herald; and a further 
contribution of the Origin of Washington Geographic Names, by 
Edmond S. Meany. 

The Adoption of the Reservation Policy in Pacific Northwest, 
1853-1855,- by C. F. Coan, The History of the Oregon Mission 
Press, by Howard Malcolm Ballou, Jonathan Carver's Source for 
the Name Oregon, by T. C. Elliott, and The First Indian School 
of the Pacific Northwest, by Robert Moulton Gatke, are the four 


articles which appear in the March number of The Quarterly of 
the Oregon Historical Society. 

The Indian Policy of the Republic of Texas, by Anna Muckle- 
roy, is the title of an article begun in the April issue of The 
Southwestern Historical Quarterly. In addition there is a bio- 
graphy of Edward Hopkins Cushing, by E. B. Cushing, and a 
third installment of The Bryan-Hayes Correspondence, edited by 
E. W. Winkler. 

Early Days in Sioux County, Ancient House Sites at Meadow, 
Nebraska, by A. M. Brooking, World War Records and Memorials, 
and Trails of Yesterday are among the papers in Nebraska History 
and Record of Pioneer Days for July-September, 1921. In the 
following number Addison E. Sheldon writes of Journeys to His- 
torical Sites in Nebraska^- Massacre Canyon, the last battle field 
of the Sioux-Pawnee War being the place described in this issue. 
There is also a description of a Cheyenne's war equipment under 
the title A Revenant Cheyenne. 

Illinois Women of the Middle Period, by Arthur Charles Cole, 
The Building of a State— The Story of Illinois, by A. MJlo Ben- 
nett, Life in the Army, by Cynthia J. Capron, The Diary of 
Salome Paddock Enos, with an introduction by Louisa I. Enos, 
Some Personal Recollections of Peter Cartwright, by William 
Epler, and History of the Selma Methodist Episcopal Church, 
by A.' V. Pierson, are the articles in the Journal of the Illinois 
State Historical Society for October, 1920. 

George H. Profit, His Day and Generation, by George R. Wil- 
son, The History of the Know Nothing Party in Indiana, by Carl 
Fremont Brand, and Jesse Kimball— Pioneer, by Geo. W. and 
Helen P. Beattie, are the three articles in the March number of 
the Indiana Magazine of History. The number for June contains 
the following articles: Crawford County, by H. H. Pleasant, 
Pioneer Stories of the Calumet, by J. W. Lester, and The Mc- 
Gowan Murder at Hindostan, by William McGowan. Carl Fre- 
mont Brand's History of the Know Nothing Party in Indiana is 
also continued in this number. 

The three articles in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 
for March are the following: The Relation of Philip Phillips to 



The Repeal of the Missouri Compromise in 1854, by Henry 
Barrett Learned ; The Beginnings of Railroads in the Southwest, 
by R. S. Cotterill ; and The Policy of Albany and English West- 
ward Expansion, by Arthur H. Buffinton. Under the heading 
Notes and Documents are Hints Relative to the Division and 
Government of the Conquered and Newly Acquired Countries in 
America, with an introduction by Verner W. Crane, and Jeffer- 
son's Plan for a Military Colony in Orleans Territory, by Everett 
S. Brown. 

Januarius A. MacGahan, by Walter J. Blakely, Journal of Jean 
Baptiste Trudeaux Among the Ankara Indians in 1795, trans- 
lated by Mrs. H. T. Beauregard, A Journey Through the Lines in 
1863, by Mrs. Lizzie Chambers Hull, Local Incidents of the Civil 
War, by Mrs. Hannah Isabella Stagg, A Bibliography of Sanitary 
Work in St. Louis During the Civil War, by Roland G. Usher, 
Some Notes on the Aboriginal Inhabitants of Missouri, by Gerard 
Fowke, and a sixth installment of Recollections of an Old Actor, 
by Charles A. Krone, are the interesting articles and papers which 
make up the recent issue of the Missouri Historical Society Collec- 
tions. Among the Notes is a brief biographical sketch of W J 

The Virginia Historical Pageant, by W. B. Cridlin, The Native 
Tribes of Virginia, by David I. Bushnell, Jr., The First University 
in America, 1619-1622, an address by W. Gordon McCabe, The 
Real Beginning of American Democracy, The Virginia Assembly 
of 1619, by Mary Newton Stanard, The Settlement of the Valley, 
by Charles E. Kemper, Before the Gates of the Wilderness Road, 
by Lyman Chalkley, and The Virginians on the Ohio and the Mis- 
sissippi in 1742, by Fairfax Harrison, are articles which make 
up the interesting April number of The Virginia Magazine of His- 
tory and Biography. 

The May issue of the Register of the Kentucky State Historical 
Society contains a series of sketches of Henry Watterson who died 
December 22, 1921. Other articles in this number are the follow- 
ing : The Discovery of Kentucky, by Willard Rouse Jillson ; Cor- 
respondence Between Governor Isaac Shelby and General William 
Henry Harrison, During the War of 1812; (( Heads of Families'' 
in Fayette County, Census of 1810, edited by A. C. Quisenberry ; 


History of the County Court of Lincoln County, Va., by Lucien 
Beckner ; Oil and Gas in the Big Sandy Valley, by Willard Rouse | 
Jillson; A Unique Railroad, by Martha Stephenson; First Ex- | 
plorations of Daniel Boone in Kentucky, also by Willard Rouse | 
Jillson; Reminiscences from the Life of Col. Cave Johnson; Some \ 
New Facts about Abrahain Lincoln's Parents, by Thomas B. Mc- 
Gregor; and Some West Kentucky Sketches. 

Three numbers of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Quarterly have been issued during the last three months. The j 
number for October, 1921, contains an article by C. B. Galbreath 
on the Anti-Slavery Movement in Columbiana County, and three 
papers relating to Edwin and Barclay Coppoc, the Quaker boys j 
from Springdale, Iowa, who participated in the John Brown raid j 
at Harper's Ferry. Two of these— Edwin Coppoc and Barclay 
Coppoc— were written by C. B. Galbreath, and the third, The 
Coffin of Edwin Coppoc, by Thomas C. Mendenhall. In the issue 
for January, 1922, there are the following contributions : A Vision 
Fulfilled— the story of the founding of Bucyrus, Ohio— by Maud 
Bush Alfred ; Colonel James Kilbourne, by C. B. Galbreath ; What 
We Owe to the Past, by Nevin 0. Winter ; The Political Campaign 
of 1875 in Ohio, by Forrest William Clonts. General Joshua 
Woodrow Sill, by Albert Douglas, The Pillars of Harrison County, 
by Joseph T. Harrison, Seneca John, Indian Chief, by Basil 
Meek, The Ohio State University in the World War, by Wilbur 
H. Siebert, Character Sketch of General Ulysses S. Grant, by 
Hugh L. Nichols, and Three Anti-Slavery Newspapers, by Annetta 
C. Walsh, are the articles and papers in the April number. 

The four articles in The Wisconsin Magazine of History for 
March are : Memories of a Busy Life, by Charles King ; The Ser- 
vices and Collections of Lyman Copeland Draper, by Louise Phelps 
Kellogg; Wisconsin's Saddest Tragedy— the murder of C. P. 
Arndt— by M. M. Quaif e ; and Historic Spots in Wisconsin— Grand 
Butte Des Morts, a Hamlet with a History, by W. A. Titus. 
Under the heading Historical Fragments are Visions of a Wis- 
consin Gold Seeker, by J. H. A. Lacher, More Recollections of 
Abraham Lincoln, by M. P. Rindlaub, and Vital Statistics of the 
First Wisconsin Cavalry in the Civil War, by Stanley E. Lathrop. 
Letters of Eldon J. Canright, written from "Somewhere in 


France" and A Letter from. Racine in 1843, by H S Dnranrf 
are included under the title, Documents. ' ' 

Two volumes of the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical 

Iw l^Zr*?* b6en diStributed - These ^ for the years 
1919 and 1920, and form numbers 26 and 27 of the Publications 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. The volume for 1919 
contains, ffi addition to the reports of the Society, the following 
addresses and papers: The Scots and Their Descendants in Illinois 
by Thomas C. MacMillan; Clark E. Carr, Late Honorary Presi- 
dent of the Illinois State Historical Society, by George A 
Lawrence; The War Work of the Women of Illinois, by Mrs' 
Joseph T. Bowen; On the Agricultural Development of Illinois 
Since the Civil War, by Eugene Davenport; The Life and Services 
of Joseph Duncan, Governor of Rlinois, 1834-1838, by Elizabeth 
Duncan Putnam; William Murray, Trader and Land Speculator 
in the Illinois Country, by Anna Edith Marks; and Captain John 
Baptiste Saucier at Fort Chartres in the Illinois, 1751-1763 by 
John P. Snyder. The volume for 1920 also contains a number of 
addresses and papers, as follows: Fifty Tears with Bench and 
Bar of Southern Illinois, by Oliver A. Harker; Benjamin D. 
Walsh, First State Entomologist of Illinois, by Mrs. Edna Arm- 
strong Tucker; Greene County; Born 100 Tears Ago, by Charles 
Bradshaw; A Quarter of a Century in the Stock Tards District 
by Mary E. McDowell ; Illinois Women in the Middle Period by 
Arthur Charles Cole; Side Lights on Illinois Suffrage History 
by Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout ; and Scots and Scottish Influence in 
Congress— An Historici-Anthropological Study, by Arthur Mac- 


The Wapello County Historical Society was organized on June 
27, 1922, with the following officers: president, W. R. Daum; 
vice president, Mrs. H. L. Waterman; secretary, Mrs. F. B. 
Thrall; and treasurer, D. A. Emery. 

The annual meeting of the Madison County Historical Society 
was held at Winterset on April 25, 1922. Edgar R. Harlan gave 
an illustrated talk, with the assistance of two Musquakie Indians. 
Election of officers resulted in the following staff: H. A. Mueller, 



president; John Anderson, vice president; and Mrs. Jean Scott, 
secret ary -treasurer . 

The Plymouth County Historical Society was organized at a 
meeting held at Le Mars on April 5, 1922. An effort will be 
made to secure a room in the courthouse or public library in 
which to store historical material. Mrs. M. C. Woolley was elected 
president; James C. Gillespie, vice president; R. J. Koehler, sec- 
retary ; and Mrs. Ella Richardson, treasurer. 

The quarterly meeting of the Jefferson County Historical So- 
ciety was held at Fairfield on April 5, 1922. A summary of the 
history of Jefferson County for the preceding three months was 
read by Hiram Heaton, the secretary. 

Residents interested in local history have organized the Hamil- 
ton County Old Settlers' Historical Society. Members who have 
lived in the county sixty years or more are to be enrolled as 
honorary members and will pay no fees. Temporary officers 
were chosen as follows: Alexander Groves, president, and W . * . 
Cole, secretary and treasurer. It is planned to hold the first 
meeting at the time of the county fair. 

The fifteenth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Histori- 
cal Association was held at Iowa City, on May 11 and 12 l&M. 
An excellent program was provided on which were the following 
papers: "Kentucky Neutrality in 1861", by W. P. Shortridge; 
"The Pro-Slavery Background of the Kansas Struggle , by James 
C Malin- "Rivalry of the French and English in the Ohio Valley 
between the Last Two Intercolonial Wars", by George A. Wood; 
"The Real Estate Bank of Arkansas in 1836", by Dallas T 
Herndon; "Old Franklin: a Frontier Town of the Twenties 
by Jonas Viles; "A Glimpse of New Orleans in 1836 , by J. Ji. 
Winston; "A study of State History in the High Schools of Mis- 
souri", by Eugene M. Violette; "Possibilities oi ! the Social 
Sciences in the Public Schools", by Anna Krafka; "Eighth Grad- 
ers vs. American History", by FredD.Cram; "Nativism m the 
Forties and Fifties with Special Reference to the Mississippi 
Valley", by George M. Stephenson; and "Some Unworked Fields 
in the History of the Mississippi Valley", by 0. G. Libby. The 
presidential address was delivered by William E. Connelley at 


the dinner on Thursday night, his subject being -Religious Con- 
ceptions of the Modern Hurons". 

In addition George F. Parker gave an address on -The Ameri 
can Pioneer and His Story" at the luncheon tendered to the 
visiting delegates by the State Historical Society of Iowa on Thurs 
day noon. President Walter A. Jessup, James Harvey Robinson 
and Hamlin Garland were the speakers at the dinner given by 
the State University of Iowa on Friday evening. For those who 
desired, a trip to the Amana Community was provided for Satur- 
day morning, while other visitors went to Des Moines to visit the 
Historical Department of Iowa. 

At the business meeting on Friday, Solon J. Buck, Superin- 
tendent of the Minnesota Historical Society, of St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, was elected President and Mrs. Clarence S. Paine 'was re- 
elected Secretary-treasurer. The executive committee for the com- 
ing year consists of the President and Secretary together with the 
following : Benjamin F. Shambaugh, Superintendent of the State 
Historical Society of Iowa ; Otto L. Schmidt of Chicago, Illinois • 
and Arthur C. Cole of Ohio State University. J. R. H. Moore 
of Indianapolis was elected chairman of the executive committee 
of the teachers' section. 


Howard H. Preston is the author of the History of Banking in 
Iowa soon to be distributed by The State Historical Society of 
Iowa. This volume presents banking in Iowa as a cross-section 
of general banking history in the United States. 

Dr. John Carl Parish, for the past three years associate editor 
on the staff of the State Historical Society of Iowa and editor of 
The Palimpsest, has accepted a position in the department of his- 
tory of the southern branch of the University of California, at 
Los Angeles, and will take up his work there soon after the first 
of August, 1922. 

The following persons have been appointed by Governor N. E. 
Kendall to serve on the Board of Curators of The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa : Mrs. Lillian Clark Cary, Dubuque ; Mrs. 
Mary E. Coon, Estherville; Mr. John M. Grimm, Cedar Rapids; 
Mrs. Mary H. S. Johnston, Humboldt; Mr. Wm. G. Kerr, Grundy 


Center: Mr. Charles E. Pickett, Waterloo; Mr. A. C. Smith, 
Clinton; Mrs. Helen S. Taylor, Bloomfield; Mr. H. O. Weaver, 

The State Historical Society of Iowa has recently received from 
Henry Clinton Parkhurst a collection of Civil War relics and a 
number of scrap books containing historical material. Mr. Park- 
hurst was a member of Company C, Sixteenth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry, during the Civil War, and was later a newspaper writer 
and the author of several volumes of prose and poetry. A map 
showing the topography and buildings of the Andersonville prison 
is included in the collection. 

The following persons have recently been elected to member- 
ship in the Society: Mrs. Harry Abbott, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. 
Will D Allender, Chariton, Iowa; Mr. Lee H. Andre, Manly, 
Iowa; Mr. Claude L. Benner, Ames, Iowa; Miss Alice J. Boyer, 
Des Moines, Iowa; Mrs. Flora B. Brown, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; 
Mr J A Brown, Keosauqua, Iowa; Mr. A. L. Calderhead, Sloan 
Iowa- Mr W. L. Cherry, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Garold 
Colston, Selma, Iowa; Mrs. Clarence P. Cook, Des Moines Iowa; 
Mr J W. Cook, Shelby, Iowa; Mr. Samuel A. Corey, Des Moines, 
Iowa- Mr C. H. Dall, Battle Creek, Iowa; Mr. Earl Edmunds, 
Corre'ctionville, Iowa; Mr. Gideon D. Ellyson, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Mr E A. Fields, Sioux City, Iowa; Mr. M. D. Gibbs, Alton, 
Iowa; Mrs. A. A. Gillette, Atlantic, Iowa; Dr. F. J. Graber, 
Stockport, Iowa; Mr. Edd R. Guthrie, Hartford, Iowa; Mr. John 
B. Hammond, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. F. M. Hanson, Garner, 
Iowa; Mr. E. C. Harlan, Indianola, Iowa; Mr. E. W. Hamson, 
Winfield, Iowa; Mr. Geo. B. Hippee, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. E. 
W F Holler, Brooklyn, Iowa; Mr. C. L. Holmes, Ames, Iowa; 
Mr Howard T. Jones, West Branch, Iowa; Mr. E. J. Kelly, Des 
Moines, Iowa ; Mrs. Samuel M. Kittredge, Ottumwa, Iowa ; Miss 
Bernice Le Claire, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. Howard L. Letts, Daven- 
port, Iowa; Mr. T. P. McGowan, Thayer, Iowa; Mr. W. R Mit- 
chell, Indianola, Iowa; Mrs. John H. Morrell, Ottumwa Iowa; 
Rev Charles O'Connor, Des Moines, Iowa; Mrs. Clara M. Peter- 
sen,' Davenport, Iowa; Mr. Philip P. Phillips, Ottumwa Iowa; 
Mr E. E.'Poston, Corydon, Iowa; Mr. T. H. Potter, Harlan, 
Iowa- Mr L. T. Quasdorf, Dows, Iowa; Mr. Almon S. Reed, 


Cedar Rapids,, Iowa; Mr. Raymond A. Smith, Council Bluffs 
Iowa; Miss Carrie P. Sondrol, Clear Lake, Iowa; Mr J H Strief 
Des Moines, Iowa; Dr. Kuno H. Struck, Davenport, Iowa- Mr' 
C. K. Stuart, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. A. I. Tiss, Fort Madison 
Iowa; Mr. John Q. Vandermast, Monroe, Iowa; Miss Elizabeth 
Wadsworth, Indianola, Iowa; Mr. C. S. Walker, Des Moines, Iowa- 
Mr. Dana Waterman, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. J. Wesselink' Pella' 
Iowa; Mrs. W. S. AVeston, Webster City, Iowa; Mr. E. J Wilkins 
Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Wishard, Wellman, Iowa; Mr' 
Frederic S. Withington, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Geo. E Wood 
Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. Fred A. Bell, Oskaloosa, Iowa; Mr W g' 
Blood, Keokuk, Iowa; Rev. John P. Burkhiser, Harlan, Iowa- 
Miss Clara Drees, Carroll, Iowa; Mr. Charles L. Gilcrest Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mr. Wm. II. Hathorn, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. C 
K. Hayes, West Branch, Iowa; Mr. Chas. A. Hoyt, Sioux City' 
Iowa ; Miss Anna B. Lawther, Dubuque, Iowa ; Mrs. Harry Lyman' 
Clarinda, Iowa; Mr. Edwin B. Lindsay, Davenport, Iowa; Mrs' 
Chas. H. Morris, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. G. S. Nollen, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. Arthur Olsen, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. W. W. Reams' 
Mitchell, South Dakota ; Mr. R. G. Remley, Webster City, Iowa ;' 
Mr. H. H. Remore, Mason City, Iowa ; Mrs. J. Fayette Schermer- 
horn, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Joe W. Smith, Council Bluffs, Iowa; 
Mr. James E. Stronks, Iowa City, Iowa; Miss Ella M. Thompson' 
Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. H. S. Van Alstine, Gilmore City, Iowa ' 
Mr. Floyd E. Billings, Red Oak, Iowa; Mr. A. A. Carlson, Belle 
Plaine, Iowa; Mr. A. D. Corcoran, Anamosa, Iowa; Mr. H B 
Jennings, Jr., Council Bluffs, Iowa; Mr. Louis C. Kurtz, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mrs. A. W. MacKinnon, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; 
Mr. Morris Mandelbaum, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mrs. Lillian Maulsby,' 
Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. Floyd Philbrick, Cedar Rapids, Iowa;' 
Mr. Frank W. Senneff, Britt, Iowa; Mrs. Maud S. Whelihan,' 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa ; and Mr. Ralph F. Worstell, Red Oak, Iowa,' 
Mr. Clifford Powell has been enrolled as a life member. 


The thirty-sixth annual picnic for old settlers was held at 
Shellstmrg, Benton County, on June 15, 1922. Verne Marshall 
of Cedar Rapids was the principal speaker. 

Hiram Heaton, well known in historical society circles, died at 
Washington, Iowa, on May 19, 1922, at the age of seventy-seven 
years. For many years he had been secretary of the Jefferson 
County Historical Society and he was a member of The State 
Historical Society of Iowa, the Mississippi Valley Historical Asso- 
ciation, and a number of similar organizations, in which he was 
deeply 'interested. His homestead, known as "Woodthrush Park", 
becomes the property of the town of Fairfield. 

Charles Reuben Keyes of Cornell College has been secured by 
the State Historical Society to make a preliminary archaeological 
survey of Iowa and the adjacent territory and is now at work 
collecting data. 


Erik McKinley Eriksson. Professor of history, Lombard 
College, Galesburg, Illinois. Born at Odebolt, Iowa, 
April 21, 1896. Attended Morningside College and the 
State University of Iowa, receiving the degree of B. A. 
from the latter institution in 1920, the M. A. degree m 
1921, and the Ph. D. degree in 1922. 

George Frederick Parker. Born December 30, 1847, at 
Lafayette, Indiana. Educated in the public schools of 
Iowa and attended the State University of Iowa m 
1868-1870. Editor of newspapers in Iowa, Indiana, 
Washington, I). C, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, 
and New York City. Author of Recollections of Gro- 
ver Cleveland and various articles in magazines and 



Iowa Journal 

H i storj'and Politics 



»\ : ;. • * . Jqwci City Iowac ^ ^ v \ f ;> 

Associate Editor JOHN C. PARISH 

Vol XX OCTOBER 1922 

No 4 


History of the Organization of Counties in Iowa 

Jacob A. Swisher 


Some Publications 3 

D( / 

Western Americana . . . . . . * • 


Iowana . . . . . . 


Historical Societies • . • • 


Notes and Comment . ... 


Contributors ..... 

Index . 


Copyright 1922 hy The State Historical Society of Iowa 


Published Quarter ly 
at iowa city 

Subscription Price: $2.00 Single Number: 50 Cents 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 



VOL. XX — 31 



[The following account of the organization of counties in Iowa, compiled 
by J. A. Swisher, supplements the two monographs written by F H Garver 
on the History of the Establishment of Counties in Iowa and the Boundary 
History of the Counties of Iowa which were published in The Iowa Journal 
of History and Politics, Volumes VI and VII. 

The collection of data for this monograph was attended by many difficulties 
In the first place authorities are not agreed as to what constitutes organiza- 
tion. Is it the date when the order was promulgated, the date of the first 
election, or the date of the first transaction of official business? In this study 
the last named event has been considered the date of organization. 

Furthermore, it was found that much of the necessary information was 
difficult to secure. To visit the various county seats and conduct searches 
among the local archives — of ten unclassified and stored in basements — 
would have required the greater part of a year and the expenditure of many 
hundreds of dollars. In many cases even such diligence would have been 
unavailing since the county records have not infrequently been destroyed by 
fire. Accordingly reliance has been placed on other sources, consisting chiefly 
of official State publications — such as the statute laws and the Iowa His- 
torical and Comparative Census, 1836-1880 — county and State histories, the 
early Annals of Iowa, and Andreas 's Illustrated Historical Atlas of the 
State of Iowa, published in 1875. 

Considerable information was secured from local county histories — particu- 
larly those published at an early day when the original sources were for the 
most part available. When all of these sources had been consulted and the 
data compared and tabulated, a letter was sent to each of the ninety- 
nine county auditors of the State, asking that the data secured for his county 
be verified by comparison with the official county records. About half of the 
whole number of auditors complied with the request, and with only two or 
three exceptions the data originally secured was found to be substantially 
correct — thus indicating that the sources used were fairly reliable. At the 
same time it is recognized that in the compilation of material for so many 
counties and from so many sources, it is possible that minor errors may have 
found their way into the final product. — The Editor] 

The student of colonial history will recall that local e;ov- 
ernment in Massachusetts was democratic: business was 
transacted in the town meetings, where all of the citizens 
could assemble, discuss, and vote upon matters of mutual 



concern. As contrasted with this town method, county 
government was representative : it originated in Virginia, 
where, because of the large tracts of land controlled by a 
sparsely settled people, local government was placed in the 
hands of a few leading citizens. In 1634 eight counties 
were organized in Virginia. This system spread through- 
out most of the southern States and some of the northern 
States — Illinois adopting the county system at the time of 
its admission into the union in 1818. 1 

Thus, it is not strange that the early settlers of Iowa 
were familiar with this form of local government, and that, 
coming as they did from various sections of the country 
already organized, these settlers brought with them many 
of the manners, customs, and laws with which they were 
familiar, and began at once to formulate these into statutes 
which were applicable to their own local needs in the new 

Frank Harmon Garver, in an article published in The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics for July, 1908, pre- 
sents a comprehensive study of the establishment of 
counties in Iowa, in which he sets forth the several legis- 
lative enactments by which the various counties of the 
State were brought into being. These legislative enact- 
ments in many cases set forth rules by which the counties 
were to be organized. In a new and sparsely settled 
country, however, the actual development frequently varies 
widely from the plans originally designed by the law- 
makers. Accordingly, it will be of interest to study the 
actual organization of the counties of the State, and to 
ascertain how the laws providing for county organization 
were made effective, how these laws were amended from 

i Howard's An Introduction to the Local Constitutional History of the 
United States, Vol. I, pp. 388, 389; History of Page County, Iowa (1880), 

pp. 385-387. 


time to time, and finally how, through a process of evolu- 
tion, the present status of county organization has come to 
be what it is. This history goes back to the time when Iowa 
was a part of Michigan and Wisconsin territories. 



In 1834 the area contained in the present State of Iowa 
was made a part of the Territory of Michigan. On the 
first day of September of that year the Sixth Legislative 
Council of the Territory of Michigan met in extra session 
at the town of Detroit and on the second day of the session 
the Governor of the Territory sent a message to the Coun- 
cil, suggesting, among other things, the establishment of 
local government in that part of the Territory west of the 
Mississippi Eiver — referring to the territory included in 
the Black Hawk Purchase. 2 In accordance with this recom- 
mendation the Legislative Council passed a measure en- 
titled "An Act to lay off and organize Counties west of the 
Mississippi Eiver", which was approved on September 6, 
1834, to take effect on the first day of October of the same 
year. 8 

The first sectiou of this law provided that that part of 
the Territory "which is situated to the north of a line to 
be drawn due west from the lower end of Eock Island to 
the Missouri river, shall constitute a county, and be called 
Dubuque ; the said county shall constitute a township, which 
shall be called Julien". 

Section two provided that the part "which is situated 
south of the said line to be drawn west from the lower end 
of Eock Island, shall constitute a county, and be called 

*Garver's Eistory of the Establishment of Counties in Iowa in The Iowa 
Journal of Histoey and Poijtlcs, Vol. VI, p. 380. 

sLaws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. Ill, pp. 1326, 1327. 



Demoine ; 4 and said county shall constitute a township, and 

be called Flint Hill". 

These two sections make it clear that each county com- 
prised but a single township, and that the county and town- 
ship lines were co-extensive. It is also evident that it was 
the intention of the legislators to place the government of 
both the county and the township in the hands of a single 
board. 5 

Section three of the act provided for the establishment 
of a county court in each county. Court was to be in ses- 
sion in Dubuque County on the first Monday in April and 
September, annually ; and in Demoine County on the second 
Monday in April and September. These county courts 
were similar to those of an earlier date. They were com- 
posed of three judges — one presiding and two associate 
justices — appointed by the Governor of the Territory. 6 

A subsequent section of this law provided that all laws 
then in force in the county of Iowa, not locally inapplicable, 
should be extended to the counties of Dubuque and De- 
moine. The "county of Iowa" mentioned in this section 
refers to a certain county of the Territory, located east of 
the Mississippi Eiver, which had been established in 1829. 7 
Accordingly, it appears that the laws governing the two 
original counties of Iowa were adopted from those laws 
of an earlier date, which were already in operation in the 
organized parts of Michigan Territory. 

One of the Michigan statutes of which we should take 
cognizance was approved on March 30, 1827, and provided 
that the inhabitants of townships should meet on the first 

4 This is the spelling found in the act. 

5 Aurner 's History of Township Government in Iowa, pp. 18, 19. 
e Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. VII, p. 232. 

7 Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. II, p. 714. 


Monday in April of each year for the purpose of electing 
a supervisor. 8 On April 12, 1827, a law was passed which 
provided that the duties previously required of the county 
commissioners should henceforth be performed by the 
supervisors. 9 Thus it appears that the laws in vogue in 
the Territory at this time placed local government largely 
in the hands of a board of supervisors, who had the func- 
tion of both township and county officers. The number of 
members of this board varied in the different counties, 
there being one from each township. In case there was but 
one township in the county, three supervisors were elected. 
The other county officers most frequently elected by the 
people at this time were the treasurer, surveyor, \and 
coroner. The list, however, was not always the same in 
the different counties, since the newer communities did 
not need all of the machinery of government which was 
used in the older settlements. Judicial officers, including 
judges of the county and probate courts, clerks of court, 
justices of the peace, sheriffs, and notaries public, were' 
appointed by the Governor. 

That there might be no delay in the matter of organiza- 
tion, the Governor, on the same day upon which he ap- 
proved of the law creating the new counties, appointed the 
following judicial officers for Dubuque County: one chief 
justice, two associate justices, a county clerk, a sheriff, a 
judge of probate, a register of probate, a notary public, a 
supreme court commission, and six justices of the peace. 
A similar list of officers was provided for Demoine County 

s Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. II, p. 317. 
9 Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. II, p. 584. 

loShambaugh's Documentary Material delating to the History of Iowa 
Vol. Ill, pp. 266, 267. 

ii Shambaugh's Documentary Material delating to the History of Iowa 
Vol. Ill, p. 267. 




on December 26, 1834. Thomas McKnight was chief justice 
in Dubuque County and William Morgan in Demoine 

There are no records of any meeting of the county board 
of supervisors in Dubuque County during the years 1834 
or 1835. That the officers appointed by the Governor en- 
tered upon the duties of their respective offices prior to 
December 9, 1834, is conclusively shown, however, from the 
fact that on that date the Legislative Council passed an 
act providing, 4 4 That the oath of office administered to the 
clerk of the county of Dubuque, and the oath of office ad- 
ministered by him to the several officers of said county, 
for the purpose of organizing said county, are hereby de- 
clared to be legal and valid". 12 It seems that the officers 
had been inducted into office and were performing the 
functions thereof when, because of some informality or 
irregularity in administering the oath, a question was 
raised as to the legality of the ceremony, thus necessitating 
a legalizing act. 

Demoine County. — In as much as local government was 
largely in the hands of the board of supervisors, the first 
meeting of this board is significant. Indeed, this may be 
taken as constituting the beginning of actual organization 
in the county. The law provided for the meeting of these 
boards in the several counties on the first Monday of 
March, and on the first Tuesday of October of each year. 13 
The earliest existing records relative to the actual organi- 
zation of a board of supervisors are to be found in De- 
moine County. The date of the election of these officers 
does not appear, and whether or not they were elected at 
the regular election in March, 1835, can not be definitely 

12 Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. Ill, p. 1333. 

13 Laws of the Territory of Michigan, Vol. II, p. 688. 


determined. 14 The board of that county met at the house 
of William R. Eoss in the town of Burlington on September 
29, 1835. 15 This must have been a special meeting, since 
the regular time for the meeting was in March and October. 
There were present, as constituting the board, Isaac Leffler, 
Francis Redding, and Ebenezer D. Ayers. Benjamin 
Tucker was appointed clerk of the board. 

Dubuque County. — The first meeting of the board of 
supervisors in Dubuque County was held on May 30, 1836, 
and there were present Francis Gehon, William Smith, and 
John Paul. Warner Lewis was appointed clerk. The 
records of that time show that grocers and innkeepers 
were taxed $10 per annum, payable quarterly. Thirty- 
eight such persons are mentioned as thus paying revenue 
into the county treasury. The same records show pauper 
and insane expenses amounting to $35.38. The first jail 
is said to have cost $577.25. On June 11, 1836, plans and 
specifications for a courthouse w^ere received. At a meet- 
ing of the board on April 1, 1837, a bill of $4.00 was 
allowed to Francis Gehon in full for services as county 
treasurer. 16 

From this brief statement of organization it will appear 
that the first county officers in Iowa were those of a judicial 
nature appointed for the county of Dubuque. The first 
organized board of supervisors — the chief governing body 
in the county — met in Demoine County. It is clear, more- 
over, that as early as May, 1836, both of the original 
counties had taken the initial steps in the matter of or- 

i* Letter of County Auditor J. F. Weber, September 7, 1922. 

isAurner's History of Township Government in Iowa, p. 19. 

isAurner's History of Township Government in Iowa, p. 19; Andreas r l 
Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 341. 




Upon the admission of part of the Territory of Michigan 
to the Union as a State, the remainder was by an act of 
Congress, approved on April 20, 1836, erected into the 
Territory of Wisconsin. 17 The area of the present State 
of Iowa, with its two original counties, was included in this 
new jurisdiction. 

The Organic Act of the Territory of Wisconsin provided 
laws differing somewhat from those of the former Michigan 
Territory. Instead of a mere outline of government, a 
more detailed plan was now provided. In spite of this 
fact, the new law did not provide any definite plan for the 
organization of counties. In article six, however, it was 
provided that f ' the legislative power of the Territory shall 
extend to all rightful subjects of legislation". Under this 
authorization the counties of Iowa, from this time on, were 
created by legislative acts, and organized in compliance 
with the rules prescribed by the Wisconsin territorial 

The legislature of the Territory of Wisconsin met for 
the first time at Belmont on October 25, 1836. 18 During 
this session a law was adopted entitled, "An Act dividing 
the county of Des Moines into several new counties." This 
act was approved on December 7, 1836, and went into effect 
immediately. 19 By the terms of this law, the territory com- 
prised in the former county of Demoine, together with a 
small triangular part of the Keokuk Eeserve, located west 
of this county, was divided into seven new counties, one of 
which retained the name of Des Moines and may be con- 

17 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 10. 
isGue's History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 174. 

is Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 76. The spelling of 
the word Des Moines is modernized in this act. 


sidered legally as a continuation of the former county. The 
other six counties thus created were: Lee, Van Buren, 
Henry, Louisa, Musquitine, and Cook. 

On December 6th, the day previous to the approval of 
the above mentioned act, the legislature passed a law 
amending several acts of the former Michigan Territory 
and providing for certain county officers. 20 Section one of 
this act provided, among other things, "that there shall be 
elected at the annual town meeting in each county three 

Section two provided that there "shall also be elected 
in each county, one township clerk, who shall in addition 
to the duties heretofore performed by him, perform the 
duties of clerk to the board of supervisors." 

Prior to this date — on November 29, 1836 — a law had 
been passed which provided for the election of a coroner. 21 
And just following this date — on December 20, 1837 — a 
law was approved which authorized the election of a treas- 
urer in each of the organized counties. 22 

Thus it appears that by the beginning of the year 1838, 
provision had been made for county officers sufficient in 
number to carry on the work of organization in a satisfac- 
tory manner. 

In this connection attention should be called to the fact 
that there is some confusion in the early records with re- 
gard to the use of the terms "Board of Supervisors" and 
"County Commissioners", and that these terms are some- 
times used synonymously. Moreover, the meeting of a 
board of supervisors is sometimes spoken of as a "super- 
visors' court" or a "commissioners' court". At this time 

20 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 64. 

21 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 22. 

22 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 129. 




these terms could mean but one thing, namely, a board of 
supervisors. The meeting is in no sense a court. More- 
over, county commissioners, as such, were not provided 
for until December, 1837. 


Henry Comity, — Following the action of the legislature, 
on December 6, 1836, providing for a board of supervisors, 
there was little delay in the matter of actual organization. 
In Henry County a board was elected, and held its first 
meeting at Mt. Pleasant on January 16, 1837, under the 
name of " Special Term Supervisors' Court". The minutes 
of this meeting show that Eobert Caulk, Samuel Brazel- 
ton, and George J. Sharp had been duly elected county 
supervisors on January 13, 1837, and that they had taken 
the required oath of office. Seven orders were issued by 
the board at this time. The first five of these pertained 
to matters involved in the previous election. A county 
treasurer, a coroner, and five constables were declared duly 
elected, and bonds were provided. The judge and clerk 
of the election were paid for their services. These nec- 
essary matters in connection with organization having been 
disposed of, the board ordered that the clerk give notice 
that their next meeting would be held on the second Mon- 
day in February, and that "all persons having business 
are requested to attend". 23 

Lee County. — The first election for county officers in 
Lee County was held at Fort Madison on Monday, April 
3, 1837, where a full staff of county officers was elected — 
some of them presumably under the authorization of the 
law as it was under the Michigan Territory. The list of 

23 History of Henry County, Iowa (1879), p. 391. 


officers elected at that time included three supervisors 
hree assessors, three road commissioners, register, W 

tZ t ' Z reCt ° rS ° f ^ P °° r ' C <~> Usurer, 
collector, and five constables. 24 

J5Z£? "Tf? if ^ b ° ard ° f s «P e ™rs -as held 

£S£T /; ?° USlaSS in F ° rt Madison on Monday, 
the im day of Aprd, 1837. The minutes of the meeting 

show that only two orders were passed, both of which 
however, are significant as showing the prevailing custom 
of retadmg spirituous liquors and wines, not at a separate 
dispensary, but m connection with some other business 
such as that of an innkeeper or grocer. The first order 
reads: "That said J. S. Douglass be permitted to keep a 
public house in the town of Fort Madison for the term of 
one year from the 17th of this month, and that he has also 
permission to retail spirituous liquors and wines by small 
measure during said time." The second order was "that 
each and every person who shall apply to said Board of 
Supervisors for license to keep a grocery, with the per- 
mission to retail spirituous liquors and wines by small 
measure, shall pay twenty-five dollars per annum into the 
county treasury, and get a receipt for the same, and pre- 
sent to said Board of Supervisors." 25 These two orders 
having been passed the board adjourned until the first 
Monday in May. 

Louisa County. The record of the first election in 
Louisa County has not been preserved. That such an elec- 
tion was held, however, in the spring of 1837 is evident 
from the fact that the board of supervisors met in Wapello 
on April 22nd of that year. 28 The members of the board 

2* History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), p. 431. 

" History of Lee County, Iowa (1879), pp. 431, 432. 

26 History of Louisa, County, Iowa (1912), Vol. I, pp. 80-82. 


present at that time were Jeremiah Smith and William 
Milligan. It appears that the third member of the board 
did not attend the meeting, as his name does not appear 
in the minutes, a facsimile of which has been preserved. 
Indeed, it seems clear that he, together with other officers 
elected at the spring election, did not qualify, for the board 
of supervisors, after appointing Z. C. Inghram clerk of 
the board, ordered another election to be held on May 6th 
for the purpose of electing one supervisor, constables, 
assessor, collector, director of the poor, fence viewer, and 
all other officers required to fill vacancies caused by those 
previously elected failing to qualify in due time. The clerk 
was authorized to advertise a special meeting of the board 
to be held on the 12th of May. The meeting was then ad- 
journed by the passing of an order "that the bord rise 
until the 12th day of May next". 27 

Van Buren County. — In Van Buren County the first 
records obtainable are those with regard to a meeting of 
the "Supervisors' Court" on Thursday, May 4, 1837, at 
the town of Farmington. There were apparently but two 
members of the board present — John Bending and Isham 
Keith. Enoch P. Blackburn was appointed clerk. 28 The 
date of the spring election is not known. Beference is 
made to it, however, in the minutes of this meeting, when 
the clerk of the district court presented the poll books for 
"the late election". It was ordered, in this connection, 
that certificates of election be issued to the recorder, for 
township clerk, collector, coroner, three assessors, three 
road commissioners, two overseers of poor, three fence 
viewers, and a pound master. The board ordered that a 

27 Uistory of Louisa County, Iowa (1912), Vol. I, pp. 80, 81. 
2 s This data was obtained from the original records in Van Buren Connty 
by Dr. Ivan L. Pollock, July, 1922. 


tax of $25 per year be imposed upon persons conducting a 
grocery business. 

Muscatine County. - The exact date of the first election 
m Muscatine County is not obtainable, owing to the fact 
that the records were burned when the old courthouse of 
that county was destroyed in 1864. It is known, however 
that an election was held in the spring of 1837 Arthur 
Washburn and Edward Fay were chosen as supervisors 
It is probable that a third man was elected but his name' 
does not appear. This board met on October 4, 1837 - 
The only business transacted at this session was the issu- 
ance of orders on the treasurer for various sums. Seven 
orders 111 all were issued, four of which were for work on 
the roads. 

The county of Cook, which it will be remembered was 
established when the original county of Demoine was 
divided, was never officially organized. This county be- 
came extinct when its territory was apportioned among 
several new counties on January 18, 1838. 30 


Before the organization of more counties the Second 
Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wisconsin con- 
vened at Burlington, and on December 20, 1837, 31 passed a 
law which is significant in the history of organization. This 
was an act authorizing the election of a board of county 
commissioners in each county of the Territory. The duties 
of these commissioners were virtually those which had 
hitherto been performed by the board of supervisors. This 

™ History of Muscatme County, Iowa (1879), pp. 417, 418. 

30 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 381. 

31 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, pp. 138-140. 


law was more explicit than those of the earlier date, and 
the vagueness which had hitherto been so apparent gave 
way in a measure to a more definite plan of organization. 

The law provided, ''That there shall be and hereby is 
organized in each county in this territory, a board of 
county commissioners for transacting county business, to 
consist of three qualified electors, any two of whom shall 
be competent to do business, to be elected by the qualified 
electors of the several counties respectively." The date 
of the first election was the first Monday in March. It was 
further stipulated that at this first election the person 
having the highest number of votes should serve three 
years, the person having the next highest number should 
serve two years, and the person having the next highest 
should serve one year, and thereafter one commissioner 
should be elected annually to serve for three years. Pro- 
vision was also made for regular meetings of the board on 
the first Monday in April, July, October, and January of 
each year. The commissioners were given power to ap- 
point a clerk who, together with the sheriff, was authorized 
to attend all meetings of the board. 

On December 21, 1837, 32 the day following the approval 
of the law relative to commissioners, an act subdividing 
the county of Dubuque was approved. This law included 
not only Dubuque County, but also approximately the 
northern two-thirds of the Sac and Fox Cession of October 
21 1837, as well as large tracts of the Indian country not 
yet ceded to the United States government. The act pro- 
vided for the establishment of fourteen new counties as 
follows : Dubuque, Clayton, Jackson, Benton, Linn, Jones, 
Clinton, Johnson, Scott, Delaware, Buchanan, Cedar, Fay- 
ette, and Keokuk. 

32 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 132. 


Section three of this act established the boundary lines 
of Dubuque County, giving it its present boundaries. The 
organization of the government of the county, however, 
was not changed, hence this may be considered as having 
begun with the original county and continued until the 
present time. Of the other thirteen counties some were 
not actually organized until as late as 1847. In the mean- 
time other counties were established and in some instances 
several established counties were without active organiza- 
tion. Counties will, therefore, be considered in the order 
in which they were organized, mention only being made of 
the date of their establishment. 

Scott County. — It will be recalled that the law which 

b ard of country 

commissioners provided 
for its election on the first Monday in March. In Scott 
County the first election was held, in accordance with this 
law, on Monday, March 5, 1838. 

The commissioners elected on that day were Benjamin 
F. Pike, Alfred Carter, and Andrew W. Campbell. The 
first meeting of the board was held at the store of J. W. 
Higgins, in the town of Eockingham, on March 20, 1838. 
Only two of the commissioners were present. Ebenezer 
Cook was appointed clerk of the board and arrangements 
were made to procure from the Secretary of the Territory 
a suitable seal. As there was no business to be transacted 
the board adjourned to meet again in April. 33 

Cedar County. — In Cedar County an election was held 
on March 5, 1838, when the following commissioners were 
elected : Richard Eansf ord, J. M. Oaks, and Joseph Wilf ord. 
The commissioners met at Rochester — the place fixed by 

33 History of Davenport and Scott County, Iowa (1910), Vol. I, p. 547; 
letter of County Auditor Jos. Wagner, September 16, 1922. 

VOL. XX — 32 


the territorial legislature — on April 2, 1838. At this ses- 
sion two petitions were received asking for roads to be 
opened. The county was divided into districts, and election 
precincts were established. 34 Other minor matters were 
disposed of by the board. After allowing a compensation 
per diem for each commissioner and for the clerk and 
sheriff, the session adjourned to meet on the 24th of MJay. 

Jackson County, — Whether or not the first election in 
Jackson County was held on the first Monday in March, 
as was provided in the law establishing the. board of county 
commissioners, does not appear. It is clear, however, that 
an election was held during the spring of 1838. The first 
county commissioners were William Jonas, William Mor- 
den, and J. Leonard. J. H. Eose was appointed clerk of 
the board. The first meeting of the board was held at 
Bellevue on April 2, 1838 — the date of the meeting of the 
first board in Cedar County. At this meeting the county 
was divided into six voting precincts and election judges 
were appointed for each. 35 

When Jackson County was established Jones and Linn 
counties were attached as election precincts and Bellevue 
was made the seat of government. The county seat was 
later moved to Andrew and finally to Maquoketa. 



It soon became apparent that the Territory of Wiscon- 
sin was too large for the successful administration of local 
government. Accordingly the Territory was divided by 

3*Aurner ? s A Topical History of Cedar County, Iowa (1910), Vol. I, pp. 
53, 54; Andreas 's Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), 
p. 399 ; Gue 's History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, p. 324. 

35 History of Jackson County, Iowa (1879), pp. 327, 328. 



an act of Congress approved on June 12, 1838. 36 This law 
provided that the part of the Territory lying west of the 
Mississippi Kiver and west of a line dne north from the 
source of said river should form a new Territory to be 
known as the Territory of Iowa. 

Clayton County. — Clayton County was the first to or- 
ganize under the new jurisdiction. The first election in 
this county was held in September, 1838. Although this 
purported to be an election for members of the legislature 
and a Delegate to Congress, 37 it is probable that county 
officers were also elected. At all events the first meeting 
of the board of county commissioners was held on October 
6, 1838, at the town of Prairie La Porte, the first county 
seat. 38 No business was transacted except that of organiza- 
tion and the appointment of Dean Gay as clerk of the 
board. An adjournment was then had until October 13th. 

It should be mentioned in this connection that on Decem- 
ber 14, 1838, the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of 
Iowa passed a law providing for county commissioners in 
the new Territory. 39 This law was patterned after the 
one previously passed by the Legislative Council of Wis- 
consin. It provided for a board of three commissioners, 
elected by the people. Two members of the board were to 
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 

J olfinson County. — As soon as Kobert Lucas, the newly 
appointed Governor of Iowa, reached Burlington, he began 
to organize the Territory by issuing a proclamation for an 

38 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 235. 
37 History of Clayton County, Iowa (1882), p. 413. 
38 History of Clayton County, Iowa (1882), p. 264. 

39 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 101. 


election. He issued a sheriff's commission to Samuel C. 
Trowbridge, with instruction to call an election for the 
purpose of organizing Johnson County. 40 The first election 
of county officers in this county was held at Napoleon on 
September 10, 1838. Territorial as well as county officers 
were elected at that time. The county commissioners chosen 
were Henry Felkner, Abner Wolcott, and William Stur- 
gis. 41 The first board meeting was held on March 29, 1839. 
Two motions were passed — one with regard to the ap- 
pointment of Luke Douglass as clerk and the other con- 
cerning the adoption of a county seal. It was then ordered 
that the "court" adjourn sine die. 

Jefferson County. — Jefferson County was the next in 
order to take up the matter of organization. This county 
was not included in the above mentioned group of four- 
teen which were established upon the division of Dubuque 
County but was established through a division of Henry 
County, which it will be remembered was one of the seven 
counties carved from the original county of Demoine. The 
law which established this county was approved on Janu- 
ary 21, 1839. 42 It was clearly the intent of the legislators 
to cause as little confusion as possible in placing this 
county under a new organization. The act provided that 
Jefferson County "shall, to all intents and purposes, be 
and remain an organized county, and invested with full 
power and authority to do and transact all county business 
which any regularly organized county may of right do." 43 
This is the first example recorded where a law definitely 

40 Early Iowa (The Iowa City Republican Leaflets), Ch. II, p. 13. 

4i Early Iowa (The Iowa City Republican Leaflets), Ch. I, pp. 57, 61. 

42 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 92. 

43 This is the first example of a definite declaration of the law providing 
for organization. 


declared that a county " shall be organized". Prior to this 
date laws were passed authorizing elections, and officers 
having been elected they proceeded to organize. The law 
here is definite and indicates an advance step in the history 
of organization. It was recognized, however, that a mere 
declaration of the organization was of little effect. Ac- 
cordingly provision was made for an election of county 
officers to be held on the first Monday of April, 1839, and 
the sheriff was authorized to give public notice of the im- 
pending election. This is believed to be the first legislative 
appointment of an organizing sheriff in Iowa. Further 
provision was made that the newly established county 
should remain attached to Henry County for judicial pur- 
poses until its officers were elected and the county properly 

In accordance with the provisions of this law an election 
was held which resulted in the selection of three county 
commissioners, a treasurer, sheriff, recorder, and surveyor. 
The first meeting of the board of county commissioners 
was held at the village of Lockridge on April 8, 1839, 44 at 
which only two of the members were present. After ap- 
pointing a clerk and having him duly sworn into office, the 
first order was one with regard to the surveying and lay- 
ing out the town of Fairfield, which had been selected as 
the county seat. Arrangements were further made for the 
sale of lots in Fairfield and that the sale be advertised in 
Fort Madison, Mount Pleasant, Keosauqua, and Burling- 
ton. Fees were allowed the officers and the board ad- 

Washington County. — The history of the organization 
of Washington County presents a somewhat intricate as 

^History of Jefferson County, Iowa (1879), pp. 395, 397. 


well as interesting situation, involving the names success- 
ively of Cook, Slaughter, and Washington. Reference was 
made to the fact that Cook County was established as one 
of the group of seven counties carved from the original 
county of Demoine and that it later became extinct. The 
law which established Slaughter County also established 
new boundaries for the counties of Lee, Van Buren, Des 
Moines, Henry, Louisa, and Muscatine, but made no ref- 
erence to Cook County. 45 Accordingly it has sometimes 
been thought that the name Cook was changed to Slaugh- 
ter. This was not the case. By the rearrangement of 
boundary lines made by the acts of December 21, 1837, and 
January 18, 1838, Cook County was completely crowded 
out. Slaughter was a newly established county, not to be 
considered as a successor of Cook County. 

Whether or not Slaughter County was ever fully or- 
ganized does not clearly appear. The absence of any 
reference to the election of county officers leads one to be- 
lieve that such an election was not held. However that 
may be, it is clear that a commission was appointed to 
locate the seat of justice and also that a term of the dis- 
trict court was held in the county. In 1838 the town of 
Astoria was laid out and designated as the county seat and 
a courthouse was started but never completed. 48 

On January 25, 1839, 47 an act was passed which changed 
the name of Slaughter County to Washington County. This 
law provided that 6 6 the county of Washington shall, to all 
intents and purposes, be and remain an organized county". 
Hence it would appear that it was the intent of the legis- 

45 Laws of the Territory of Wisconsin, 1836-1838, p. 381. 

46Garver's History of the Establishment of Counties in Iowa in The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, pp. 390, 391; Annals of Iowa 
(First Series), Vol. VII, pp. 76, 78. 

47 Laws of the Territory of Ioiva, 1838-1839, p. 100. 


lators to merely change the name and continue the county 
organization, in so far as this organization had been effect 
ed. In the spring of 1839, soon after the name of the 
county was changed, a complete staff of county officers 
appears, including three commissioners, a clerk, judge of 
probate, treasurer and collector, recorder, coroner, and 
sheriff. The board of commissioners held its first meeting 
on Monday, May 5, 1839. Provision was made for secur- 
ing a seal. Election precincts were designated. This meet- 
ing was, however, only a special session, and very little 
was done aside from attending to matters of organization 
The first regular session of the board was held on July 
1, 1839, in the town of Washington, which had, prior to this 
time, been selected as the county seat. The first court was 
held on June 17, 1839, by Judge Joseph Williams, but no 
indictments having been returned 48 there were no cases 
for trial. 

Linn County. — On January 15, 1839, a law was 
approved which provided "That the county of Linn be and 
the same is herebye organized from and after the first day 
of June next". 49 Eichard Knott, Lyman Dillon, and Ben- 
jamin Nye were by the same act appointed commissioners 
to locate the seat of justice, to meet for that purpose on 
the first Monday of March. Here again as in eases pre- 
viously mentioned there may be a wide range of difference 
between a county which has been declared by the legis- 
lature to be organized and one that is actually organized. 
The legislature had declared this county to be organized 
after the first of June. It was in the month of August, 
however, two months later, that the first election of county 

<8 Annals of Iowa (First iSeries), Vol. VII, pp. 78-80. 
49 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 97. 


officers was held. 50 The commissioners elected at this time 
were Samuel C. Stewart, Peter McRoberts, and Luman M. 
Strong. The first meeting was held on September 9, 1839. 
Hosea W. Gray was sheriff and John C. Berry was ap- 
pointed clerk of the board. The site of the county seat had 
been selected prior to this time and accordingly the board 
at this meeting ordered, "That the county seat of Linn 
County be and is hereby called and shall hereafter be 
known and designated by the name of Marion." On the 
second day of the session the board appointed two "Con- 
stables for the county", also a supervisor of roads. Sheriff 
Gray was authorized to contract with the sheriff of Mus- 
catine County for the safe-keeping of one Samuel Clews, 
who was the first man in the county to require the services 
of a sheriff in the capacity of guardian. There being no 
funds provided for this service, the sheriff was further 
authorized to borrow the necessary money for the main- 
tenance of the prisoner. 

Jones County. — On January 24, 1839, the Legislative 
Assembly passed a law relative to the organization of 
Jones County. 51 It was evidently the intention of the 
legislators to provide for a definite organization, for the 
law provided that the county "be, and the same is, hereby 
organized, from and after the first day of June next". 
Simeon Gardner of Clinton County, Israel Mitchell of Linn 
County, and William H. Whiteside of Dubuque County 
were appointed commissioners to locate the county seat. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the law provided for an 
organization of the county from and after June 1, 1839, 
the first election was not held until the fall of that year, 

so History of Linn County, Iowa (1878), p. 358. 
si Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1838-1839, p. 95. 



and the board of commissioners did not meet until Feb- 
ruary 3, 1840. 52 

Clinton County. — At a special session of the legislature 
there was enacted on J anuary 11, 1840, a law relative to 
the organization of Clinton County. This law provided 
that the county should "be organized from and after the 
first day of March", that an election of county officers * 
should be held on the first Monday in April, that the county 
should become a part of the third judicial district, that 
court be held on the first Monday of May and October, and 
that the county seat should be established at the town of 
Camanche. 53 

In a history of Clinton County published in 1879 it is 
said that no records exist of any proceedings of the board 
of commissioners prior to January 5, 1841, but the author 
continues: "We have verbal statements of old settlers 
which place it almost beyond doubt that there were meet- 
ings held during the year 1840, and that Elijah Buel, 
George Griswold, and Eobert C. Bourne were the first 
Commissioners. ' ' 5 * 

Following the organization of Clinton County, the mat- 
ter of county government seems to have been, for a con- 
siderable time, in a state of comparative quiescence. In- 
deed, no other counties were established until February 
17, 1843, when a law was passed establishing the counties 
of Davis, Appanoose, Wappello, 55 Kishkekosh, Mahaska, 
Iowa, Poweshiek, Tama, and Blackhawk, and changing the 
boundaries of Keokuk, Benton, and Buchanan counties. 

52 History of Jones County, Iowa (1879), pp. 327, 328. 
szLaws of the Territory of Iowa (Extra Session), 1840, p. 67. 

History of Clinton County, Iowa (1879), p. 350. 
55 This is the spelling given in this act. 


This law provided for a temporary survey of the several 
counties which should fix the county boundaries until the 
lands were surveyed by the United States government. 
The law also authorized the Governor of the Territory to 
appoint and commission justices of the peace for each 
county, and gave the justices power to appoint constables. 56 

In December, 1843, the legislature was again in session, 
and during the month of February of the following year 
several laws were passed with regard to the organization 
of counties. The counties of Keokuk and Mahaska 57 were 
organized by a law adopted on February 5th, Delaware 
County 58 on the 8th, Wapello County on the 13th, and Davis 
County on the 15th. 59 

Delaware County.— -The law concerning each of these 
counties, except Delaware, stipulated that organization 
should be effective from and after March 1, 1844. The law 
relative to Delaware County, on the other hand, declared 
that organization should take effect as soon as the act was 
passed, namely, on February 8, 1844. 60 This law, however, 
was the last of a series of laws relative to the organization 
of this county, and nothing was accomplished by its pas- 
sage, except to secure a mere declaration that the county 
was organized. The records show that the county had in 
fact been fully organized in 1841, and from that time had 
continued as a separate organization. As early as Decem- 
ber 20, 1839, a law had been passed which provided for the 
organization of the county. Commissioners were appointed 

56 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1842-1843, pp. 131-135. 

sr Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843-1844, p. 85. 

ss Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843-1844, p. 105. 

59 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843-1844, pp. 114, 137. 

eo Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843-1844, p. 105. 


to locate the county seat and an election was provided for. 61 
For some reason the commissioners did not meet as direct- 
ed to locate the county seat. This may have been due to 
the fact that very few people had yet come to the county, 
or it may have been due to opposition among the settlers 
to the proposed plan of organization. However that may 
be, at the extra session of the legislature in July, 1840, an 
amendatory act was passed naming other commissioners. 
On January 13, 1841, a law was passed which authorized 
an election to determine the location of the county seat. 62 
The records show that an election for the location of a 
county seat and for the choice of county officers was held 
on August 2, 1841. Delaware County had prior to this time 
been attached to Dubuque County, accordingly the election 
returns were sent to Dubuque County, where on October 
4th the following persons were declared to be the first 
officers of Delaware County : Leroy Jackson, sheriff ; Wil- 
liam H. Whiteside, William Eads, and Daniel Brown, 
county commissioners ; Eobert B. Hutson, treasurer ; John 
Padelford, recorder; Joseph Bayley, surveyor; Eoland 
Aubrey, judge of probate; Fayette Phillips, assessor: 
William L. Woods, coroner; and Theodore Marks, public 
administrator. The county commissioners met at the house 
of William Eads on November 19, 1841. Charles W. Hobbs 
was appointed clerk of the board. 63 

Davis County. — In Davis County there was a com- 
pliance with the law with regard to election. Accordingly, 
the first Monday in April, 1844, was the date of the election 
of the first county officers. The records show that there 

ei Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839-1840, p. 9. 

62 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1840-1841, p. 48. 

63 History of Delaware County, Iowa (1878), pp. 342-349. 


were 322 votes cast at this election including those from 
two precincts in what is now Appanoose County. Whether 
or not all of the voters came to the polls primarily for the 
purpose of voting may be subject to some doubt, since it 
appears that on the morning of election day a barrel of 
whiskey was delivered at the polls and that by the middle 
of the afternoon the last of it had been consumed. The 
number of persons who imbibed too freely does not appear. 
Suffice to say that during the afternoon and evening there 
were seven fights and ' 6 much confusion". 

The election over, the next thing in order was a meeting 
of the commissioners. The members of the board ex- 
perienced much difficulty in this connection, owing to the 
distance which they lived from the meeting place, the con- 
dition of the weather, and lack of means of travel. Samuel 
McAtee, one of the commissioners, in recounting his ex- 
perience said: "I lived some ten miles from the claim of 
Col. Carpenter, the place agreed upon for the first meet- 
ing On the 13th of April, at the break of day, I started, 

on foot, to meet the other Commissioners. The streams 
were all past fording, and of course no bridges : and when 
I came to a stream too deep to wade by rolling up my 
breeches, and where a log could not be had to cross on, I 
pulled off my clothes, placed them on my head, drawing 
my hat over them, I tied them on by drawing my suspen- 
ders over the top and tying them under my chin. Having 
thus secured my clothes, I either waded or swam the 
stream, as the case required, and reaching the opposite 
shore, I dressed myself and resumed my tramp, crossing 
thus each stream that lay in my road, until I arrived at the 
place where the Court sat." 64 Abram Weaver, another 
member of the commission, experienced similar difficulties. 

^Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. II, pp. 296-301; History of Davis 
County, Iowa (1882), p. 421. 


At the first meeting of the board but little business was 
transacted. Among other things, however, it was ordered 
that the coroner be directed to call upon the commissioners 
who had been selected to locate the seat of justice and 
notify them of their appointment. On the 25th of April 
a special meeting of the county commissioners was held at 
the home of Dr. N. C. Barron. At this time, the seat of 
justice having been located, the members of the board cast 
lots to determine the name of the county seat. The result 
was the selection of the name Bloomfield. 65 

As stated above, a law was passed on February 5, 1844 
which provided for the organization of Keokuk and Ma- 
haska counties. An organizing sheriff was, by the terms 
of this act, appointed in each county. He was authorized 
to perform the regular duties of sheriff until his successor 
should be elected and qualified. It was stipulated that a 
special election should be held on the first Monday in April 
for the purpose of electing three county commissioners, a 
judge of probate, county treasurer, clerk of the board 'of 
county commissioners, county surveyor, assessor, sheriff, 
coroner, recorder, and justice of the peace. The officers' 
elected at this time were to hold office until the next general 
election. Commissioners were appointed in each of these 
counties to locate the county seats. 66 

Keokuk County. — In accordance with the law of Feb- 
ruary 5, 1844, the first election was held in Keokuk County 
on April 1, 1844, at which time Jeremiah Hollingsworth, 
James M. Smith, and Enos Darnell were elected commis- 
sioners. On April 24th a meeting of the board was called 
to meet at the home of. James M. Smith for the purpose of 

es Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. II, pp. 300, 301. 
66 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1843-1844, pp. 85-88. 




perfecting the county organization. Only two members of 
the board were present at this meeting and no business 
aside from that of organization was transacted. The second 
meeting was called for May 13, 1844." 

Mahaska County. — Mahaska County also complied with 
the law relative to organization, and held its first election 
for county officers on April 1, 1844. A full staff of county 
officers was elected at this time. 68 On Tuesday, May 14th, 
the board of commissioners met, the several county officers 
were duly sworn into office, the county was divided into 
election precincts, and the machinery of county government 
was soon in operation. 69 

A commission composed of Jesse Williams of Johnson 
County, Ebenezer Perkins of Washington County, and 
Thomas Henderson of Keokuk County had been appointed 
to locate the county seat. These men selected the south- 
east quarter of section thirteen, township seventy-five, 
range sixteen, as the future seat of government and gave 
it the name of Oskaloosa.' 

Wapello County. — In Wapello County, as in the two 
counties just mentioned, the election for county officers was 
held on April 1, 1844, at which time three commissioners, 
a probate judge, sheriff, treasurer, recorder, clerk, and sur- 
veyor were elected. The board of county commissioners 
met for the first time on May 20, 1844. The members - 
Lewis F. Temple, James Montgomery, and Charles F. Har- 
row _ were all present. These with the other officials-elect 

67 History of Keokuk County, Iowa (1880), p. 346; election returns on file 
at Historical Department in Des Moines. 

68 History of Mahaska County, Iowa (1878), p. 267. 
en History of Mahaska County, Iowa (1878), p. 276. 
io History of Mahaska County, Iowa (1878), p. 268. 


qualified and the government of Wapello County was in 

The first transaction of the board consisted of the grant- 
ing of a license to David Glass to keep a grocery in Ottum- 
wa. This appears to be inconsistent since the minutes of 
the board of commissioners indicate that the meeting was 
held at "Louisville". The seeming incongruity is ex- 
plained, however, by the fact that the name Ottumwa was 
not officially adopted until November, 1845. Prior to that 
date Louisville was the name most frequently used n 

On May 5, 1845, the Legislative Assembly again con- 
vened. During this session laws were passed relative to 
the organization of three additional counties. On June 
10th, Iowa County was declared to be organized," and on 
the same day but by another act Marion County was 
created." The name Marion County does not appear pre- 
vious to this time, hence this county was established and 
organized by the same act. On the following day, June 

was declared to be organized. 7 * 
Iowa and Kishkekosh counties were each declared to be 
organized "from and after the first day of July", and in 
each case a special election for county officers was to be 
held on the first Monday of August. Marion County was 
declared to be organized from and after the first Monday 
m August, and an election was to be held on the first Mon- 
day of September. In each county commissioners were 
appointed to locate the county seat. 

Marion County. ~ In accordance with the above law the 

71 History of Wapello County, Iowa (1914), Vol. I, pp. 100-102. 

72 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1844-1845, p. 85. 

73 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1844-1845, p. 93. 

74 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1844-1845, p. 103. 


first election in Marion County was held on Monday, the 
first day of September, 1845. At this time 187 votes were 
cast which resulted in the election of Conrad Walters, 
William Welch, and David Durham as county commission- 
ers ; Stanford Doud, clerk; Francis A. Barker, judge of pro- 
bate; David T. Durham, treasurer; James Walters, sheriff; 
Reuben Lowry, recorder; Green T. Clark, assessor; Isaac 
B. Power, surveyor ; and Wellington Nossaman, coroner. 

The first meeting of the county commissioners was held 
on September 12, 1845. At this session the report of the 
commissioners for locating the county seat was received 
and arrangements were made for surveying the town of 
Knoxville, after which the board adjourned until the second 
Monday in October. 75 

On January 13, 1846, the Legislative Assembly passed 
a law entitled "An Act to establish new counties and de- 
fine their boundaries.' ' True to its title this law did not 
attempt to organize, but merely created, named, and bound- 
ed the twelve counties of Wayne, Lucas, Warren, Polk, 
Marshall, Jasper, Story, Boone, Dallas, Madison, Clarke, 

and Decatur. 76 

During this session of the legislature acts were passed 
for the organization of the counties of Benton, 77 Jasper, 
Polk, 78 and Appanoose. 79 

On January 17, 1846, the Legislative Assembly — in a 
single act — provided for the organization of the two 
counties of Jasper and Polk. This law stipulated that the 
organization should be effective from and after March 1, 

75 History of Marion County, Iowa (1915), Vol. I, p. 77. 

76 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 73. 

77 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 86. 

78 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 92. 

79 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 55. 


1846, and provided for a special election of county officers 
to be held on the first Monday in April. Marshall County 
was attached to the county of Jasper for election, revenue, 
and judicial purposes, while Story, Boone, and Dallas 
counties were attached to Polk County. Commissioners 
were also appointed to locate the county seat in each of 
the newly organized counties, and places were designated 
for the holding of the first term of the district court. 

Iowa County. — In Iowa County the organizing election 
was held at the home of Eobert M. Hutchinson on the 4th 
of August, 1845. A full staff of officers was elected, Mr. 
Hutchinson being chosen one of the county commissioners. 
The other members were Anderson Meacham and Edward 
E. Eicord. The commissioners convened in extra session 
on September 14, 1845. Few orders were passed at this 
meeting. One of these, however, is of interest in that it 
declared that "the name of the county seat shall be 'Valley 
Forge' " — the name Marengo having been previously 
designated by the locating commission. It appears that 
the name selected was unsatisfactory to many of the set- 
tlers and the county commissioners, supposing that they 
had authority in the matter, ordered that the name be 
Valley Forge instead of Marengo. 80 The order, however, 
did not prevail and the name remained unchanged. 

Monroe County. — In Kishkekosh County the election 
for county officers was held in accordance with the law of 
August 5, 1845. The officers elected at this time were 
Wareham Gr. Clark, probate judge; James Hilton, clerk 
of court; Jeremiah Miller, clerk of the board of county 
commissioners; T. Templeton, treasurer; John Clark, 

so History of Iowa County, Iowa (1881), pp. 354-357. 

vol. xx — 33 


sheriff ; and Joseph McMullen, Moses H. Clark, and J . S. 
Bradley, county commissioners. The first meeting of the 
board of commissioners was held on Saturday, August 9, 
1845, at the house of W. Gr. Clark. The first order issued 
was one allowing Israel Kister the sum of $14 for services 
rendered in locating the county seat. James A. Galliher 
was allowed $18 for similar services. 81 On August 1, 1846, 
the name of the county was changed to Monroe. The 
county organization continued unchanged under the new 
name. 82 

Polk County. — In Polk County the organization election 
was held on the first Monday in April, 1846, at which there 
were 175 votes cast. Officers elected were three commis- 
sioners, a probate judge, sheriff, coroner, surveyor, 
treasurer, recorder, assessor, and collector. The first ses- 
sion of the board of county commissioners was held on 
April 12th. The eagle side of a half dollar was adopted 
as the temporary seal of the commissioners. Bills were 
allowed for the services of election clerks, licenses were 
granted for the keeping of two grocery stores, and an order 
of five dollars and twenty-five cents was allowed for the 
purchase of books and stationery for the use of the county. 
The commissioners then allowed bills for their own service 
and adjourned until May 25th. 83 

Jasper County. — The first election in Jasper County 
was held on the first Monday in April, 1846, as designated 
by law and a full staff of officers was elected. County 
government was officially inaugurated on April 14th when 

si History of Monroe County, Iowa (1896), pp. 18-31; History of Monroe 
County, Iowa (1878), p. 361. 

82 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 108. 
S3 History of PolJc County, Iowa (1880), pp. 420-424. 


the county commissioners met for the first time. At this 
meeting very little business was transacted. A temporary 
seal was adopted, however, and minor matters of organiza- 
tion adjusted. 84 

Benton County. — Again on January 17, 1846, the same 
day on which Jasper and Polk counties were declared to 
be organized, a law with regard to Benton County provided 
for its organization from and after March 1st. This law 
stipulated that there should be a special election of county 
officers to be held on the first Monday in April. Black 
Hawk and Tama counties and the counties west of Tama 
were attached to Benton for election, revenue, and judicial 
purposes. Joseph A. Secrest, Lyman Dillon, and Joseph 
A. Downing were appointed to locate and establish the seat 
of justice and were directed to meet on the first Monday 
of May or within thirty days thereafter to perform the 
duty for which they were appointed. 

In accordance with the provisions of the law relative to 
county organization an election was held on the first Mon- 
day in April, 1846, at which time Edwin B. Spencer, Sam- 
uel K. Parker, and Stedman Penrose were elected county 
commissioners. Other county officers were also elected 
at this time. 

No written report has been left of the work of the board 
of commissioners which convened probably in May or June 
— the exact date does not appear. It was ordered that 
Northport be surveyed and platted. Steps were taken at 
the first meeting, however, for the erection of a courthouse 
and election precincts were designated. 85 

84 History of Jasper County, Iowa (1878), pp. 325-327. 

85 History of Benton County, Iowa (1878), pp. 314-317; Laws of the Terri- 
tory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 86. 


Appanoose County. — A law relative to Appanoose 
County, passed on January 13, 1846, provided for organiza- 
tion from and after the first Monday of August, 1846, and 
authorized an election for county officers to be held on that 
date. 86 The work of perfecting the county organization 
was taken up on October 5th. The county commissioners 
in charge of this work were Keuben Riggs, George W. Per- 
kins, and J. B. Packard. At the first meeting of the board 
J. F. Stratton was appointed clerk and an order was given 
for the opening of certain territorial roads. Moreover a 
report was received from the commission appointed to 
locate the county seat and the name of Chaldea was chosen 
for the new town — the name being later changed to 
Centerville. After allowing certain bills relative to mat- 
ters of organization the board adjourned. 87 



The first act of Congress relative to the admission of 
Iowa into the Union was approved on March 3, 1845. 88 Two 
years were spent in adopting the constitution and adjust- 
ing boundaries. The act which finally admitted the State 
was passed on December 28, 1846. 89 At this time Iowa con- 
tained forty-four counties 90 — twenty-nine of which were 
organized. The system of county commissioners was con- 
tinued under the State government. 


Dallas County. — The first General Assembly of the 

se Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1845-1846, p. 55. 

8T Past and Present of Appanoose County, Iowa (1913), Vol. I, pp. 86-91. 

88 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 742. 

89 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 117. 

soGarver's History of the Establishment of Counties in Iowa in The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VI, p. 407. 


State of Iowa convened at Iowa City on November 30, 1846. 
At this session two laws relative to county organisation 
are to be noted. The first of these provided for the or- 
ganization of Dallas County. It was approved on Feb- 
ruary 16, 1847, 91 and was to take effect on the first day of 
March. This law did not differ from those passed during 
the territorial period: it provided for an election to be 
held on the first Monday of April, outlined the duties of 
the organizing sheriff, appointed commissioners for locat- 
ing the county seat, and designated the time and place of 
their meeting. 

In accordance with this law an election was held on April 
5, 1847. 92 The first meeting of the board of county com- 
missioners was a special session held on the first Monday 
of May, 1847, and the first official act was the appointment 
of Joseph C. Corbell as justice of the peace. The first 
regular meeting was held in July, at which time a report 
was received from the commissioners relative to the loca- 
tion of the county seat. The place selected was named 
P enoach — the name was later changed to Adel. 93 

The second important law relative to county organiza- 
tion after the State was admitted to the Union was one 
with regard to Pottawattamie "and other counties". This 
law was approved on February 24, 1847, 94 and is unique 
in character. Instead of stipulating the date at which or- 
ganization should become effective, it left the date in- 
definite and optional with the district judge — declaring 
that the county should be organized "at any time when, 
in the opinion of the judge of the fourth judicial district, 

si Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, p. 63. 
92 History of Dallas County, Iowa (1879), pp. 307-311. 
93 History of Dallas County, Iowa (1879), p. 313. 
94 Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, p. 115. 


the public good may require such organization. ' ' The law 
also provided that the organizing sheriff should be appoint- 
ed by the judge and serve until his successor should be 
elected and qualified. The duties of the organizing sheriff 
as specifically set forth were < < to give at least ten days' 
notice of the time and places of holding such special elec- 
tion, by posting up at least three written or printed ad- 
vertisements, in at least three of the most public places in 
each precinct in said county, grant certificates of election", 
and perform the duties of clerk. Moreover, this law was 
both general and special in character — general in that it 
provided that any unorganized county in the State may 
become organized in the same manner" as Pottawattamie 
County, and special in that it named and dealt specifically 
with but one county. 

Buchanan County. — In this connection it should be noted 
that although the law mentioned Pottawattamie County in 
particular, Buchanan County was, as a matter of fact, the 
first to organize under the general provision of this law, 
for Pottawattamie County was not organized until a year 

The first election in Buchanan County was held on 
August 2, 1847, when John Scott, Frederick Kessler, and 
B. D. Springer were elected county commissioners. The 
first meeting of the board was held on October 4th. At 
this time the county was divided into < < three commission 
districts" — presumably with the intention of thereafter 
electing one county commissioner from each district. These 
districts later became townships. 95 

Poweshiek County. — Although, as we have already seen, 

95 History of Buchanan County, Iowa (1914), Vol. I, pp. 62-64. 


a law had been passed by which any unorganized county 
might become organized, special acts for organization con- 
tinued to be passed. Thus on January 24, 1848, a law was 
passed for the purpose of organizing Poweshiek County 
This law was *ery similar to other special acts already 
considered. It provided for organization after April 3rd, 
and authorized an election of county officers on that date! 
These officers were to hold office until the regular State 
election in August. Three commissioners, a clerk of the 
court, sheriff, and surveyor were elected at this time. 96 

The record of the first meeting of the commission has 
not been preserved. It is known to have met, however, 
early in the summer of 1848, for at this meeting an order 
was passed for the purchase and survey of land for the 
county seat and this survey was completed on July 22nd 
of that year. Lots were then sold and from the proceeds 
a courthouse was erected. 97 

Pottawattamie County. — The law authorizing the or- 
ganization of Pottawattamie County, it will be remembered, 
provided that it should be organized when in the opinion 
of the district judge local government was required. Ac- 
cordingly it was organized under the authorization of 
Judge James P. Carlton in 1848. 98 The first election of 
county officers was held in September of that year, when 
A. H. Perkins, David D. Yearsley, and George D. Coulter 
were elected county commissioners. The date of actual 
organization of the county was September 21, 1848, at 
which time the first meeting of the board was held 99 at the 

»6 History of Poweshielc County, Iowa (1880), p. 374. 

97 History of Poweshielc County, Iowa (1911), Vol. I, p. 85. 

98 Iowa Official Register, 1909-1910, p. 710. 

99 Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. IX, p. 530; Gue 's History of Ioiua, 
Vol. Ill, p. 402; History of Pottawattamie County, Iowa (1882), p. 1. 


home of Hiram Clark in Kanesville — the name first given 
to the present city of Council Bluffs. 

Warren County. — The people of Warren County took 
advantage of the provisions in the general law for the or- 
ganization of counties. Judge Olney, who held court in 
Marion County to which Warren County had formerly been 
attached as a precinct, authorized an election, and appoint- 
ed Paris P. Henderson organizing sheriff. Under this 
plan of procedure the county was divided into precincts 
and notices posted calling an election to be held, for the 
selection of county officers. This election was held on 
January 1, 1849, and resulted in the election of a full staff 
of officers. 100 The county commissioners met on February 
10th, at which time they divided the county into commis- 
sioners ' districts and attended to other minor matters of 
organization. 101 

Madison County. — In Madison County, as in Warren 
County, the first election of county officers was held on 
January 1, 1849, 102 and the board of commissioners met on 
February 19th 103 in a special session which they designated 
as a " Commissioners ' Court". The regular routine of 
business relative to organization was transacted — a seal 
was adopted, officers were sworn into office, and bonds were 
duly signed and accepted. 

Allamakee Comity. — On January 15, 1849, a special act 
of legislation 104 was passed relative to the organization of 

100 History of Warren County, Iowa (1879), pp. 333-337. 

101 History of Warren County, Iowa (1879), p. 337. 

102 History of Madison County, Iowa (1915), Vol. I, p. 30. 

103 History of Madison County, Iowa (1879), p. 336. 

104 Laws of Iowa, 1848-1849, p. 139. 


Allamakee County, which together with Winneshiek 
County had been created on February 20, 1847. This law 
was to take effect after publication, which occurred on 
March 6th. Thomas C. Linton was appointed organizing 
sheriff and was authorized to call a special election of 
county officers. Commissioners were also appointed to 
locate the county seat. 

The first election is reported to have been held on April 
2, 1849, when county commissioners, a clerk of the board 
of commissioners, a clerk of the district court, and a sheriff 
w^ere elected. The officers were authorized to serve the 
county until the time of the next regular election in August. 
The record of the exact date and of the proceedings of 
the first meeting of the board of commissioners has not 
been preserved. It is known, however, that the officers 
met and qualified on April 10, 1849, which date may be 
taken as the time of the organization of the county. 105 

Lucas County, — Lucas County, the next in order to take 
up the matter of local government, was the subject of 
special legislation. On January 15, 1849, a law was ap- 
proved which declared that this county should be organ- 
ized from and after the fourth day of July of that year. 106 
The law also provided for an election of county officers to 
be held on the first Monday of August and appointed 
James Rowland as organizing sheriff. An election was 
called for August 6th, at which time a full staff of county 
officials was elected. Four days later, on August 10th, the 
county commissioners met in their first session at the home 
of William S. Townsend at Chariton Point. 107 The business 

105 History of Winneshiek, Allamakee, and Iowa Counties (1882), p. 366; 
letter of County Auditor J. A. Palmer, September 2, 1922. 

ice Laws of Iowa, 1848-1849, p. 88. 

107 History of Luoas County, Iowa (1881), p. 399. 


transacted at this time was of the usual routine found in 
connection with newly organized county boards. A clerk 
was appointed, record books were provided for, and the 
organizing officials were allowed pay for their services. 

Fremont County. — On February 24, 1847, the same day 
on winch the law concerning Pottawattamie and other 
counties was approved, a law was passed establishing four 
new counties, namely, Einggold, Taylor, Page, and Fre- 
mont. 108 The first of these to be organized was Fremont. 
During the early days in this county the Mormons dominat- 
ed local affairs. With the increasing population the 
balance of power began to change and opinions adverse to 
Mormon government began to find expression in action. A 
petition was drawn up asking the legislature to pass a 
law for the organization of Fremont County. This petition 
was sent to a Mr. Baker, of Fairfield, a member of the 
legislature, but since he believed this to be only a plan for 
organization under Mormon control he did not present the 
matter to the legislature, and hence nothing came of it. 

In 1849, however, the organization of the county was 
authorized by the judge of Polk County, to which Fremont 
had previously been attached. The first election, pursuant 
to the proclamation of David M. English, who had been 
appointed organizing sheriff, was held in April, 1849. 
David Jones, William K. McKissick, and Isaac Hunsaker 
were elected county commissioners. 

The first session of the board of county commissioners 
was held on September 10, 1849, when the bonds of the 
several officers were examined and accepted and other 
minor matters of business were transacted. 109 

108 Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, p. 114. 

109 History of Fremont County, Iowa (1881), pp. 370-374. 


Marslmll County. — Marshall County, like several other 
counties already mentioned, took advantage of the general 
organization law of 1847. The first official act toward the 
perfection of local government was the appointment of 
Joseph M. Ferguson as organizing sheriff in the summer 
of 1849. The county was divided by Sheriff Ferguson into 
two townships, and an election for county officers was 
called for August 6th. Joseph Cooper, Jesse Amos, and 
James Miller constituted the board of county commission- 
ers elected at this time. 110 The first official business was 
transacted on October 1, 1849. 

Boone County. — The general law for the organization 
of counties, which was passed in connection with the or- 
ganization of Pottawattamie County, was resorted to in 
connection with Boone County. Judge William McKay of 
the fifth judicial district, in accordance with this law, ap- 
pointed Samuel B. McCall organizing sheriff and fixed the 
first Monday in August, 1849, as the time for holding a 
special election for county officers. The county commis- 
sioners — John Boyles, Jonathan Boles, and Jesse Hull — 
met on the first day of October, 1849. The first business 
transacted was that of ordering record books for the 
county, a seal was then provided, and orders were passed 
dividing the county into townships. After certain neces- 
sary bills were allowed the board adjourned until the 13th 
of October. 111 

Decatur County. — The election organizing Decatur 
County was held on April 1, 1850, and the first meeting of 
the county commissioners was on May 6, 1850. The corn- 
no Past and Present of Marshall County, Iowa (1912), Vol. I, p. 112. 
in History of Boone County, Iowa (1880), pp. 352-355. 


missioners were Josiah Morgan, William Hamilton, and 
Asa Burrell. The first order was one allowing Andrew 
Still the sum of $30 in payment for his services as or- 
ganizing sheriff. It was also ordered at this meeting that 
the district court, probate court, and "commissioner's 
court' ' be held at the house of Daniel Moad until such time 
as the county seat should be located. At the July meeting 
in the same year the commissioners organized certain town- 
ships and sought to perpetuate their own names by naming 
three of the townships Morgan, Hamilton, and Burrell. 112 

Fayette Comity. — Under the authority of the general 
provisions of the law of February 24, 1847, for the or- 
ganization of counties, E. E. Eichardson was appointed 
sheriff with authority to organize Fayette County. An 
election was called for July 15, 1850, at which time the first 
county officials were duly elected. The records of Fayette 
County are not all preserved owing to the fact that many 
of them were burned in 1872, when the courthouse was set 
on fire by an escaping prisoner. It is known, however, 
that the board of county commissioners held a meeting on 
August 26, 1850. The first act of the board related to the 
establishment of road districts. Eoad viewers were ap- 
pointed and authorized to meet in November. 113 

Wayne County. — Wayne County was established by 
legislative enactment of January 13, 1846, and attached to 
Appanoose County for judicial, revenue, and election pur- 
poses. Under the authority of the general law for the or- 
ganization of counties, Judge William McKay, on Novem- 
ber 8, 1850, appointed Isaac W. McCarty organizing sheriff, 

112 Biographical and Historical Becord of Binggold and Decatur Counties, 
Iowa (1887), p. 712. 

^History of Fayette County, Iowa (1878), pp. 349-353. 


With authority to post notices and caU an election to be 
held on December 28th for the purpose of electing county 
officers. The county commissioners elected at this time 
held their first meeting on January 27, 1851. The records 
of this meeting are preserved and present to the reader 
interesting side lights. Each order is numbered and stands 
out clearly. The spelling and capitalization, however, sug- 
gest the need of some improvement. The first order reads : 
"Act the 1 alowd I W Mccarty For Organising the County 

as organising Sherrif $20.00". Eleven such orders 

were passed, all of which dealt with matters relative to 
organization and the paying of bills thus incurred. 114 

Taylor County. — Taylor County remained unorganized 
from the date of its establishment in 1847 until 1851, when 
Elisha Parker was appointed sheriff and assumed the 
duties of organization. In accordance with the law, he 
posted notices in three public places within the county, call- 
ing attention of the voters to an election to be held in Feb- 
ruary, 1851. At this election only fifty-three votes were 
cast, indicating a small population in the county. Not- 
withstanding this fact, a full staff of county officers was 
elected, Jacob Eoss, Levi L. Hayden, and Daniel Smith 
being named as county commissioners. The first meeting 
of the commissioners was held on February 26th, at which 
time the county officers were sworn into office and required 
to give bond for the faithful performance of their respec- 
tive duties. This seems to have been the sole purpose of 
the meeting for this having been done the board adjourned 
until the first Monday in April. 115 

The county business, continued to be transacted, for the 

ii* Biographical and Historical Becord of Wayne and Appanoose Counties 
Iowa (1886), pp. 491-493. 

us History of Taylor County, Iowa (1881), p. 386. 


most part, at the home of Jacob Eoss until a commission 
was appointed by the legislature to locate the county seat. 

Page County. — Page County was established, together 
with Einggold, Taylor, and Fremont counties, on February 
24, 1847, the same day on which the law was approved for 
the organization of Pottawattamie and other counties. 
There is a difference of opinion as to the date of organiza- 
tion. One author gives the date of the first election as in 
the fall of 1850. He says that William L. Burge was the 
organizing sheriff and that the election took place at Boul- 
war's Mill. Other reports agree that the election was held 
in 1851 and that William Hudson was the organizing sher- 
iff. It is probable that the latter date is correct although 
one can not say with certainty. 116 

At this time there were but two townships in the county 
— Buchanan and Nodaway. S. F. Snyder, John Duncan, 
and William Shearer were elected commissioners but the 
place of the board of commissioners was soon taken by 
Major Connor, the first county judge. Judge Connor did 
not complete his first term of two years : he was succeeded 
by William L. Burge who served out the remainder of the 

The early records of the county are incomplete and one 
can not say with certainty when the first official business 
was transacted. A mortgage recorded under date of March 
22, 1852, makes it clear that the county officers assumed 
their duties prior to that date. The first existing record 
of the county court is dated January 15, 1858, and reads 
as follows: ' 6 Be it known that on the night of the 12th of 
January, 1858, all of the books and papers belonging to the 

lie Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, p. 114; Andreas >s Illustrated Historical Atlas 
of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 420; History of Page County, Iowa (1909), 
Vol. I, p. 94; History of Page County, Iowa (1880), pp. 385-387, 394. 


office of County Judge of Page county, together with the 
building in which they were kept, were destroyed by fire 
It is therefore ordered by this court that there be fur- 
nished new books in which to keep the record of said 
court." 117 Accordingly, while it is known that the county 
was organized as early as 1852, the facts concerning the 
early years of the county's history are not definitely and 
clearly known. 


During the session of the legislature in 1851 the "New 
Code" was adopted and went into operation on July 1st 
of the same year. By the adoption of this code of laws an 
entire change in the government of counties took place. 
The board of county commissioners which had existed 
from the first organization of the Territory was entirely 
abolished and a single officer, called the county judge, was 

The authority of the county judge was summed up in the 
statement contained in the Code of 1851 that he should 
assume the- "usual powers and jurisdictions of county 
commissioners and of a judge of probate", and that he 
was also to be the "accounting officer and general agent of 
the county". He was directed to manage all county busi- 
ness, except such as was by law placed in the custody of 
another officer, and to "superintend the fiscal concerns of 
the county and secure their management in the best 

Under this provision of the law the authority of the 
county judge became very great. Indeed county govern- 
ment under his influence came to be spoken of as a monar- 
chical system and the judge was called a "one man power". 

"7 History of Page County, Iowa (1909), Vol. I, p. 94. 


One author in commenting upon this subject said: "the 
county -judge was possessed of very large powers — more 

i * 1*4-? 

so, proportionately, than a king has over his subjects. 

Although the county judge was given a great deal of 
authority and in fact frequently assumed as much power 
as possible, there was nevertheless a provision in the law 
permitting him to submit questions to a vote of the people, 
in case of doubt as to the best method of procedure. In 
practice, however, this vote, which was in the nature of a 
referendum, was seldom resorted to. 

The date at which one can say that a county is officially 
organized under the county judge system is more or less 
arbitrary, depending upon the conception of the term. The 
date upon which the judge qualified might be considered 
as the date of organization, since the law provided that 
"the county court shall be considered in law as always 
open". Accordingly regular sessions were not necessary 
for the judge to transact official business. For the trans- 
action of business requiring notices, however, the judge 
held regular sessions each month. 119 

Mills Comity. — The organization of Mills County was 
effected by an election held on the first Monday in August, 
1851, when William Smith was elected county judge. He 
assumed the duties of his office on the 18th of the same 
month, after subscribing to an oath that he would support 
the Constitution of the United States and of the State of 
Iowa and "without fear, favor, affection or hope of^ re- 
ward" administer justice "equally to the rich and poor". 120 

us Code of 1851, Sees. 103-107; Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. VI, 
p. 134; Biographical and Historical Record of Greene and Carroll CaunUes, 
Iowa (1887), p. 472. 

no Code of 1851, Sec. 125. 

120 History of Mills Cmnty, Iowa (1881), p. 381. 


Clarke County. — Clarke County, established in 1846, 
was the next in order to be organized. The election for the 
purpose of organizing was held on August 4, 1851, at the 
residence of William Vest. Only thirty-seven votes were 
cast. The officers elected included both a county judge and 
county commissioners. It would seem that although a law 
had been adopted placing county government in the hands 
of a county judge and abolishing the county commissioners, 
there was a tendency to cling to the old type of government, 
hence the election of the county commissioners. Indeed 
the commissioners are said to have met in an organized 
body on August 21, 1851. This is believed to be the latest 
date at which any board of commissioners met in Iowa for 
the purpose of organizing a county, and even in this case 
county affairs were soon given over to the county judge. 121 

Winneshiek County. — Just prior to the adoption of the 
law making a change in county organization, a law had 
been passed for the purpose of organizing Winneshiek 
County. This law was approved on January 15, 1851, and 
provided for organization from and after the first of 
March. As a matter of fact, however, the first election was 
not held until August 4th of the same year — after the 
change to the county judge system had gone into effect. 
At this election David Eeed was elected county judge. 
Accordingly it is believed that he together with the judges 
of Mills and Clarke counties aH of whom were elected on 
the same day were the first county judges in Iowa to be 
elected at the time the county was organized. The first 
official act of Judge Eeed of which there is a record was 
the convening of the county court in September, 1851. 

121 Biographical and Historical fiecord of Clarke County, Iowa (1886), p. 

vol. xx — 34 



Since there was no business to come before the court it 
was adjourned until the following month. 

On the same day on which the law was passed relative j 
to the organization of Winneshiek County — January 15, 
1851 — a law was approved providing for the establish- j 
ment of fifty new counties. This was the most important 
act in the whole history of the establishment of counties, 
for it was the most comprehensive and created the largest 
number of counties. The fifty new counties named in the 
order in which they appear in the act were : Union, Adair, 
Adams, Cass, Montgomery, Mills, and Pottawattamie, in ' 
the southwestern part of the State; Bremer, Butler, 
Grundy, Hardin, Franklin, and Wright, in the northeast- 
ern and north-central part; Eisley, Yell," Greene, Guthrie, 
Audubon, Carroll, Fox, and Sac, in the west-central part; 
Crawford, Shelby, Harrison, Monona, Ida, and Wahkaw, 
on the western border of the State ; Humbolt, Pocahontas, 
Buena Vista, Cherokee, and Plymouth, in the northwest; 
Chickasaw, Floyd, Cerro Gordo, Hancock, Kossuth, Palo 
Alto, Clay, O'Brien, and Sioux, in the second tier from the 
north; and Howard, Mitchell, Worth, Winnebago, Bancroft, 
Emmet, Dickinson, Osceola, and Buncombe, in the north- 
ern part of the State. 

Of the fifty counties just enumerated four — Eisley, Yell, 
Humbolt, and Bancroft — were subsequently blotted out 
and hence were never organized. Three others — Fox, 
Buncombe, and Wahkaw — the names of which were later 
changed will be considered in the order of their organ- 
ization. 122 

122 History of Winneshiek and Allamakee Counties, Ioiva (1882), p. 191; 
Laws of Ioiva, 1850-1851, p. 27. 

Election returns found at the Historical Department in Des Moines indicate 
that an election was held in Winneshiek County as early as 1847. Evidently 
nothing resulted from this election as there is no further record of organiza- 
tion until 1851. 


Guthrie County. — In Guthrie County Theophilus Bryan 
was appointed organizing sheriff. He qualified for this 
office on July 8, 1851, and proceeded to lay off the county 
into townships for election purposes. Notices were then 
sent out calling an election to be held on the first Monday 
of August. In accordance with this notice an election was 
held and the organizing sheriff was himself elected to the 
office of county judge. The first order of the judge of 
which we have record was issued on October 16th, when 
the town of Panora was ordered to be surveyed as the 
county seat. 

It is interesting to note in this connection the public 
spirit which was manifested by the first officers of the 
county. Instead of dividing the spoils of the treasury, the 
officers, on September 6, 1852, "in view of the depressed 
state of the treasury' ' mutually agreed to relinquish all 
claims for services rendered up to and including that 
date. 123 

An act passed by the General Assembly on January 12, 
1853, provided that certain unorganized counties should be 
attached to organized counties in the following manner: 
the county of Greene was attached to Dallas ; the counties 
of Story, Eisley, Yell, and Fox and the counties north of 
Eisley, Yell, and Fox were attached to Boone County. The 
counties of Mitchell, Howard, Floyd, Worth, and Franklin 
were attached to Chickasaw, and Hardin County was at- 
tached to Marshall. 

Section two of this law provided that, "Whenever the 
citizens of any unorganized county desired to have the same 
organized, they may make application by petition in writ- 
ing signed by a majority of the legal voters of said county, 
to the County Judge of the county to which such unorgan- 

. 123 History of Guthrie and Adair Counties, Iowa (1884), pp. 267-269. 


ized county is attached; whereupon said County Judge, 
shall order an election for county officers in such unorgan- 
ized county." 124 

This was the second general law for the organization of 
counties. It differed from the general law of 1847, which 
was passed in connection with the organization of Potta- 
wattamie County, in that the former law placed the matter 
of organization under the direction of the district judge, 
while the new law placed the matter in the hands of the 
judge of the organized county, to which the county desir- 
ing to be organized was attached. Moreover, the former 
law provided for organization at any time when, in the 
opinion of the district judge, the public good required it. 
The new law provided that a petition signed by a majority 
of the voters of the county must be presented to the judge 
asking for organization. Thus the matter was not en- 
tirely optional with the judge, nor could organization be 
effected until a majority of the citizens favored it. 

Webster County. — The law above mentioned, which at- 
tached Eisley and other counties to Boone County, pro- 
vided in another section that the name Eisley should be 
changed to Webster. Thus Webster County came into be- 
ing as attached to Boone County on January 22, 1853 — 
the day on which the law became effective by publication. 125 

An election was called by Judge Samuel McCall of Boone 
County, to be held on April 4, 1853, for the purpose of 
electing officers and perfecting the organization of Webster 
County. The election is said to have been more of a poli- 
tical contest than has usually been found in connection with 
elections for organization. Indeed in two of the offices, 

124 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 28. 

125 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 28. 


that of sheriff and school fund commissioner, the votes 
cast resulted in a tie and thus failed of election. 

William Pierce was the man first elected to the office of 
county judge, and under his administration county organ- 
ization became effective. The first record of official busi- 
ness transacted by the county judge was that of the issu- 
ance of a marriage license to John J. Holmes and Miss 
Emily Lyons, which bears the date of May 14, 1853. 126 

Hardin County. — Prior to the date of its organization 
Hardin County was attached to Marshall County for elec- 
tion and judicial purposes. In February, 1853, in accord- 
ance with the law, a petition of the legal voters of the for- 
mer county was presented to the county judge of Marshall 
County, who ordered an election of county officers to be 
held on the 2nd day of March, 1853. The county was 
divided into two townships — the south half of the county 
constituting Latham Township and the north half Morgan 
Township. Each township was designated as an election 

Preparatory to the election, a convention was held at 
the home of Eeuben King for the purpose of placing in 
nomination candidates for the various offices. This was 
the first convention ever held in Hardin County. A com- 
mittee was appointed to select candidates and it presented 
two names for each office to be filled. 

It appears that no poll was opened in Morgan Town- 
ship and that but thirty-two votes were cast at the first 
election. The officers selected at this time were Alexander 
Smith, county judge ; Samuel Smith, recorder and treasur- 
er; James D. Putnam,. clerk of the district court; Thomas 

126 History of Fort Dodge and Webster County, Iowa (1913), Vol. I, pp. 
83-87; History of Hamilton County, Iowa (1912), Vol. I, p. 51. 


Bennett, sheriff; and William Shafer, school fund com- 
missioner. For some reason William Shafer failed to 
qualify and Samuel E. Edgington was appointed to fill 
the vacancy. The early records of the county have been 
lost and the date of the first official business is not known. 127 

Story County. — In accordance with the law of 1853 the 
organization of Story County became effective under the 
authorization of the county judge of Boone County, to 
which Story County had been attached. The election for 
county officers was held on April 4, 1853, when Evan C. 
Evans was elected county judge. 

The first official business of the judge was to appoint an 
assessor — no one having been elected to that office at the 
April election. The exact date of this appointment is not 
known. It was in the spring of 1853, however, for the 
appointed officer entered upon his duties in June of that 
year. The assessor received for his services the. sum of 
$1.50 per day. The first order of the county judge was 
that Stephen P. O'Brien receive $36 for twenty-four days' 
service as assessor of Story County. The salary attached 
to the office of county judge was small, and the record of 
the county indicates that he must have done a great deal 
of work for the compensation he received — always per- 
forming faithfully and well the duties of his office. In 
some of the counties of the State county affairs were badly 
managed as will later appear. Story County was fortunate 
in this regard and much of the credit is due to Judge 
Evans, who continued to serve his county for several 



A second law passed on January 12, 1853, was one con- 

27 History of Hardin County, Iowa (1883), pp. 234, 235. 

28 History of Story County, Iowa (1911), Vol. I, pp. 38-41. 


cerning the five counties of Adams, Cass, Harrison, Shelby 
and Wahkaw, and declared that they be considered as or- 
ganized after the first Monday in March, 1853 It was 
further provided that a special election be held in each of 
these counties, except Wahkaw, on the first Monday of 
April, 1853. 

For election, revenue, and judicial purposes the counties 
of Montgomery and Union were attached to Adams County 
- each as a civil township. Election returns were to be 
sent to the organizing sheriff of Adams County For 
similar purposes Monona County was attached to Harrison 
County; Crawford and Carroll counties to Shelby County 
and Ida, Sac, Buena Vista, Cherokee, Plymouth, Sioux^ 
Brien, Clay, Dickinson, Osceola, and Buncombe counties 
to Wahkaw. Einggold County was attached to Taylor 
County. 129 s 

Shelby County. — Shelby County, one of the fifty estab- 
lished in 1851, was temporarily attached to Pottawattamie 
County.- By an act of the legislature approved on Janu- 
ary 12, 1853, the county was declared to be organized from 
and after the first Monday in March following, and a 
special election for selecting county officers was to be held 
on the first Monday in April. 1 " In accordance with this 
law an election was held on April 4, 1853, and the follow- 
ing officers were elected : James M. Butler, county judge ; 
V. Perkins, clerk of the court ; and Andrew Fontz, sheriff.' 
Only thirteen votes were polled at this organizing election. 
This indicates not only that the population of the county 
was at this time very small but suggests the further fact 

129 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 21. 

wo Iowa Official Register, 1909-1910, p. 712. 

isi Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 23. 


that it was difficult to secure a sufficient number of com- 
petent men to fill the county offices. This latter fact is 
substantiated by the report that the sheriff elected was 
illiterate and given to frequent over-indulgence in strong 

It is said that upon his election he received a copy ot 
the Code of 1851 which he took home for his wife to read 
to him. The section which he heard most often was the 
one which makes habitual drunkenness a sufficient cause 
for divorce. The sheriff soon became tired of this reading 
and returned the volume to the judge with the request that 
no other such books be sent home with him. 

Soon after the organization the county seat was located 
at Shelbyville, a town which has since ceased to exist. The 
county judge, however, was opposed to the selection of the 
county seat and accordingly the first county business was 
transacted at Hancock's grocery store. The date of the 
first official business is not known. 132 

Cass Comty. — m&r the site of the present town of 
Lewis in Cass County there was established in 1846 a 
little village known as Indiantown. Here in the year 1853 
Cass County was organized. The first election of county 
officers was held on the first Monday of April. J eremiah 
Bradshaw, a pioneer merchant who had come from Illinois 
and opened a store at Indiantown a short time prior to 
this, was elected county judge. The other officers were 
V. M. Concord, treasurer and collector; C. C. Woodward, 
clerk; Francis E. Ball, sheriff; Levi M. Mills, drainage 
commissioner; David Chapman, surveyor; and James M. 
Benedict, coroner. The first county business was transact- 

132 Andreas 's Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 


ed at Indiantown, and the first order for money to be paid 
out of the county treasury was an order for $34 to be paid 
to the locating commissioner for seventeen days' service 
in locating the county seat. The date of this order does 
not appear. The records show, however, that a deed for 
the transfer for certain land was recorded on June 17, 
1853. This appears as the first recorded official business 
in the county. 133 

Union County. — Another law to be considered was the 
one for the organization of Union County. This law was 
passed on J anuary 12, 1853, and provided for the organiza- 
tion of Union County from and after the first day of March 
and authorized a special election to be held at Pisgah on 
the first Monday of April. J ohn Edgecombe was appointed 
organizing sheriff. Under the authorization of this act an 
election was held at the time indicated, resulting in the 
choice of Norman Nun for county judge, Joseph W. Ray 
for clerk, and Henry Peters for sheriff. At the election 
there were but ten votes cast, but these were sufficient to 
place the county in the organized group. Nor was com- 
petition lacking in the election. 

It is reported that there were two candidates for judge, 
Norman Nun and W. M. Lock, who, in a private caucus, 
mutually agreed to vote for each other, but when the time 
came Nun failed to live up to his part of the agreement, 
voting for and electing himself county judge — the vote 
standing six to four. The first official act of Judge Nun 
was to receive the resignation of A. P. Nun, constable, on 
June 22, 1853. That the judge was lacking in legal train- 
ing may be inferred from the fact that he could not write 

133 History of Cass County, Iowa (1884), p. 298; Andreas 's Illustrated 
Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 405; Gue's History of Iowa, 
Vol. ni, pp. 322, 323. 


his name and always signed official records by use of an 
X mark. 134 

Tama County. — The next county to be considered is 
Tama, which was one of the nine counties established on 
February 17, 1843, but attached to Benton County for 
election, judicial, and revenue purposes. On March 10, 
1853, the voters of Tama County presented a petition to 
the county judge of Benton County asking for a separate 
organization which was duly granted and an order was 
issued for holding an election on the first Monday of May. 
Tallman Chase was elected county judge and called the 
first county court on the first Monday in July. Since the 
officers elected at the May election would hold office only 
until the time of the regular election in August several of 
the officers elected did not qualify. At the August election 
J. C. Vermilya was elected to the office of county judge to 
succeed Judge Chase. 135 

Harrison County. — The law passed on January 12, 1853, 
as mentioned above, provided for the organization of 
Harrison County. The first steps taken after this date was 
a meeting of the commissioners 

The location was made at Magnolia and this fact was 
officially reported to Michael McKenney, organizing sheriff, 
who, in accordance with the law, called an election to be 
held at the county seat on the first Monday of April. At 
this time there were but two voting precincts in the county : 
one west of the Boyer Eiver at Magnolia, and the other 
east of the river at Owen Thorpe's. 136 

134 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 26 ; Biographical and Historical Becord of 
Binggold and Union Counties, Iowa (1887), p. 678. 

135 History of Tama County, Iowa (1879), p. 19. 

136 History of Harrison County, Iowa (1888), pp. 142, 143. 


The result of the election was that Stephen King was 
elected county judge ; P. GL Cooper, treasurer and recorder ; 
William Dakan, prosecuting attorney; Chester M. Hamil- 
ton, sheriff ; and William Cooper, clerk of the court. The 
first regular meeting of the county court was held on 
August 5, 1853, about four months after the organizing 
election. This appears as the first official business trans- 
acted in the county. 137 

Chickasaiv County. — Chickasaw was one of the fifty 
counties established in 1851. By legislative enactment of 
January 22, 1853, the county was attached to Fayette 
County for election, revenue, and judicial purposes. 138 
Early in the spring of the same year an attempt was made 
to organize the county. An election was held and J. K. 
Rowley was elected county judge. It appears, however, 
that the formalities of the law were not complied with in 
some particulars and the election was held to be invalid. 

On June 30, 1853, the county judge of Fayette County 
appointed John Bird as organizing sheriff. On the 12th 
day of August an election was held resulting in the choice 
of the following officers : James Lyon, county judge ; S. C. 
Goddard, clerk; N. D. Babcock, prosecuting attorney; E. 
A. Haskell, treasurer; and Andy Sample, sheriff. Judge 
Lyon assumed the duties of his office on September 12, 
1853. 139 

Bremer County. — Bremer County, one of the fifty estab- 

!37 Andreas 's Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 

138 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 29. 

139 Andreas 's Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), 
p. 414; data secured from the county auditor of Chickasaw County, Septem- 
ber, 1922. 


lished in 1851, was attached to Black Hawk County for 
judicial, election, and revenue purposes on January 22, 
1853, 140 and was organized by an election held in August, 
1853. At this time eighty votes were cast and the follow- 
ing men elected as the first county officers: Jeremiah Far- 
ris, county judge; Austin Farris, sheriff; John Hunter, 
treasurer and recorder; Herman A. Miles, clerk of the 
court; John H. Martin, school fund commissioner; and 
Israel Trumbo, surveyor. 

The records of the county court commence with the first 
session held in the town of Waverly on August 15, 1853. 
The first entries were concerning orders fixing the amount 
of bonds required of the various county officers. The bonds 
of the treasurer, recorder, and sheriff were each fixed at 
$5000. The first regular session of the court convened in 
December of the same year. 141 

Adams County. — Adams County was the next to be or- 
ganized under this law. Complete records of organization 
are not available, but it is known that Amos Lowe was 
appointed organizing sheriff and that an election was held, 
as prescribed by law, on the first Monday in April, 1853, 
at which time county officials were elected. Samuel Baker 
was chosen county judge, and John H. Calvin recorder. 
The first order of Judge Baker that appears on record was 
one allowing to William Davis $26 for thirteen days' serv- 
ice as one of the commissioners to locate the county seat. 
The date of this order is not known. The evidence is clear, 
however, that the organization was perfected during the 
summer of 1853, for on September 21st of that year the 
first transfer of land made in the county was recorded. 

140 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 86. 

141 History of Butler and Bremer Counties, Iowa (1883), pp. 799, 811. 


This constitutes the earliest record of business in Adams 
County now available. 142 

Montgomery Comity. — Montgomery County, one of the 
fifty established in 1851, was by a legislative enactment of 
January 12, 1853, as indicated above, attached to Adams 
County for revenue and judicial purposes. Amos G. Lowe 
was by the same act appointed organizing sheriff and the 
first election was ordered to be held at his house. There 
are two reports concerning this election: one that it was 
held in April, the other that it occurred in August. It is 
probable that the April election was the one held for the 
purpose of organizing Adams County of which Mont- 
gomery County was at that time a voting precinct. Ac- 
cordingly it is believed that the election for the organizing 
of Montgomery County was held on the first Monday of 
August, 1853. However that may be, the record is clear 
that Amos G. Lowe was elected county judge and that he 
transacted his first official business on August 15th when 
he ordered a levy of certain taxes. 

It may be noted in this connection that the salary of 
the county judge for the first year was $50. The clerk re- 
ceived $25 and the treasurer $20. The second year the 
clerk's salary was raised to $30. 143 

Black Hawk Comity. — The act by which Black Hawk 
County was established in 1843 attached it to Delaware 
County for election and judicial purposes. Subsequently, 
in 1845, it was similarly attached to Benton County. Still 

Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, p. 298; Andreas >s Illustrated Historical 
Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 415; History of Montgomery County, 
Iowa (1881), p. 328. 

i« History of Montgomery County, Iowa (1881), pp. 327-328; Andreas 'fl 
Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 419. 


later, in 1851, Black Hawk, together with Bremer, Butler, 
and Grundy counties, was attached to Buchanan County. 
The records of Buchanan County under date of January 
30, 1853, show that a petition, signed by a majority of the 
legal voters of Black Hawk County, was received. This 
requested that an election be called for the first Monday 
in August for the purpose of electing the various county 

At the election held in accordance with this petition on 
the first Monday in August, 1853, the following officers were 
elected: county judge, Jonathan B. Pratt; treasurer and 
recorder, Aaron Dow; clerk of the district court, John H. 
Brooks ; prosecuting attorney, William L. Christie ; sheriff, 
John Virden; school fund commissioner, H. H. Fowler; 
drainage commissioner, Norman Jackson; coroner, Ed- 
mund Butterfield ; county surveyor, Charles Mullan. 

It appears that there was no person in the county at that 
time authorized to administer the oath of office to the new 
officers, for on the 9th day of August Mr. Pratt, county 
judge-elect, went to Independence where the oath of office 
was dulv administered to him by the county judge of 
Buchanan County. 

The first recorded act of official business transacted by 
the judge was the administering of the oath of office to 
the other county officers-elect on the 17th of August at 
which time official bonds were filed and approved and the 
officers entered upon the discharge of their duties. 144 

Woodbury County. — Reference has been made to Wah- 
kaw County which was established in 1851. On January 

144 Van Metre's History of Black Hawk County, Iowa (1904), pp. 32, 39, 
40; data secured from the county auditor of Black Hawk County, September, 


12, 1853, an act was passed declaring the county to be or 
ganized after the first Monday of March. On the same day 
another act changed the name to Woodbury - the latter 
law going into effect on January 22nd. 145 

At the general election which was held at the house of 
William Thompson, on August 1, 1853, sixteen votes were 
cast and the following officers elected : Marshall Townsley 
judge; Hiram Nelson, treasurer and recorder; Eli Lee' 
coroner ; and J oseph P. Babbitt, district clerk. The records 
of the county begin with the date January 27, 1854, when 
certain bills were allowed, the first being an order for $18 
payable to Thomas L. Griffey for services in locating the 
county seat. 146 

Adair County. — Adair County was among the group of 
fifty counties established in 1851. The Fourth General 
Assembly passed a law by which Adair was attached to 
Cass County and made to constitute a civil township. 147 In 
April, 1854, an election was held to select the first county 
officers and for the organization of the county. At this 
election George M. Holaday was elected county judge and 
John Gibson was elected clerk. The first record of an 
official act by J udge Holaday was on May 1, 1854. On the 
3rd of J uly the same year the county was divided into two 
election precincts by a line running north and south, divid- 
ing it equally. The west half was called Washington 
Township; the east half Harrison Township. It is said 
that the first regular meeting of the court was held on May 
6, 1854. The only business transacted at this time was the 

145 Laivs of Iowa, 1852-1853, pp. 21, 28. 

146 History of the Counties of Woodonry and Plymouth, Iowa (1890-1891) 
pp. 76, 80, 81, 264, 266. 

wLaws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 23. 


issuance of a marriage license to William Stinson — this 
is but another example of the wide variety of duties which 
at that time devolved upon the county judge. 

The record of court under the date of the first Monday 
in July, 1855, contains an order 6 ' that John Gibson, county 
clerk, be allowed in all for fifteen months' salary as clerk, 
$62.50 and that G. M. Holaday be allowed $52.50 as his 
salary for fifteen months, from the 1st of April, 1854 to 
the 1st of July, 1855. " 14S 

Greene County. — Greene County was established in 
1851, and on January 22, 1853, was attached to Dallas 
County. Prior to this time it had been temporarily at- 
tached to Polk County. In 1854 there was a population of 
about one hundred and fifty persons, and the county was 
deemed sufficiently populous to entitle it to a separate or- 
ganization. Accordingly organization was provided for 
by the election of county officers on August 12, 1854. 
William Phillips was the first county judge. The first 
official business was transacted on August 25th when an 
order was issued that Greene County should be divided 
into two election precincts. 149 

Floyd County. — On June 21, 1854, the people of Floyd 
County petitioned Judge James Lyon, of Chickasaw 
County, to which Floyd had previously been attached for 
judicial purposes, asking for a separate organization. 
Judge Lyon granted the petition and the first election of 
the county officers accordingly took place on August 7th 
of that year — eighty-five votes being cast. The officers 

148 Andreas >s Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa (1875), p. 
389; History of Adair County, Iowa (1915), Vol. I, pp. 7-9. 

149 Biographical and Historical Ilecord of Greene and Carroll Counties, Iowa 
(1887), p. 466. 


elected were: John M. Hunt, county judge; S. C. Goddard 
county clerk; Thomas Connor, prosecuting attorney \ 
Joshua Jackson, treasurer and recorder; William Mont- 
gomery, sheriff; J. G. Shoemaker, surveyor; C. P. Bur- 
roughs, school fund commissioner; Horace Stearns, assess- 
or ; and Nicholas Fleenor, coroner. Thomas Connor failed 
to qualify and David Wiltse was appointed prosecuting 
attorney in his place. 

As an example of the economy with which county affairs 
were managed, the records indicate that the salary of the 
judge for the first quarter, ending on the first Monday of 
December, 1854, was $10.17. This item also indicates that 
the officers received pay dating from the first Monday in 
August, the date of their election. The first record found 
of an official meeting, however, bears the date of Septem- 
ber 4, 1854, when the first session of the county court con- 
vened at Freeman. 150 

Mitchell County, — Prior to 1854 Mitchell County had 
been attached to Chickasaw for election and judicial pur- 
poses. In the summer of that year a petition for county 
organization was prepared and presented to the county 
judge of Chickasaw County who, in accordance with the 
request, issued an order that an election should be held on 
the 7th of August. Upon the date named the electors of 
the county met at the house of Dr. Alexander H. Moore, 
near the present site of the city of Osage. Candidates 
were first nominated, but as this matter had been previous- 
ly discussed, it took but a short time to fill out the ticket, 
and the election followed immediately. It is said that, "A 
man's political creed was not asked nor thought of, and all 
the proceedings were characterized by the most perfect 

150 History of Floyd County, Iowa (1882), pp. 323, 362, 371, 385. 

vol. xx — 35 


harmony." The ballot box consisted of an ordinary wood 
box provided for the occasion, and the tickets were written 
by the clerks. Alexander H. Moore was elected county 
judge. After organization, books were procured and each 
officer opened his county office in his own cabin until suit- 
able county buildings could be procured. 

The first term of the county court was held at the home 
of Judge Moore on October 2, 1854. The record states that 
"no business being presented court adjourned until the 
November term". 151 

Butler County. — As indicated above, Butler County to- 
gether with Black Hawk, Bremer, and Grundy counties, 
was attached to Buchanan County in 1851. The territory 
was sparsely settled at this time, however, and there is no 
evidence that the people of Butler County took any part 
in the governmental affairs during the time this relation- 
ship existed. In 1853 settlers sufficient in number had 
arrived to warrant an attempt to organize a county. Ac- 
cordingly in May of that year Judge Oliver Eoszell ap- 
pointed commissioners to locate the county seat. In August 
following, by order of the same magistrate, an election was 
held for organizing Butler County. A full staff of county 
officers was elected but as the offices were not deemed suf- 
ficiently lucrative to warrant the trouble of a journey to 
Independence to take the oath of office, the officers-elect all 
failed to qualify. 

Soon after this Butler County was detached from 
Buchanan County and attached to Black Hawk. Pursuant 
to an order issued by the county judge of the latter county, 
a second election was held in August, 1854, and a perma- 
nent organization was effected on October 2nd of that year, 

i5i History of Mitchell and Worth Counties, Iowa (1884), pp. 145-148. 


John Palmer being the first county judge. On October 28, 
1854, the first levy of taxes was made, the total levy for 
the year being $698.50. 152 

Monona County. — Monona County, established in 1851, 
was attached to Harrison County for election purposes on 
January 12, 1853. Under this jurisdiction and under the 
authority of the general law of 1853 the county was or- 
ganized in 1854 — the organizing election being held on 
April 3rd of that year. The following persons constituted 
the first county officers: Charles B. Thompson, county 
judge ; Hugh Lytle, treasurer and recorder ; Andrew Hall, 
clerk; and J. F. Lane, sheriff. The first county business 
was transacted at the Mormon town, Preparation. Indeed 
the organization of the county was largely in the hands of 
the Mormons, who were, at this time, an influential factor 
in political affairs. 153 

The county judge had himself formerly been a follower 
of Joseph Smith at Nauvoo. Early in 1854 he had brought 
some fifty or more families and preempted several thous- 
and acres of land in Monona County. Thus when he be- 
came county judge he' was able to control and regulate 
practically all of the affairs of the county, both temporal 
and spiritual, since he pretended to have spiritual author- 
ity over his followers under the direction of a spirit which 
he called Baneemy. Thus Judge Thompson was for a time 
perhaps the most autocratic judge of his time. No records 
of the official acts of Judge Thompson have been preserved, 
but it is known that he served as judge until the fall of 

152 History of Butler and' Bremer Counties, Iowa (1883), p. 232. 

153 Laws of Iowa, 1852-1853, p. 23; Howe's Annals of Iowa, Vol. III. p. 
17; History of Monona County, Iowa (1890), p. 166; Gue's History of Iowa, 
Vol. Ill, p. 391. 


Ringgold County. — Binggold County, together with Tay- 
lor, Page, and Fremont counties, was established by legis- 
lative enactment of February 24, 1847. It was attached to 
Taylor County in 1853. Unlike most counties organized 
during this period it was organized by a special act of 
legislation which was approved on January 18, 1855, and 
became effective by publication in the papers of Iowa City 
on the 31st of January in the same year. This law pro- 
vided for organization from and after the first day of 
March, appointed William McAfee of Taylor County or- 
ganizing sheriff, and designated the first Monday in April 
as the date of the first election. It seems that for some 
reason the election was not actually held until May 14th, 
for under this date are to be found the oaths subscribed 
and sworn to by the organizing sheriff and the judges and 
clerks of the election. At this organizing election only 
thirty-four votes were cast — resulting in the selection of 
a full staff of county officers. James C. Hagans was elected 
county judge. 

On the 29th of June the judges of Ringgold and Taylor 
counties met to make a settlement of financial statements. 
This is the first official business of the county judge of 
which there is a record. Three days later, on July 2nd, 
the county officers held their first meeting as an organized 
board. 154 

Audubon County. — Audubon County, by legislative 
enactment of January 12, 1853, was attached to and made 
a civil township of Cass County. On